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Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive

in 2011 witii funding from

National Library of Scotland

http://www.arGhive.org/details/commercialdirect1820dire

THE

COMMERCIAL DIRECTORY,

OF

SCOTLAMB, IRELAND,

AND THE FOUR MOST

NORTHERN COUNTIES OF ENGLAND,

FOR

1820-21 & 22,

CONTAINING

A REPRESENTATION

OF THE

PROFESSIONAL & MERCANTILE INHABITANTS

OF THE AND A VARIETY OF MATTER OF

LOCAL AND GENERAL INTEREST.

Embellished with neat Maps of Scotland 8f Ireland.

MANCHESTER,

PUBLISHED BY J. PIGOT AND CO. 16, FOUNTAIN-STREET, AND SOLD BY THEM AND THEIR AGENTS,

And by the following Booksellers and others, viz. : London— hongm&n and Co. and Boosey and Sons; Dublin— J. Kempston; J. K. Johnston and Co. Advertizing Office; Martin Keene; Chambers and Hallogan ; G. Carr ; J. Cliarles ; A. WaUoa and J. Coyne. Belfast Lamont and Duggaii, and S, Archbold. Clonmell G. Higgins. Cole- rain— \i. Dnnlop. Cork— J. Conner. Dundal/i—,!. Corry. Galwny—i. O'Flaherty. hil/eennu—h. Den- roche. Limerick— &. Flin, and H. and J. A. Watson. Londonderri/S. Boyd, and W. M'Cofcell. Newry— A.Wilkinson. .%Vo— A. Bolton, and J. Feeny. S/r«4»«e— Carroll and Forster. Tf^atcrjord—i . ^. Birnie, and S. Smith, jun. jrexford—%. Wheelock. Edinlmrg/i-OVivev and Boyd, and A. Constable. Leith—J. Bernard, and .7. Watt. Aherdcen-A. Browne, and A. Stevenson. y^iV— Wilson and Co. and D. Auld. Z)?/m/n>s— J. Johnson. ZI)<Hrfw—R, Donaldson. Gteg-OTC— \V. Turnbull, andJ. .)on^. /u;. »KO)-«oc/t—H. Crawford. Linlitheow—i. BtW. /Jer/A -D. Morrison, jun. and Co. Bene ic/ion-T weed— 3. Reid. Carlisle— R .lohnston. ^ Newcasile-upon-Tiine—i. Finlay, i Slowan, and E. Humble, fFlutehaven —William Grisdalc and Co.; J. Robinson, and T. Wilson, Manchester— W . and W, Clarke ; Mrs. Banoks ; T. Sowler; and R. and W. Dean. Birmingham— lieWhy and Knotts, and Wnghtson. Leeds— i , Baiaei, Chetter—Voo\e and Co. Burilem, Potteries, S. Brougham.

PRICE 18s. NEATLY BOUND.

PRINTED BY T. WILKINSON, 19, RIDGEFIELD.

1820.

PREFACE,

IN presenting to the Public the New Commercial Directory of Scotland, Irelandy and the Four most Northern Comities of England, the Proprietors feel great pleasure. Since the first attempt to render assistance to the commercial world by works of this nature, few publications have had greater obstacles to sui-mount, or have been completed with more unabated activity. To give a commercial and professional representation of a population amounting to mare thayi eight millions, spread over a tract of country, equal to one half of the superficies of the United Kitigdom, and engaged in such various branches of commerce and manufacture, was an undertaking at once bold and hazardous ; involving no common expence and requiring great perseverance, and hnowledge of the routine of mercantile transactions.

To complete a volume embracing so many subjects, has proved an arduous, but it presumed a successful enterprize. Through a fl^nter of unusual severity and at the time of a renewal of the popular representation, for many months have the publishers and their numerous agents toiled with unremitting perseverance to complete the work, but they feel most sensibly that with their utmost endeavours, it could not have appeared in its present state but for the great facilities that have been afforded (hem , to the NdbiUty a*id €entry, to numerous Professional Gentlemen, as luell as to tlie Merchants and Traders «f the districts into which their labours have called them, the Proprietors are happy in having an opportunity of acknoivledging themselves deeply indebted ; a patronage mipi-e- cedented, the most prompt and effectual assistance, polite personal attention, and con- tinued proofs of kindness in contributing information on every suhject re'iuired, these obligations demand the most heartfelt gratitude, and their ivarniest thanks ; and they hesc leave respectfully to urge the assurance of a determination to deserve a continuance of their patronage and support.

In referring to the subjects of the work, the Historic department naturally claifnt precedence. In the formation of this leading feature of the book, access has been gene- rously afforded to the libraries of many gentlemen of taste in Literature, by which extracts fromvaluable works have been obtained and connected with the actual observa- tions and remarks of the persons employed in the compilation. The Directorial part next eomes under cmsideration, and here the most formidable obstacles have been encountered. Mthough the language is the same, still peculiarities of diction, difference of idiom, and the danger of rnisconception from varied pronunciation, operate power jully to increase the difficulties ever attendant on works of this nature, but which, through the patient attention shewn to the numerous enquiries, have been generally overcome ; and it is hoped that comparatively few htHCCuracies will appear. In laying. down the plan, »/ tAi* work, attention has been paid to the existing connection between the countries From the eastern coast of Ireland to the opposite coasts of Scotla^nd and Cumberland, the com- munication is incessant and mutuatly advantageou^s By combijiing them in the same volume, it is i7nagined that a desiraMe contact has been effected. Demonstratad m the puhlic approbation, and the extensive su,ppoi t which the arrangement has received.

Tne pages of reference attached to the conclusion of the larger toivns, will greatly facilitate the search for names, particularly where the designation of bminess is unknown.

Under t'le article MiKellany ,. are compidi'nded the addresses of many persom of res- pectability, which could not with prnpriely be inserted under the trade heads

The Maps annexed, engraved expressly for the embellishment of the Directory havbi^ hi en comple'ed with thi greatest care, it in hoped will give sat'tsf action. The Table of Cyins will be found of value to- the export merchant, and the List of Bankers, compiled principalis from in/Jivi-lual inquiry, will contribute much to the a <] vantage of the general trading community. In addition to the foregoing Table and List, are added Tables of the reciprocal Distances of the principal Towns in Ireland au^ Scotland and a variety of subjects of infoi-mation, which will be found of great local, as well as of general interests

*jt* To he oo7itinued Triennially.

GENERAIL INBEX.

ANTRIM ARMAGH ATHLON E - BANDON - BELFAST CaKLOW - CLONMEL COLERAIN - CORK

DROPxHEDA DUBLIN - - DUNDALK DUNGARVAN

PAGE 123

124 129 131 133 154 157 162 165 184 - 9 188 191

GALWAY -

KILKENNY

KINSALE -

LIMERICK

LISBURN

LONDONDERRY

NEW ROSS

NEWRY

SLIGO

STRABANE

WATERFORD

WEXFORD

YOUGHALL

PAGE 193

196 20O 203 211 214 220 222 228 232 234 242 245

-«i^^l*s^

ABERDEEN

ANNAN

AYR

DALKEITH

DUMFRIES

DUN Bar - -

DUNDEE

DUNFERMLINE

EDINBURGH

FALKIRK

GIRVAN

GLASGOW

GREENOCK

GRANGEMOUTH

HADDINGTON

HAMILTON

IRVINE

67

KILMARNOCK

92

KIRKCALDY

85

KIRKCUDBRIGHT

94

LANARK -

97

LEITH -

105

LINLITHGOW

107

MAYBOLE

117

MONTROSE

- 1

NEILSTON

120

N EWTON STEWART

123

PAISLEY

125

PERTH

180

PORT GLASGOW

120

SALTCOATS

.186

STIRLING

189

STRANRAER -

192

WIGTOUN

INDEX.

W^tiirtif rJiP Cawwiif?

ALNWICK

BERWICK-ON-TWEED

CARLISLE

COCKERMOUTH

DARLINGTON

DURHAM

KEM DAL

MARYPORT

MORPETH

247

NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE -

285

250

NORTH SHIELDS

- 304

255

PENRITH - - . -

^>09

262

SOUTH SHIELDS

313

265

SUNDERLAND

316

268

WHITEHAVEN

- 323

274

WIGTON - - - -

- 331

279

WORKINGTON

334

282

List of Alterations

- 339

List of London Bankers - - - - I

Provincial Bankers in England and Wales .- - II Bankers in Ireland - - _ . . xil

Bankers in Scotland - - - - XIII

Epitome of Stamp Duties - - - - XVJ

Newspapers of the United Kingdom - - - XVIII

European Life Insurance Co. - - - - XXI

Norwich Union Society - - - - XXII

Cork Royal Exchange Co. - - - - XXIV

Dublin and London Royal Exchange Insurance Co. - XXV

Duelin and London Sun Insurance Co. - - XXV Abstract of the Population of the British Empire

TABLES

,THE current coins of TWENTY-EIGHT COUNTRIES, With their relative value in British Money,

calculated at par.

ENGLAND and SCOTLAND,

£

s.

d.

A Farthing

,. £0

0

H

2 Fartbings a Halfpenny 0

0

H

2 Halfpence a Penny

0

0

1

6 Pence

0

0

6

12 Pence a Shilling

0

1

0

Half-a-Crown

0

2

6

Crown

0

5

0

Gold Piece

0

7

0

§ Sovereign

0

10

0

5 Guinea

0

10

6

Sovereign

1

0

0

Guinea

1

I

0

Besides these are the Notes 6i the

Ban

k of Eng.

land, which arc issued at the current v

ilue of )/,

Sterling, and from that sum

to note

of 30, or m.

thousand pounils value. An

i in men

e .lum is also

continually alioat, tonsintin»r

of the Notes of Bankers

in various parts of the kinu'

liom on

theii

own ere-

at; some at 1/. U. 1». u

104-, 5/

lOs &c. &C,

IRELAND.

£ d.

A Farthing . . 0

2 Fiutliings a Halfpenny

2 Halfpence Penny

5 Pence Fivepenny

10 Pence Tenponny

12 Fence Shilling Irish

30 Pence Half-a-Crown Irish 60 Pence Crown Irish

24 8billiiig.s Poiintl Fri.sh 22| Shillings, or 27 Tenp.'n-"{ ^

nies &, Threepence, a Guinea/

0 0 0 0

0

0 2 3 0 4 0 13

OJL

1 3

OJL

1 3

012

1 3

4 t_

'3

9 1_

'3

V.

13

5*

VI.

TABLES.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 10*. 9 8 7

5 4 3 2 1 6rf. 5 4 3 2 1

9 4 7 8 6 1 7 7 8 6 9 2 5 lO 9 4 12 3 3 13 10 2 15 4 1 16 11 0 18 5 0 9 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 10 0 0 11 0 0 5 0 u 4 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0

0 3 0 2 0

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 «0

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 10s.

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

6d.

5

4

3

2

1

1 1

0 6

AMERICA.

An Eagle - . -

Half Eagle

Quarter Eagle - - -

Dollar

Half Dollar

Quarter Dollar

Disme, or Dime

Half Dime

Cent, or -j-1^ of a Dollar

Half Cent

£ s. d. 2 3 11§ 1 1 111 0 10 llf 0 4

A TABLE for reducing Irish Money into Sterling, and vice versa.

Irish. Sterling. Sterl.

£ £ s. d. \2>lh. £ £ 500 461 10 9 3 500 541 400 363 4 7 5 400 433 300 276 18 5 7 300 325 200 184 12 3 9 200 216 100 92 6 1 11 100 108

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10 9

Sterling, £ s. d.

461 10 9

363 4

276 18

184 12 92 6 83 1 73 16 11 64 12 3 55 7 8 46 3 0 36 18 5 27 13 10 18 9 2

Irish,

s. d \2th

13 4 0

6 8 0

0 0 0

13 4 0-

6 8 0

10 0 0

13 4 0

16 8 0

0 0 0 3 4 0 6 8 0

10 0 0 13 4 0

6 8 0

15 0 0

13 4 0

11 8 0 10 0 0

8 4 0 6 8 0 5 0 0 3 4 0

1 8 0 10 10 0

9 9 0 8 8 0

7 0

6 0

5 0

4 0

3 0

I The Dollar, also, has a varied currency. In the

states of Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, and

New Jersey, it passes for seven shillings and six-

i pence' of their currency. In the states of New

\ Eii'i-land and Virginia it passes for six shillings of

their currency. In the states of New York and

I North Carolina it passes forci^ht shillii)e;s currency

I And in South Carolina and Georgia for four shillings

i and cightpence of their currency-

2 2 0

1 1

Hi

1 2

OJi-A

2 4

21

Olii

b ti O

OJ'JJL

1200

The currency' of the United States varies con- siderably in point of relative value. Thus the par of 3 shillings sleiling, is equivalent tO 5 shillinffs of the currency of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Dela- ware, and Maryland ; or four shillings of the cur- rency of New Hampshire, Massachusets, Connecti- cut, Rhode Island, and Viri^inia; or five shillings and fourpence of the currency of New York and North Carolina; or of three shillings and one penny and a third, of the currency of South CaroKna and OeorL'ia.

A P Penning

2 P Fcnnitigs"

4 P Fennings

14 P Fenuings

4 Kreutzers

15 Batzens

60 Kreutzers

90 Kreutzers

30 Batzens

60 Batzens

A Pice

4 Pices

6 Pities

12 Pices

10 Anas

16 Anas

2 Rupees

2 Rupees

56 Anas

AUSTRIA.

a Dreyer Kreutzer Grosli Batzen

£

0

0

0

0

0

Gold Florin 0 Florin 0

Rix Dollar 0 Specie DoUarO Ducat 0

BENGAL.

0

a Fanara 0

Viz 0

Ana 0

Siano 0

Rupee 0

French Ecu 0

Eng. Crown 0

Pagoda 0

16 Sica Rupees Gold Mohur 2 BOMBAY.

A Budgrook

2 Budgrooks a Rex

60

"A 1^

4 4 6

,13

5 Rex 16 Pices 20 Pices 240 Rex 4 Quarters l4 Quarters 6o Quarters

Pice Larce Quarter Zeraplum Rupee Pagoda Gold Rupee 1 15 CHIN.A.

- 0

O.J6-

3 2

OA

s

n

H

6 0 0 9 0

O-^T.

sou 0_^JL

40 O

Oil

so bA

5

61

5 S

3 0

a

A Casa - - 0 0

lO Caxa a Candareen 0 0

10 Candareens Mace 0 0

35 Candareens Rupee 0 2

2 Rupees Dollar 0 4

70 Candareens Rix Dollar 0 4

7 Maces Ecu 0 5

2 Rupees Crown 0 5

1,0 Maces Tale 0 «

DENMARK and NORWAY.

ASldlling - -00

9 Skillings a Duegen 0 0

16 Skil|in>s Marc 0 0

0_2^

25

0±'

5

8 6 6

^

0

0

8

TABLES.

Vll.

£

s.

d.

^

s

. d.

20 Skillings

TUx Marc

0

0

11*

60 Rials

Pistole of Ex

.0

14

4

24 Skilllags

Rix Art

0

I

H

2048 Marav

Pistole of Ex. 0

16

9

4 Marcs

Crown

0

3

0

78 Rials

Pistole

0

16

9

6 Marcs

Rix Dollar

0

4

6

HAMBURGH.

11 Marcs

Ducat

0

8

3

12 Fennings

a Shill. Lubbish 0

0

1^

14 Marcs

Half Ducat

0

10

6

] 6 Shillings

Marc

0

1

6

FLANDERS.

2 Marcs

Slet Dollar

0

3

0

3 Marcs

Rix Dollar

0

4

6

A Penning

-

0

0

O-'i--

160

6"f Marcs 120 SiiilUing

Ducat

0

9

4*

4 Pennings an Urcli

0

0

4 0

s Pound Flem.

0

11

3

8 Pennings a

Grote

0

0

OJL

HOLLAND.

2 Grotcs

Petard

0

0

OtW

6 Petards

Scalin

0

0

1 0

8 Pennings

a Groat

) 0 0|i

40 Grotes

Horin

0

1

5

6

2 Groats

Stiver

0

0

I2V

]7§ Scalins

Ducat

0

9

3

6 Stivers

Scalin

0

0

9'^

240 Grotcs

Pound Flem.

0

9

0

20 Stivers

Guilders, or Flc

.0

1

50 Stivers

Rix Dollar

0

4

4f

FRANCE.

60 Stivers

Dry Guilder

0

5

3

A Liard

_

0

0

H

105 Stivers

Ducat

0

9

3

2 Liard piece

-

0

0

H

6 Guilder, Flo. Pound Flem.

0

10

6

Sous

-

0

0

n

LEGHORN.

6 Liard Piece

-

0

0

0|

A Denari

- _

0

0

0^

Double Sous

-

0

0

1

4 Denari a

Quatrini

0

0

6 Sous Piece

-

0

0

3

Gratia

-

0

0

Of

10 Sous Piece,

Dfiini Franc

0

0

5

8 Gratia

Paoli

0

0

6

1 5 Sous Piece

-

0

0

H

20 Soldi

Lire

0

0

2

20 Sous Piece,

or Franc

0

0

10

6 Li res

Piastre of Ex.

0

4

30 Sous Piece

-

0

1

3

7f Li res

Ducat

0

5

3 Livre Piece

-

0

2

6

22 Li res

Pistole

0

15

6

5 Franc Piece

_

0

4

2

6 Livre Piece,

an Ecu

0

5

3

MILAN.

Louis Dixhuit

0

16

8

A Denari

-

0

0

a 3

The Livre, or Franc, is equal to ten-pence

English,

3 Denari

a Quatrini

0

0

0 9.

the tenth part of

a Franc is called a

r)c<;Une, and

12 Denari

Soldo

0

0

0^4

a hundiedth part of a Franc is

jailed a

Jentime.

4T

The Franc now in use, is one per

cen

t, more than

10 Soldi Piec

e

0

0

5

the Livive in use

before the Revolution

20 Soldi

Lire

0

0

10

GENOA.

1 15 Soldi

Scudi of Current 0

4

n^

A Dimari

0

0

_ 4- _

117 Soldi

Scudi of Ex,

0

4

3 ;

12 Dimari

1 Solidi

0

0

12 0 0

0 1 "

6 Li res

Pliilip

0

4

41

4 Solidi

Cbe valet

0

0

J. u u

23 Lires

Pistole

0

16

»

20Solidi

Lire

0

0

4

23 Lires

Span. Pistole

0 16

9

30 Solidi

TestooD

0

1

10

NAPLES.

5 tires llSSolidi

Croisade Pezzo of Ex.

0 0

3

4

7 2

A Quatrini 10 Grains

Carlin

0 0

0 0

OJS- 4*^

6 Festoons

Geijouine

0

6

2

40 Quatrini 20 Grains

Paoli

0

0

5|:

20.Lii¥s

Pistole

0

14

4

Tari

0

0

8*-

GIBRALTER.

40 Grains,

Tesloon

0

1

4

A Maravedi

_

0

0

0-23

100 Grainy

Ducat of Ex.

0

3

4

2 Maravedies an Ochava t

0

0

2 7-2 0_:l_3

43 Taris

Pistole

0

15

4

4 Maravodies

Quartil -

0

0

13 5 02° 63

21

PIEDMONT.

34 Maravedies Rial Velon

0

0

A Denaii

-

0

0

«tV

15 Rials

Piastre of Ex 0

3

7

3 Denari

a Quatrini

0

0

h%

512 Maravedies Piastre

0

3

7

12 Denari

Soldi

0

0

H

Vlll.

TABLES.

£

s.

d.

£

s.

d.

12 Soldi

Florin

0

0

y

8 Picoli

Ponti

0

0

^-h

20 Soldi

Lire

0

1

3

10 Grains

Carlin

0

0

1-'-

6 Florins

Scudi

0

4

6

20 Grains

Tarin

0

0.

1 3

7 Florins

Ducatoon

0

5

3

6 Tarins

Florin of Ex.

0

1

1 3

6t\

13 Lires

Pistole

0

16

0

13 Tarins

Ducat of Ex.

0

3

1 3 4

16 Lires

Louis d'or

1

0

0

60 Carlins

Ounce

0

7

Ht

POLAND,

2 Ounces

Pistole

0

15

't

A SUelon

-

0

0

•^4^

SPAIN.

3 Shelons

a Grosh

0

0

0_7_

5 Groslien

Caustic

0

0

15 Ol

A Maraved

-

0

0

Hh

3 Caustics

Tince

0

0

5

7

2 Maravedies a Quartil

0

0

't%

18 Groshen

Ort

0

0

84

84 Maravedies Rial

0

0

H

30 Groshen

Florin

0

1

3

2

2 Rials

Pistarine

0

0

lOJ

90 Groslien

Rix Dollar

0

3

6

8 Rials

Piastre of Ex.0

3

7

10 Rials

Dollar

0

4

6

8 Florins

Ducat

0

9

4

375 Maravedies Ducat of Ex

. 0

4

lU

5 Rix Dollars Frederic d'or

0

17

6

2

32 Rials

Pistole or Doubl

. 0

14

4

PORTUGAL.

SWEDEN.

ARez

-

0

0

O-ZJL

+ 00

A Stiver

0

0

0 ''■

10 Rez

a Half Vintin

0

0

0-21

"ts

20 Rez

Vintin

0

0

40

IJL

4 Stivers

a Copper Marc

0

0

If

20

3 Cop. Marcs Silver Marc

0

0

5 Vintens

Tcstoon

0

0

6i

5

5 Cop. Mares Uonner UoUai

0

0

62.

4 Testoons

Crusade of E:

:. 0

2

3

5

9 Cop, Marcs L'arolina

0

]

2

24 Vintins

New Crusade

0

2

H

5

3 Do. Dollars Silver Dollar

0

1

62.

10 Testoons

Milre

0

5

7|

3

3 Sil. Dollars Rix Dollar

0

4

8

48 Testoons

McEda

1

7

0

2 Rix Dollars Ducat

0

9

4

64 Testoons

Joanesa

1

16

0

TURKEY.

ROME.

A Mangar

0

0

01

A Quatrini

-

0

0

oA

4 Mangars

an Aspar

0

0

5 Quatrini

a Bayoc

0

0

Oi

3 Aspers

a Parac

0

0

4

3 Bayocs

Juilo

0

0

6

5 Aspers

Bestic

0

0

s 3

10 Biyocs

Stamp Juilo

0

0

n

10 Aspers

Ostic

0

0

6

24 Bayocs

Testoon

0

1

6

20 Aspers

Solata

0

1

0

10 Julios

Crown Current 0

5

0

80 Aspers

Piastre

0

4

0

12 Julios 18 Julios

Crown Stamp Chequin

0 0

6 9

3 0

100 Aspers 10 Solotas

Caragrouch XeriflF

0 0

5 10

0 0

31 Julios

Pistole

0

15

6

RUSSIA AND MUSCOVY.

VENICE.

A Copec

.

0

0

027

A Picoli

-

0

0

«T-«

3 Copecs

an Altin

0

0

5 0

12Picolis

a Soldi

0

0

Ot

10 Copecs

a Grievene

0

0

5a

6J Soldis

Gros

0

0

2b

25 Copecs

Polposin

0

1

4

18 Soldis

Julio

0

0

6

50 Copecs

Poltin

0

2

3

20 Snldis

Lire

0

0

H

100 Copecs

Ruble

0

4

6

3 Julio

Testoon

0

1

6

2 Rubles

Xervoniz.

0

9

0

124 Soldis

Due Current

0

3

51.

SICILY AND MALTA.

21 Grosso

Ducat of Ex.

0

4

4*

A Picoli

-

0

0

ss

22 Lires

Chequin

0

9

2

C Picoli a

Grain

0

0

«tV

Commercial Directory of Scotland.

EDIJVBURGH AJ^D LEITH.

EDINBURGH.

THIS eleg:ant city is the metropolis of Scotland, and the county town of Mid Lothian. It is situated 55° 57" north latitude, and3° 14 "west longitude from London, islarge and populous, and the old part very ancient. It is utterly impossible to speak with any •certainty of the origin of its name, or who were its first inhabitants; it is conjectured that this part of the country was included in a Roman province called the province of Valentia, in the da}'s of Agricola, though it does not appear there was any fort or town on that part where Edinburgh stands. When the Romans departed from Britian, this district ffcll into the hands of the Saxon invaders, under their leaders Octa and Ebusa, in the year 452, and continued in their possession until Egfrid King of Northumberland was defeated by the Picts in 685, In the ninih century the Saxon kings of Northumberland re-con- qUered it, and their successors retained it until about the year 1020, when it was given up to Indulphus King of Scotland, and the Lothians were then ceded to Malcolm II.

It is not known with certainty by what prince Edinburgh was constituted a royal Burgh, but ic appears to have been honoured with that privilege at a very early date, so long since as the year 1128, when king David I. granted a charter for the foundation of Holyrood House, where the town is mentioned by the title of " Burgomeo de Edwinesburgh," and as this monarch is supposed to have been the first who erected royal burghs in Scotland, it is ■probable that Edinburgh is indebted to him for this distinction. For a long time after this period Edinburgh seems to have been A place but of little note, it« situation exposed it to frecjuent invasion, and rendered the possession of property very insecure. In the •year 1215, and in the reign of Alexander II. a Parliament was held irrthe city for the first time, but it was not until two centuries after this (about the year 1456) that Parlia- ments were regularly held in it, or that it was considered the capital of Scotland; owing to the want of written records very little can be said of the history of the town before ■this period. The oldest charter in its archives, is one granted by king Robert I. May 28th. 1329, in which he bestows upon Edinburgh, the town of Leith, with its harbour and mills, •and his grandson, John, Earl of Carrick, who ascended the throve in the name of Robert 111. conferred upon the burgesses the singular privilege of electing houses in the castle, upon the sole condition of their being persons of good fame.

In the year 1461, when king Henry VI. took refuge in Scotland, as a mark of gratitude for the kind and hospitable reception he received in Edinburgh, he granted his letters •patent, for the inhabitants to have the privilege of trading to all the English ports, on the same terms as the citizens of London, but as this unibrtunafe Prince was never restored, his gratitude had not its desired effect. In the yenr 1542 Edinburgh was invaded, and almost wholly destroyed by conflagration, however it soon recovered from *ts ruinous stat.e, and rose to comparative splendour ; two centuries passed without much alteration, until the year 1753, when its more modern and magnificent improvements arid enlargement commenced. Public attention was first called to the state of the city in the year ,1751, by part of a very lofty building falling down, this circumstance occasioned a general survey to be made, many houses were found to be in a state of great decay, and conse- quently were taken down, in the year 1752. The royal burghs of the town were con- vened, and a scheme laid before them for the erection of national public buildings, on the scite of the old houses that had previously been pnlled down, this design was approved, and an imnttediate subscription was opened in all the county towns, and the designs were carried into immediate execution, by commencing the erection of the Royal Exchange ; the foundation stone of which was laid on the 15th! of September, 1753, by George Drnminond, Esq. the magistrate. In the year 1767, the magistrates having with difficuity procured an extension of the-roj'alty ; an Act was passed to extend it over a jftrge space -of ground on the north, where the building of the new town commenced, when means -were devised by the committees, to build the projected new town elegantly uniform. The 'buildings proceeded so rapidly, that St. Andrew's-bquarc (the first of any consequence Ibuiltt and the streets coQnected with it, were all nearly completed in the year' 1778, During the progressive ealargement of the u£w tovt^n to the north, a cbutention arose ht-

1

2 EDINBURGH.

tween the magistrates and their new town feuars, which had tlie effect of exciting spccu- latio.n towards the south, a large space of ground was pu^iiha^ed hy a priratc inividual, and iipai^^diately Isid »>ut for (he er^cUow ol various new and elegant streets, George's- square forms part of the superb buildings at that time projected. The great increase of streets in this quarter soon suggested the necessity of a good communication between the two towns, and an Act of Parliament was acc.;rdingly obtained for erecting a bridge over the valley Csimilar to the one that was begfin to be built over the North Loch in 1765,) the foundation stone of which was l^id on the 1st of August, 1788. Besiiles these leading improvements then going forward, others not less prominent were undertaken to beautify its approaches, and perhaps no city in Europe ever so rapidly increased in extent and niag- nificenre as the new town of Edinburgh, At the same time we must observe that the old town has by no means been neglected, many elegant streets and various superb erections have been added to it within these, feiy ye»rs, particularly towards the south, where another new and beautiful town is rapidly building ; several fine spacious streets are already Qni&hed, jyid njapy others a,re in a st^te of forwardness. In the old part the principal lidding streets are spacious and a great length, the High-street, which is very properly Honied, by the peculiarity of its Kifua,tion must always be rendered an interesting ol ject to ^lli s.tr(ipger8 who visit Edinburgh, it* greatest elevation is 140 feet, which commeiices near tJt>^ c<»&tle and gradually declines, to tUe e^^t, neai-ly in a direct line to Holyrood House, a liangth of 5570 feet; the house?i in, thisi Svtrcet are of an extraordinary height, and few BV€Cti? in Europe equal it in ancient grandeur. We must not omit observing that this fine street assumes various appellations, although in fact it is but one continued range of build- ing, but owing to circumstances it ha>,at diffijrent periods received several denominations : It \va§ anciently called Market-street, on account of the public markets of the city being h^id ia it ; the part which is situated uea.rest the castle, is called Castlc-hill, and a little farther doVn,, it received; the njime of the Laspn-niwket, that description of merchandize I^n^^sold in that part of the street; b«low this it has the nam* of Liicheubooths, and ^iQVij(,'h Ipvyer dpwn near tp the pa'.acc of