Errata

2010 California Mechanical Code
Building Standards Commission Logo

California Code of Regulations
Title 24, Part 4

California Building
Standards Commission

Based on the 2009 Uniform Mechanical Code®

Public Domain Mark

EFFECTIVE DATE: January 1, 2011

(For Errata and supplements, See History Note Appendix)

Public Domain: U.S. Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit, 99-40632

i

Copyright© to 2009 UMC© Held by

INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF PLUMBING AND MECHANICAL OFFICIALS
5001 East Philadelphia Street
Ontario, California 91761–2816

Copyright© to all California State Provisions
Held By

CALIFORNIA BUILDING STANDARDS COMMISSION
2525 Natomas Park Drive, Suite 130
Sacramento, CA 95833–2936

First Printing, July 1, 2010
Printed in The United States

ii

PREFACE

This document is the 4th of 12 Parts of the official triennial compilation and publication of the adoptions, amendments and repeal of administrative regulations to California Code of Regulations, Title 24, also referred to as the California Building Standards Code. Part 4 is known as the California Mechanical Code and incorporates, by adoption, the 2009 edition of the Uniform Mechanical Code of the International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials with the California amendments.

The California Building Standards Code is published in its entirety every three years by order of the California legislature, with supplements published in intervening years. The California legislature delegated authority to various State agencies, boards, commissions and departments to create building regulations to implement the State‘s statutes. These building regulations or standards, have the same force of law, and take effect 180 days after their publication unless otherwise stipulated. The California Building Standards Code applies to occupancies in the State of California as annotated.

A city, county, or city and county may establish more restrictive building standards reasonably necessary because of local climatic, geological or topographical conditions. Findings of the local condition(s) and the adopted local building standard(s) must be filed with the California Building Standards Commission to become effective and may not be effective sooner than the effective date of this edition of California Building Standards Code. Local building standards that were adopted and applicable to previous editions of the California Building Standards Code do not apply to this edition without appropriate adoption and the required filing.

To familiarize yourself with the format of this code, it is suggested that users review the following contents:

Should you find publication (e.g., typographical) errors or inconsistencies in this code or wish to offer comments toward improving its format, please address your comments to:

California Building Standards Commission
2525 Natomas Park Drive, Suite 130
Sacramento, CA 95833-2936

Phone: (916) 263-0916
FAX: (916) 263-0959

Web Page: www.bsc.ca.gov

iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The 2010 California Building Standards Code (Code) was developed through the outstanding collaborative efforts of the Department of Housing and Community Development, the Division of State Architect, the Office of the State Fire Marshal, the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, the California Energy Commission, and the Building Standards Commission (Commission).

This collaborative effort included the assistance of the Commission’s Code Advisory Committees and many other volunteers that worked tirelessly to assist the Commission in the production of this Code.

Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger

Members of the Building Standards Commission
Acting Secretary Tom Sheehy – Chair

Isam Hasenin–Vice-Chair
James Barthman
Craig Daley
Susan Dowty
Tony Hoffman
Christina Jamison
Stephen Jensen
Michael Paravagna
Richard Sawhill
Steven Winkel

David Walls – Executive Director
Thomas Morrison – Deputy Executive Director

For questions on California state agency amendments; please refer to the contact list on the following page.

iv

California Code of Regulations, Title 24

California Agency Information Contact List

California Energy Commission
Energy Hotline(800) 772-3300
or (916) 654-5106
Building Efficiency Standards
Appliance Efficiency Standards
Compliance Manual/Forms
California State Lands Commission
Marine Oil Terminals(562) 499-6317
California State Library
Resources and Information(916) 654-0261
Government Publication Section(916) 654-0069
Corrections Standards Authority
Local Adult Jail Standards(916) 324-1914
Local Juvenile Facility Standards(916) 324-1914
Department of Consumer Affairs – Acupuncture Board
Office Standards(916) 445-3021
Department of Consumer Affairs – Board of Pharmacy
Pharmacy Standards(916) 574-7900
Department of Consumer Affairs – Bureau of Barbering And Cosmetology
Barber and Beauty Shop and College Standards(916) 574-7570
(800) 952-5210
Department of Consumer Affairs – Bureau of Home Furnishings and Thermal Insulation
Insulation Testing Standards(916) 574-2041
Department of Consumer Affairs – Structural Pest Control Board
Structural Standards(800) 737-8188
(916) 561-8708
Department of Consumer Affairs – Veterinary Medical Board
Veterinary Hospital Standards(916) 263-2610
Department of Food and Agriculture
Meat & Poultry Packing Plant
Standards(916) 654-1447
Dairy Standards(916) 654-1447
Department of Public Health
Organized Camps Standards(916) 449-5661
Public Swimming Pools Standards(916) 449-5693
Asbestos Standards(510) 620-2874
Department of Housing and Community Development
Residential – Hotels, Motels, Apartments, Single-Family Dwellings(916) 445-9471
Permanent Structures in Mobilehome and Special Occupancy Parks(916) 445-9471
Factory-Built Housing, Manufactured Housing and Commercial Modular(916)445-3338
Mobile Homes – Permits & Inspections
Northern Region(916) 255-2501
Southern Region(951) 782-4420
Employee Housing Standards(916) 445-9471
Department of Water Resources
Gray Water Installations Standards(916) 651-9667
Division of the State Architect – Access Compliance
Access Compliance Standards(916) 445-8100
Division of the State Architect – Structural Safety
Public Schools Standards(916) 445-8100
Essential Services Building Standards(916) 445-8100
Community College Standards(916) 445-8100
Division of the State Architect - State Historical Building Safety Board
Alternative Building Standards(916) 445-8100
Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development
Hospital Standards(916) 440-8409
Skilled Nursing Facility Standards(916) 440-8409
Clinic Standards(916) 440-8409
Permits(916) 440-8409
Office of The State Fire Marshal
Code Development and Analysis(916) 445-8200
Fire Safety Standards(916) 445-8200
Fireplace Standards(916) 445-8200
Day Care Centers Standards(916) 445-8200
Exit Standards(916) 445-8200

Revised: February 24, 2010

v

UMC FOREWORD

Not Adopted by The State of California

The Uniform Mechanical Code® (UMC®) provides complete requirements for the installation and maintenance of heating, ventilating, cooling, and refrigeration systems, while at the same time allowing latitude for innovation and new technologies.

This code was first published in 1967. With the publication of the 2003 edition of the Uniform Mechanical Code®, another significant milestone was reached. For the first time in the history of the United States, a mechanical code was developed through a true consensus process. The 2009 edition represents the most current approaches in the mechanical field and is the second edition developed under the ANSI Consensus process. Contributions to the content of this code were made by every segment of the built industry, including such diverse interests as consumers, enforcing authorities, installers/maintainers, insurance, labor, manufacturers, research/standards/testing laboratories, special experts, and users.

The public at large is encouraged and invited to participate in IAPMO‘s open consensus code development process. This code is updated every three years. A code development timeline and other relevant information is available at IAPMO’s website at www.iapmo.org.

The Uniform Mechanical Code® is dedicated to all those who, in working to achieve "the ultimate mechanical code," have unselfishly devoted their time, effort, and personal funds to create and maintain this, the finest mechanical code in existence today.

The 2009 Uniform Mechanical Code® is supported by the American Society of Sanitary Engineering (ASSE), Mechanical Contractors Association of America (MCAA), Plumbing-Heating-Cooling Contractors National Association (PHCC-NA), the United Association (UA), and the World Plumbing Council (WPC). The presence of these logos, while reflecting support, does not imply any ownership of the copyright to the UMC which is held exclusively by IAPMO. Further, the logos of these associations indicates the support of IAPMO’s open, consensus process being used to develop IAPMO’s codes and standards.

The addresses of the organizations are as follows:

ASSE – 901 Canterbury Road, Suite A • Westlake, Ohio 44145-7201 • (440) 835-3040

MCAA – 1385 Piccard Drive • Rockville, Maryland 20850 • (301) 869-5800

PHCC-NA – PO Box 6808 • Falls Church, Virginia 22046 • (800) 533-7694

UA – 901 Massachusetts Avenue NW • Washington, DC 20001 • (202) 628-5823

WPC – WPC Secretary • c/o Mechanical Contractors Association of Alberta
204 2725-12 St. NE Calgary • Alberta T2E 7J2 Canada • +1-40-325-072-37
P.O.Box 2005 • Marmion, Western Australia 6020 • +61-8-9448-0430

Code changes made to the original amalgamated code are marked in the margins as follows.

An arrow denotes a deletion A vertical line denotes a change

vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1
DIVISION ICALIFORNIA ADMINISTRATION DIVISION I1
1.1.0General3
1.1.1Title3
1.1.2Purpose3
1.1.3Scope3
1.1.4Appendices4
1.1.5Referenced Codes4
1.1.6NonBuilding Standards, Orders, and Regulations4
1.1.7Order of Precedence and Use4
1.1.8City, County, or City and County Amendments, Additions or Deletions4
1.1.9Effective Date of This Code5
1.1.10Availability of Codes5
1.1.11Format5
1.1.12Validity5
1.2.0Building Standards Commission5
1.2.2Alternative Materials, Design and Methods of Construction and Equipment6
1.3.0Reserved for Corrections Standards Authority6
1.4.0Department of Consumer Affairs6
1.5.0Reserved for California Energy Commission6
1.6.0Reserved for Department of Food and Agriculture6
1.7.0California Department of Public Health6
1.8.0Department of Housing and Community Development (HCD)6
1.8.2Purpose6
1.8.2Authority and Abbreviations6
1.8.3Local Enforcing Agency7
1.8.4Permits, Fees, Applications, and Inspections8
1.8.5Right of Entry for Enforcement9
1.8.6Local Modification by Ordinance or Regulation9
1.8.7Alternate Materials, Designs, Tests and Methods of Construction9
1.8.8Appeals Board10
1.8.9Unsafe Buildings or Structures10
1.8.10Other Building Regulations11
1.9.0Division of the State Architect11
1.9.1Reserved for the Division of the State Architect – Access Compliance11
1.9.2Division of the State Architect – Structural Safety11
1.10.0Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development12
1.10.1OSHPD 112
1.10.2OSHPD 212
1.10.3OSHPD 312
1.10.4OSHPD 412
1.11.0Office of the State Fire Marshal13
1.11.1SFM – Office of the State Fire Marshal13
1.11.2Duties and Powers of the Enforcing Agency14
1.11.3Construction Documents16
1.11.4Fees16
1.11.5Inspections17
1.11.6Certificate of Occupancy17
1.11.7Temporary Structures and Uses17
1.11.8Service Utilities17
1.11.9Stop Work Order17
1.11.10Unsafe Buildings, Structures, and Equipment17
1.12.0Reserved for the State Librarian17
1.13.0Reserved for the Department of Water Resources17
1.14.0Reserved for the State Lands Commission17
CHAPTER 1
DIVISION IIADMINISTRATION DIVISION II19
Part IGeneral19
101.0Title19
102.0Purpose19
103.0Scope19
103.1General19
103.2Conflicts19
103.3Design and Testing19
103.4Appendices19
104.0Application to Existing Mechanical Systems19
104.1Additions, Alterations, or Repairs19
104.2Existing Installations19
104.3Changes in Building Occupancy19
104.4Maintenance19
104.5Moved Buildings19
105.0Alternate Materials and Methods of Construction Equivalency19
106.0Intent19
107.0Testing20
Part IIOrganization and Enforcement20
108.0Powers and Duties of the Authority Having Jurisdiction20
108.1General20
108.2Deputies20
108.3Right of Entry20
108.4Stop Orders20
108.5Authority to Disconnect Utilities in Emergencies20
108.6Authority to Condemn Equipment20
108.7Connection After Order to Disconnect20
108.8Liability20
108.9Cooperation of Other Officials and Officers21
109.0Unsafe Equipment21
110.0Board of Appeals21
110.1General21
110.2Limitations of Authority21
111.0Violations21
Part IIIPermits and Inspections21
112.0Permits21
112.1Permits Required21
112.2Exempt Work21
113.0Application for Permit21
113.1Application21
113.2Plans and Specifications22
113.3Information on Plans and Specifications22
114.0Permit Issuance22
114.1Issuance22
114.2Retention of Plans22
114.3Validity of Permit22
114.4Expiration22
114.5Suspension or Revocation22
115.0Fees23
115.1General23
115.2Permit Fees23
115.3Plan Review Fees23
115.4Expiration of Plan Review23
115.5Investigation Fees– Work Without a Permit23
115.6Fee Refunds23
116.0Inspections23
116.1General23
116.2Operation of Mechanical Equipment23
116.3Testing of Equipment23
116.4Inspection Requests23
116.5Other Inspections24
116.6Reinspections24
117.0Connection Approval24
117.1Energy Connections24
117.2Temporary Connections24
Table 1-1Mechanical Permit Fees25
CHAPTER 2DEFINITIONS27
201.0General29
202.0Accepted Meanings29
CHAPTER 3GENERAL REQUIREMENTS39
301.0Scope41
302.0Approval41
302.1How Obtained41
302.2Complying Design of Equipment41
302.3Oil-Burning Appliances41
303.0Installation41
303.1Listed Appliances41
303.2Room Large in Comparison to Size of Equipment41
303.3Unlisted Appliances41
303.4Anchorage of Appliances41
303.6Identification of Equipment41
303.7Liquefied Petroleum Gas Facilities41
303.8Equipment on Roofs42
304.0Service and Access to Equipment and Appliances42
304.1Access to Equipment on Roofs42
305.0Automatic Control Devices42
306.0Labeling43
306.1Fuel-Burning Appliances43
306.2Electric Heating Appliances43
306.3Heat Pump and Electric Cooling Appliances43
307.0Location43
307.1Protection Against Damage43
307.2Protection Against Flood Damage43
308.0Electrical Connections43
309.0Condensate Wastes and Control44
309.1Condensate Disposal44
309.2Condensate Control44
309.3Condensate Waste Sizing44
Table 3–1Minimum Condensate Pipe Size44
309.4Fuel–Burning Appliance Condensate Drains44
309.5Plastic Fittings44
310.0Personnel Protection44
311.0Heating or Cooling Air System44
311.1Source44
311.2Air Filters44
311.3Prohibited Source44
311.4Return–Air Limitations45
311.5Outside Air Inlet Protection45
312.0Water Supply45
313.0Scope45
313.1Applicability45
313.2Services/Systems and Utilities45
314.0Steam and Hot–Water Systems45
314.1Requirements for Hospitals and Optional Services Provided in Correctional Treatment Centers45
314.2Requirements for Skilled Nursing, Intermediate Care Facilities and Basic Services Provided in Correctional Treatment Centers45
315.0Air Conditioning and Heating Systems45
315.1Requirements for Hospitals and Optional Services Provided in Correctional Treatment Centers45
Table 315Heating, Cooling, and Relative Humidity Requirements for Sensitive Areas or Rooms46
316.0Essential Mechanical Provisions46
Table 3–2Standard Installation Clearances in Inches for Unlisted Heat–Producing Appliances47
Table 3–3Clearances, in Inches, with Specified Forms of Protection49
Table 3–4Chimney Connector and Vent Connector Clearances from Combustible Materials50
Table 3–5Capacities of Listed Metal Appliance Connectors51
Table 3–6Capacities of Listed Metal Appliance Connectors51
CHAPTER 4VENTILATION AIR SUPPLY53
401.0General55
402.0Ventilation Air55
402.1General Requirements55
402.2Natural Ventilation55
402.3Mechanical Ventilation55
403.0Ventilation Rates55
403.1Zone Calculations55
403.2Single–Zone Systems55
403.3100% Outdoor Air Systems56
403.4Multiple–Zone Recirculating Systems56
403.5Design for Varying Operating Conditions56
403.6Dynamic Reset56
403.7Exhaust Ventilation56
403.8Exhaust Ventilation for Enclosed Parking Garages56
404.0Makeup Air57
405.0Evaporative Cooling Systems57
405.1Location57
405.2Access, Inspection, and Repair57
405.3Installation57
405.4Evaporative Cooling System for Health Care Facilities57
406.0Reserved57
407.0Ventilation System Details57
407.1General57
407.2Outdoor Air Intakes and Exhaust Outlets57
407.3Air Balance58
407.4Air Circulation58
407.5Variable Air Volume59
408.0Filters59
408.1General59
408.2Filters for Hospitals59
408.4Filters for Outpatient Facilities60
409.0Ducts60
410.0Laboratory Ventilating Systems and Hoods60
410.1Laboratory Ventilating Systems60
410.2Exhaust Hoods and Safety Cabinets60
410.3Laboratory Fume Hoods60
411.0Kitchen and Dining Areas60
412.0Boiler, Mechanical, and Electrical Rooms60
413.0Odorous Rooms60
414.0Airborne Infection Isolations Rooms61
414.1Exhaust Systems61
414.2Air Distribution61
415.0Protective Environment Rooms61
415.1Air Distribution61
416.0Alarms — Airborne Infection Isolation Rooms and Protective Environment Rooms61
417.0Testing and Balancing Airborne Infection Isolation Rooms and Protective Environment Rooms61
418.0Design Requirements for Ethylene Oxide (ETO) Sterilization Areas62
418.1Air Changes62
418.2Exhaust Requirements62
418.3Ventilation Requirements62
418.4Gas Valves62
418.5Alarm Systems62
Table 4-APressure Relationship and Ventilation Requirements for General Acute Care Hospitals, Skilled Nursing Facilities, Intermediate Care Facilities, Correctional Treatment Centers, Outpatient Facilities and Licensed Clinics63
Table 4-BFilter Efficiencies for Centeral Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems in General Acute Care Hospitals, Acute Psychiatric Hospitals, Outpatient Facilities, and Licensed Clinics66
Table 4-CFilters Efficiencies for Central Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems in Skilled Nursing Facilities and Intermediate Care Facilities and Correctional Treatment Centers66
Table 4-1Minimum Ventilation Rates in Breathing Zone67
Table 4-2Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness69
Table 4-3System Ventilation Efficiency69
Table 4-4Minimum Exhaust Rates70
CHAPTER 5EXHAUST SYSTEMS71
501.0Scope73
Part IEnvironmental Air Ducts and Product-Conveying Systems73
502.0Definitions73
503.0Motors, Fans, and Filters75
503.1General75
503.2Fans75
504.0Environmental Air Ducts76
504.1Makeup and Exhaust-Air Ducts76
504.2Domestic Range Vents76
504.3Clothes Dryers76
504.4Heat (Energy) Recovery Ventilators76
504.5Termination of Environmental Air Ducts76
504.6Gypsum Wallboard Ducts76
505.0Design of Product-Conveying Ventilation Systems76
505.1General76
505.2Minimum Velocities and Circulation77
Table 5-1Minimum Conveying Velocities77
505.3Makeup Air77
505.4Hoods and Enclosures77
505.5Pharmacies — Compounding Area of Parenteral Solutions77
506.0Product-Conveying Ducts77
506.1Materials77
506.2Construction78
506.3Fittings78
506.4Explosion Venting78
506.5Supports78
506.6Fire Protection78
Table 5-2Reduction of Duct Clearance with Specified Forms of Protection79
506.7Duct Clearances79
Table 5-3Reduction of Clearances with Specified Forms of Protection80
506.8Protection from Physical Damage81
506.9Exhaust Outlets81
Part IICommercial Hoods and Kitchen Ventilation81
507.0General Requirements81
507.2Clearance82
508.0Hoods83
508.1Where Required83
508.4Hood Size84
508.5Exhaust Hood Assemblies with Integrated Supply-Air Plenums84
508.6Listed Hood Assemblies85
508.7Solid-Fuel Hood Assemblies85
508.8Listed Ultra-Violet Hoods85
508.9Exhaust Outlets85
509.0Grease Removal Devices in Hoods85
509.1Grease Removal Devices85
509.2Installation85
509.3Solid-Fuel Grease Removal Devices86
510.0Exhaust Duct Systems86
510.1General86
510.2Clearance86
510.3Openings86
510.4Listed Grease Ducts87
510.5Other Grease Ducts87
510.6Exterior Installations88
510.7Interior Installations88
510.8Termination of Exhaust System88
510.9Solid-Fuel Duct Systems90
511.0Air Movement90
511.1Exhaust Fans for Commercial Cooking Equipment90
511.2Airflow90
511.3Replacement Air91
511.4Common Duct (Manifold) Systems91
511.5Solid-Fuel Air Movement Requirements92
512.0Auxiliary Equipment92
512.1Dampers92
512.2Electrical Equipment92
512.3Other Equipment92
512.4Solid-Fuel Auxiliary Equipment92
513.0Fire-Extinguishing Equipment92
513.1General Requirements92
513.2Types of Equipment92
513.3Simultaneous Operation93
513.4Fuel Shutoff93
513.5Manual Activation94
513.6System Annunciation94
513.7System Supervision94
513.8Special Design and Application94
513.9Review and Certification94
513.10Installation Requirements94
513.11Portable Fire Extinguishers94
513.12Solid-Fuel Fire-Extinguishing Equipment95
514.0Procedures for the Use and Maintenance of Equipment95
514.1Operating Procedures95
514.2Inspection95
514.3Inspection for Grease Buildup95
Table 5-4Exhaust System Inspection Schedule95
514.4Cleaning of Exhaust Systems95
515.0Minimum Safety Requirements for Cooking Equipment96
515.1Cooking Equipment96
515.2Operating Controls96
515.3Cooking Equipment Maintenance96
516.0Recirculating Systems96
516.1General Requirements96
516.2Design Restrictions97
516.3Interlocks97
516.4Location and Application Restrictions97
516.5Additional Fire Safety Requirements97
516.6Use and Maintenance98
517.0Solid-Fuel Cooking Operations98
517.1Venting Application98
517.2Location of Appliances98
517.3Hoods for Solid-Fuel Cooking98
517.4Exhaust Systems for Solid-Fuel Cooking98
517.5Grease Removal Devices for Solid-Fuel Cooking99
517.6Air Movement for Solid-Fuel Cooking99
517.7Fire-Extinguishing Equipment for Solid-Fuel Cooking99
517.8Other Safety Requirements99
Table 5-5Minimum Sheet Metal Thickness for Round Ducts for Product-Conveying System Ducts100
Table 5-6Minimum Sheet Metal Thickness for Rectangular Ducts102
CHAPTER 6DUCT SYSTEMS103
601.0Scope105
601.2Sizing Requirements105
602.0Material105
602.1General105
602.2Combustibles Within Ducts or Plenums105
602.3Factory-Made Air Ducts106
602.4Joints and Seams of Ducts106
602.5Metal106
602.6Tin106
602.7Vibration Isolators106
603.0Quality of Material106
604.0Installation of Ducts106
604.1General Ducts Under Floor or Crawl Space106
604.2Metal Ducts107
604.3Factory-Made Air Ducts107
604.4Protection of Ducts107
604.5Support of Ducts107
604.6Protection Against Flood Damage107
605.0Insulation of Ducts107
606.0Smoke Dampers, Fire Dampers, and Ceiling Dampers108
606.1Smoke Dampers108
606.2Fire Dampers108
606.3Ceiling Radiation Dampers108
606.4Multiple Arrangements108
606.5Access and Identification108
606.6Freedom from Interference108
606.7Temperature Classification of Operating Elements108
607.0Ventilating Ceilings108
607.1General108
607.2Requirements109
608.0Use of Under-Floor Space as Supply Plenum for Dwelling Units109
609.0Automatic Shutoffs109
CHAPTER 7COMBUSTION AIR111
701.0Air for Combustion and Ventilation113
701.1General113
701.2Indoor Combustion Air113
701.3Indoor Opening Size and Location113
701.4Outdoor Combustion Air114
701.5Combination Indoor and Outdoor Combustion Air114
701.6Engineered Installations114
701.7Mechanical Combustion Air Supply114
701.8Mechanical Combustion Air Requirements114
701.9Louvers, Grilles, and Screens114
701.10Combustion-Air Ducts114
701.11Dampers Prohibited115
CHAPTER 8CHIMNEY AND VENTS117
801.0Scope119
801.1Venting of Gas Appliances119
801.2Appliances Fueled by Other Fuels119
802.0Venting of Appliances119
802.1General119
802.2Specification for Venting119
802.3Design and Construction120
802.4Type of Venting System to Be Used120
802.5Masonry, Metal, and Factory-Built Chimneys120
Table 8-1Type of Venting System to be Used121
802.6Gas Vents123
802.7Single-Wall Metal Pipe124
Table 8-2Clearance for Connectors125
802.8Through-the-Wall Vent Termination126
802.9Condensation Drain126
802.10Vent Connectors for Category I Appliances126
Table 8-3Minimum Thickness for Galvanized Steel Vent Connectors for Low- Heat Appliances127
Table 8-4Minimum Thickness for Steel Vent Connectors for Medium-Heat Appliances and Commercial and Industrial Incinerators128
802.11Vent Connectors for Category II, Category III, and Category IV Appliances129
802.12Draft Hoods and Draft Controls129
802.13Manually Operated Dampers130
802.14Automatically Operated Vent Dampers130
802.15Obstructions130
803.0Sizing of Category I Venting Systems130
803.2Additional Requirements to Multiple Appliance Vent Tables 8-11 through 8-19131
Table 8-5Type B Double-Wall Gas Vent136
Table 8-6Type B Double-Wall Gas Vent139
Table 8-7Masonry Chimney143
Table 8-8Masonry Chimney143
Table 8-9Single-Wall Metal Pipe or Type B Asbestos Cement Vent145
Table 8-10Exterior Masonry Chimney146
Table 8-11Type B Double-Wall Vent147
Table 8-12Type B Double-Wall Vent151
Table 8-13Masonry Chimney153
Table 8-14Masonry Chimney155
Table 8-15Single-Wall Metal Pipe or Type B Asbestos Cement Vent157
Table 8-16Exterior Masonry Chimney158
Table 8-17Exterior Masonry Chimney159
Table 8-18Exterior Masonry Chimney160
Table 8-19Exterior Masonry Chimney161
CHAPTER 9INSTALLATION OF SPECIFIC APPLIANCES163
901.0Scope165
902.0General165
902.1Added or Converted Appliances165
902.2Type of Gas(es)165
903.0Air-Conditioning Appliances (Gas-Fired Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps)165
903.1Independent Gas Piping165
903.2Connection of Gas Engine-Powered Air Conditioners165
903.3Clearances for Indoor Installation.165
903.4Assembly and Installation166
903.5Furnace Plenums and Air Ducts166
903.6Refrigeration Coils166
903.7Switches in Electrical Supply Line166
904.0Central Heating Boilers and Furnaces166
904.1Location166
904.2Clearance166
904.3Assembly and Installation167
904.4Temperature- or Pressure-Limiting Devices167
904.5Low-Water Cutoff167
904.6Steam Safety and Pressure-Relief Valves167
904.7Furnace Plenums and Air Ducts167
904.8Refrigeration Coils168
904.9Cooling Units Used with Heating Boilers168
904.10Access to Appliances on Roofs168
904.11Appliances in Attics and Under-Floor Spaces169
905.0Clothes Dryers169
905.1Clearance169
905.2Exhausting to the Outdoors169
905.3Provisions for Makeup Air169
905.4Exhaust Ducts for Type 1 Clothes Dryers169
905.5Exhaust Ducts for Type 2 Clothes Dryers169
905.6Multiple Family or Public Use170
906.0Conversion Burners170
907.0Decorative Appliances for Installation in Vented Fireplaces170
907.1Prohibited Installations170
907.2Installation170
907.3Fireplace Screens170
908.0Gas Fireplaces, Vented170
908.1Prohibited Installations170
908.2Installation170
908.3Combustion and Circulating Air170
909.0Non-Recirculating Direct Gas-Fired Industrial Air Heaters170
909.1Application170
909.2Prohibited Installations170
909.3Installation170
909.4Clearance from Combustible Materials171
909.5Air Supply171
909.6Atmospheric Vents, Gas Reliefs, or Bleeds171
909.7Relief Openings171
909.8Purging171
910.0Recirculating Direct Gas-Fired Industrial Air Heaters171
910.1Application171
910.2Prohibited Installations171
910.3Installation171
910.4Clearance from Combustible Materials171
910.5Air Supply171
910.6Atmospheric Vents, Gas Reliefs, or Bleeds171
910.7Relief Openings171
Table 9-1Clearances to Combustible Material for Unlisted Furnaces, Boilers, and Air Conditioners Installed in Rooms That are Large in Comparison with the Size of Appliances172
Table 9-2Free Opening Area of Chimney Damper for Venting Flue Gases from Unlisted Decorative Appliances for Installation in Vented Fireplaces172
910.8Purging172
911.0Duct Furnaces172
911.1Clearances172
911.2Installation of Duct Furnaces172
911.3Access Panels173
911.4Location of Draft Hoods and Controls173
911.5Circulating Air173
911.6Duct Furnaces Used with Refrigeration Systems173
911.7Installation in Commercial Garages and Aircraft Hangars173
911.8Installation in Commercial Garages173
911.9Installation in Aircraft Hangars173
912.0Floor Furnaces173
912.1Installation173
912.2Temperature Limit Controls173
912.3Combustion and Circulating Air173
912.4Placement173
912.5Bracing174
912.6Support174
912.7Clearance174
912.8Access174
912.9Seepage Pan174
912.10Wind Protection174
912.11Upper-Floor Installations174
912.12First Floor Installation174
913.0Food Service Appliances, Floor Mounted174
913.1Clearance for Listed Appliances174
913.2Clearance for Unlisted Appliances174
913.3Mounting on Combustible Floor174
913.4Mounting on Noncombustible Floor175
913.5Combustible Material Adjacent to Cooking Top175
913.6Use with Casters175
913.7Level Installation175
913.8Ventilation175
914.0Food Service Appliances Counter Appliances175
914.1Vertical Clearance175
914.2Clearance for Listed Appliances175
914.3Clearance for Unlisted Appliances175
914.4Mounting of Unlisted Appliances175
915.0Hot Plates and Laundry Stoves175
916.0Household Cooking Appliances176
916.1Floor-Mounted Units176
916.2Built-In Units176
917.0Illuminating Appliances176
917.1Clearances for Listed Appliances176
917.2Clearances for Unlisted Appliances176
Table 9-3Clearances for Unlisted Outdoor Open-Flame Illuminating Appliances177
917.3Mounting on Buildings177
917.4Mounting on Posts177
917.5Gas Appliance Pressure Regulators177
918.0Incinerators, Commercial-Industrial177
919.0Infrared Heaters177
919.1Support177
919.2Suspended Low-Intensity Infrared Tube Heaters177
919.3Clearance177
919.4Combustion and Ventilation Air177
919.5Installation in Commercial Garages and Aircraft Hangers177
920.0Open-Top Broiler Units178
920.1Listed Units178
920.2Unlisted Units178
920.3Protection Above Domestic Units178
920.4Commercial Units178
921.0Outdoor Cooking Appliances178
921.1Listed Units178
921.2Unlisted Units178
922.0Pool Heaters178
922.1Location178
922.2Clearance178
922.3Temperature or Pressure-Limiting Devices178
922.4Bypass Valves178
922.5Venting178
923.0Refrigerators178
923.1Clearance178
923.2Venting or Ventilating Kits Approved for Use With a Refrigerator178
924.0Room Heaters178
924.1Prohibited Installations178
924.2Installations in Institutions179
924.3Clearance179
924.4Wall-Type Room Heaters179
925.0Stationary Gas Engines179
926.0Gas-Fired Toilets179
926.1Clearance179
926.2Installation on Combustible Floors179
926.3Installation179
927.0Unit Heaters179
927.1Support179
927.2Clearance179
927.3Combustion and Circulating Air180
927.4Ductwork180
927.5Installation in Commercial Garages and Aircraft Hangars180
928.0Wall Furnaces180
928.1Installation180
928.2Location180
928.3Combustion and Circulating Air180
929.0Appliances for Installation in Manufactured Housing180
930.0Small Ceramic Kilns180
930.1General180
930.2Installation180
930.3Fuel-Gas Controls181
930.4Electrical Equipment181
930.5Installations Inside Buildings181
930.6Exterior Installations181
931.0Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicular Fuel Systems181
932.0Outdoor Open Flame Decorative Appliances181
933.0Appliances for Installation in Manufactured Housing181
934.0Fuel Cell Power Plants181
CHAPTER 10STEAM AND HOT WATER BOILERS183
1001.0Scope185
1002.0Workmanship185
1003.0Definitions185
1004.0Detailed Requirements186
1004.1Safety Requirements186
1004.2Controls186
1004.3Gauges186
1004.4Stack Dampers186
1004.5Welding187
1005.0Expansion Tanks187
1005.1General187
1005.2Systems with Open Expansion Tanks187
1005.3Closed-Type Systems187
1005.4Minimum Capacity of Closed-Type Tank187
1006.0Safety or Relief Valve Discharge187
Table 10-1Expansion Tank Capacities for Gravity Hot Water Systems187
1007.0Shutoff Valves187
1008.0Gas-Pressure Regulators187
Table 10-2Expansion Tank Capacities for Forced Hot Water Systems188
1009.0Low-Water Cutoff188
1010.0Combustion Regulators-Safety Valves188
1011.0Automatic Boilers188
1012.0Clearance for Access188
1013.0Boiler Rooms and Enclosures188
1014.0Mounting188
1015.0Floors189
1016.0Chimneys or Vents189
1017.0Drainage189
1018.0Fuel Piping, Tanks, and Valves189
1019.0Air for Combustion and Ventilation189
1020.0Operating Adjustments and Instructions189
1021.0Inspections and Tests189
1022.0Operating Permit189
1023.0Maintenance Inspection189
1024.0Operation and Maintenance of Boilers and Pressure Vessels190
Table 10-3Controls and Limit Devices for Automatic Boilers191
CHAPTER 11REFRIGERATION193
1101.0Scope195
Part IRefrigeration Systems195
1102.0General195
1102.1Refrigerants195
1103.0Refrigerant Classification195
1104.0Classification of Refrigeration Systems195
1104.1High-Probability System195
1104.2Low-Probability System195
1105.0Requirements for Refrigerant and Refrigeration System Use195
1105.1System Selection195
1105.2Volume of Occupied Space195
1105.3Refrigerated Process and Storage Areas195
1105.4Refrigerant Purity195
1106.0General Requirements196
1106.1Human Comfort196
1106.2Supports and Anchorage196
1106.3Access196
1106.4Illumination and Service Receptacles196
1106.5Protection from Mechanical Damage196
1106.6Electrical196
1106.7Ventilation of Rooms Containing Condensing Units196
1106.8Prohibited Locations197
1106.9Condensation Control197
1106.10Condensate197
1106.11Defrost197
1106.12Overflows197
1106.13Condensate, Defrost, and Overflow Disposal197
1107.0Refrigeration Machinery Rooms197
1107.1When Required197
1107.2Dimensions197
1107.3Exits197
1107.4Refrigerant-Vapor Alarms197
1107.5Separation197
1107.6Combustion Air and Return Air197
1107.7Special Requirements197
1108.0Refrigeration Machinery Room Ventilation197
1108.1General197
1108.2Refrigeration Machinery Rooms198
1108.3Distribution of Ventilation198
1108.4Intermittent Control of the Ventilation Systems198
1108.5Emergency Control of the Ventilation Systems198
1108.6Central Control of Ventilation Systems198
1108.7Ventilation Discharge198
1108.8Fans198
1108.9Ventilation Intake198
1109.0Refrigeration Machinery Room Equipment and Controls199
1109.1General199
1109.2Electrical199
1109.3Storage199
1109.4Emergency Control199
1110.0Refrigeration Piping, Containers, and Valves199
1110.1General199
1110.2Nonferrous Materials199
1110.3Ferrous Materials199
1111.0Erection of Refrigerant Piping199
1111.1General199
1111.2Support199
1111.3Protection from Damage199
1111.4Visual Inspection199
1111.5Prohibited Locations199
1111.6Underground Piping199
1111.7Joints199
1111.8Identification199
1112.0Refrigerant Control Valves200
1112.1Location200
1112.2Support200
1112.3Access200
1112.4Identification200
1113.0Pressure-Limiting Devices200
1113.1When Required200
1113.2Setting200
1113.3Connection200
1113.4Operation200
1114.0Pressure-Relief Devices200
1114.1General200
1114.2Positive-Displacement Compressor200
1114.3Liquid-Containing Portions of Systems200
1114.4Evaporators200
1114.5Actuation200
1114.6Stop Valves Prohibited200
1114.7Location201
1114.8Materials201
1115.0Pressure-Relief Device Settings201
1115.1Pressure-Relief Valve Setting201
1115.2Rupture Member Setting201
1116.0Marking of Pressure-Relief Devices201
1116.1Pressure-Relief Valves201
1116.2Rupture Members201
1116.3Fusible Plugs201
1117.0Overpressure Protection201
1117.1General201
1117.2Type of Protection201
1117.3Three-Way Valve Required201
1117.4Parallel Pressure-Relief Devices201
1117.5Discharge Capacity201
1117.6Rating of Pressure-Relief Valves201
1117.7Rating of Rupture Members and Fusible Plugs201
1117.8Discharge Location201
1118.0Discharge Piping202
1119.0Special Discharge Requirements202
1119.1General202
1119.2Design Requirements202
1119.3Testing202
1120.0Ammonia Discharge202
1121.0Detection and Alarm Systems202
1121.1General202
1121.2Power and Supervision202
1121.3Annuciation203
1121.4Installation, Maintenance, and Testing203
1122.0Emergency Pressure Control System203
1123.0Equipment Identification203
1124.0Testing of Refrigeration Equipment203
1124.1Factory Tests203
1124.2Field Tests203
1124.3Test Medium203
1124.4Declaration203
1124.5Brine Systems203
1125.0Maintenance and Operation203
1126.0Storage of Refrigerants and Refrigerant Oils203
Part IICooling Towers203
1127.0General203
1128.0Support and Anchorage203
1129.0Drainage203
1130.0Chemical Treatment Systems204
1131.0Location204
1132.0Electrical204
1133.0Refrigerants and Hazardous Fluids204
Table 11–1Refrigerant Groups, Properties, and Allowable Quantities205
Table 11–2Permissible Refrigeration Systems209
Table 11–3Value of Factor Dependent for Equation 11–6210
Table 11–4Field Leak Test Pressures in psig (kPa)210
CHAPTER 12HYDRONICS211
Part ISteam and Water Piping213
1201.0Scope213
Part IIHydronic Panel Heating Systems219
1202.0Scope219
1203.0Installation219
1204.0Piping Materials219
1204.1Panel(s)219
1204.2Hot-Water Supply Lines219
1205.0Piping Joints219
1206.0Heat Sources219
1207.0Testing219
CHAPTER 13FUEL GAS PIPING221
Part IFuel Piping223
1301.0Scope223
1302.0General223
1303.0Definitions223
1303.1Appliance Fuel Connector223
1303.2Fuel Gas223
1303.3Gas Piping223
1303.4Gas Piping System223
1303.5Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LP-Gas) Facilities223
1303.6Provision for Location of Point of Delivery223
1303.7Quick-Disconnect Device223
1303.8Service Piping224
1303.9Transition Gas Riser224
1304.0Inspection224
1305.0Certificate of Inspection224
1306.0Authority to Render Gas Service224
1307.0Authority to Disconnect224
1308.0Temporary Use of Gas225
1309.0Gas Piping System Design, Materials, and Components225
1309.1Piping Plan225
1309.2Provision for Location of Point of Delivery225
1309.3Interconnections Between Gas Piping Systems225
1309.4Sizing of Gas Piping Systems225
Table 13–1Approximate Gas Input for Typical Appliances225
1309.5Acceptable Piping Materials and Joining Methods226
Table 13–2Specifications for Threading Metallic Pipe227
1309.6Gas Meters228
1309.7Gas Pressure Regulators228
1309.8Back-Pressure Protection229
1309.9Low-Pressure Protection229
1309.10Shutoff Valves229
1309.11Expansion and Flexibility229
1310.0Excess Flow Valve229
1311.0Venting of Gas Appliance Pressure Regulators229
1312.0Gas Piping Installation230
1312.1Piping Underground230
1312.2Installation of Piping231
Table 13–3Support of Piping231
1312.3Concealed Piping Building231
1312.4Piping in Vertical Chases232
1312.5Gas Pipe Turns233
1312.6Drips and Sediment Traps233
1312.7Outlets233
1312.8Branch Pipe Connection233
1312.9Manual Gas Shutoff Valves233
1312.10Prohibited Devices234
1312.11Systems Containing Gas-Air Mixtures Outside the Flammable Range234
1312.12Systems Containing Flammable Gas-Air Mixtures234
1312.13Electrical Bonding and Grounding235
1312.14Lightning Protection System235
1312.15Electrical Circuits235
1312.16Electrical Connections235
1313.0Appliance Connections to Building Piping235
1313.1Connecting Gas Appliances235
1313.2Use of Nonmetallic Gas Hose Connectors236
1313.3Connection of Portable and Mobile Industrial Appliances236
1313.4Appliance Shutoff Valves and Connections236
1313.5Quick-Disconnect Devices237
1313.6Gas Convenience Outlets237
1313.7Sediment Trap237
1313.8Installation of Piping237
1314.0Appliance Over Pressure Protection237
1315.0Liquefied Petroleum Gas Facilities and Piping237
1316.0Pressure Testing and Inspection237
1316.1General237
1316.2Test Preparation237
1316.3Test Pressure238
1316.4Detection of Leaks and Defects238
1316.5System and Appliance Leakage Test238
1316.6Purging238
Table 13–4Length of Piping Requiring Purging with Inert Gas for Servicing or Modification238
Table 13–5Length of Piping Requiring Purging with Inert Gas Before Placing in Operation239
1317.0Interconnections between Gas-Piping Systems239
1317.1Interconnections Supplying Separate Users239
1317.2Interconnections for Standby Fuels239
1318.0Required Gas Supply239
1319.0Required Gas Piping Size239
1319.1Pipe Sizing Methods239
1319.2Tables for Sizing Gas Piping Systems240
1319.3Sizing Equations240
Table 13–6Cr and Y for Natural Gas and Undiluted Propane at Standard Conditions240
Table 13–7Schedule 40 Metallic Pipe242
Table 13–8Schedule 40 Metallic Pipe243
Table 13–9Schedule 40 Metallic Pipe244
Table 13–10Schedule 40 Metallic Pipe245
Table 13–11Semi-Rigid Copper Tubing246
Table 13–12Semi-Rigid Copper Tubing247
Table 13–13Semi-Rigid Copper Tubing248
Table 13–14Semi-Rigid Copper Tubing249
Table 13–15Semi-Rigid Copper Tubing250
Table 13–16Semi-Rigid Copper Tubing251
Table 13–17Semi-Rigid Copper Tubing252
Table 13–18Corrugated Stainless Steel Tubing (CSST)253
Table 13–19Corrugated Stainless Steel Tubing (CSST)253
Table 13–20Corrugated Stainless Steel Tubing (CSST)254
Table 13–21Corrugated Stainless Steel Tubing (CSST)254
Table 13–22Corrugated Stainless Steel Tubing (CSST)255
Table 13–23Polyethylene Plastic Pipe255
Table 13–24Polyethylene Plastic Pipe256
Table 13–25Polyethylene Plastic Pipe257
Table 13–26Polyethylene Plastic Tubing258
Table 13–27Polyethylene Plastic Tubing258
Table 13–28Schedule 40 Metallic Pipe259
Table 13–29Schedule 40 Metallic Pipe260
Table 13–30Schedule 40 Metallic Pipe261
Table 13–31Schedule 40 Metallic Pipe262
Table 13–32Semi–Rigid Copper Tubing263
Table 13–33Semi–Rigid Copper Tubing264
Table 13–34Semi–Rigid Copper Tubing265
Table 13–35Corrugated Stainless Steel Tubing (CSST)266
Table 13–36Corrugated Stainless Steel Tubing (CSST)266
Table 13–37Corrugated Stainless Steel Tubing (CSST)267
Table 13–38Polyethylene Plastic Pipe267
Table 13–39Polyethylene Plastic Pipe268
Table 13–40Polyethylene Plastic Tubing269
Part IIFuel Supply: Manufactured/Mobile Home Parks and Recreational Vehicle Parks270
1320.0General270
1321.0Gas Supply Connections270
1321.1Location of Gas Supply Connection270
1322.0Single and Multiple Manufactured Homesite Fuel Supply Systems270
1322.1Gas Piping Installations270
1323.0Manufactured Homesite Gas Shutoff Valve270
1324.0Gas Meters270
1324.1Support of Meters270
1324.2Location of Meters270
1324.3Meter Shutoff Valve or Cock270
1325.0Multiple Manufactured Homesite Fuel Distribution and Supply Systems270
1326.0Manufactured Home Community Natural Gas Distribution Systems270
1327.0Manufactured Home Community LP–Gas Supply Systems271
1328.0Installation of Cathodic Protection Systems271
1329.0Required Gas Supply271
1330.0Gas Pipe Sizing and Pressure271
1331.0Gas Piping Materials271
1331.1Metal271
1331.2Protection Coatings for Metal Gas Piping271
1331.3Plastic271
Table 13–41Demand Factors for Use in Calculating Gas Piping Systems in Manufactured Home Communities271
1332.0Gas Piping Installation271
1332.1Minimum Burial Below Ground Level and Clearances271
1332.2Metallic Gas Piping271
1332.3Plastic Gas Piping272
1332.4Gas Piping System Shutoff Valve272
1333.0Liquefied Petroleum Gas Appliances272
1334.0Oil Supply272
1334.1Minimum Oil Supply Tank Size272
1334.2Oil Supply Connections – General272
1335.0Fuel Supply Systems Installation272
1335.1Flexible Gas Connector272
1335.2Use of Approved Pipe and Fittings of Extension272
1335.3Mechanical Protection272
1335.4Special Rules on Atmospherically Controlled Regulators272
1335.5Fuel–Gas Piping Test272
1335.6Oil Tanks273
1336.0Manufactured Home Accessory Building Fuel Supply Systems273
1337.0Community Building Fuel Supply Systems in Manufactured Home Communities273
1337.1Fuel–Gas Piping and Appliance Installations273
1337.2Oil Supply Systems in Manufactured Home Communities273
1337.3Oil–Burning Equipment and Installation273
1338.0Recreational Vehicle Park Fuel–Gas Equipment and Installations273
Chapter 14Process Piping275
1401.0General277
1402.0Definitions277
1403.0Permit277
1404.0Plans Required277
1405.0Workmanship277
1406.0Inspections277
1406.1General277
1406.2Required Inspections277
1406.3Other Inspections277
1407.0Piping and Tubing278
1407.1General278
1407.2Hazardous Process Piping (HPP)278
1407.3Special Requirements for HPP Gases278
CHAPTER 15SOLAR SYSTEMS281
1501.0General283
CHAPTER 16STATIONARY POWER PLANTS285
1601.0Scope Stationary Fuel Cell Power Plants287
1602.0Stationary Engine Generators287
CHAPTER 17STANDARDS289
1701.0Scope291
Part IStandards Adopted as Part of This Code291
Part IIReferenced Standards291
APPENDICESTABLE OF CONTENTS307
Appendix AUniform Mechanical Code Standard No. 6–2 Standard for Metal Ducts309
Appendix BProcedures to Be Followed to Place Gas Equipment in Operation329
Appendix CInstallation and Testing of Oil (Liquid) Fuel-Fired Equipment333
Appendix DUnit Conversion Tables341
INDEX349
HISTORY NOTE361

HOW TO DISTINGUISH MODEL CODE LANGUAGE
FROM CALIFORNIA AMENDMENTS

To distinguish between model code language and incorporated California amendments, including exclusive California standards, California amendments will appear in italics. Symbols indicate the status of code changes as follows:

[SFM] This symbol following a section leader identifies which state agency(s) have amended a section of model code. For a complete listing of state agencies, refer to the Application Sections within Chapter 1, Division I.

This symbol in the margin indicates that a change has been made to a California amendment.

This symbol in the margin indicates deletion of California language.

xxi

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CALIFORNIA MATRIX ADOPTION TABLES

Format of the Matrix Adoption Tables

The matrix adoption tables, which follow, show the user which state agencies have adopted and/or amended given sections of model code for applications within their respective authorities. See Chapter 1, Division 1, Sections 1.2.0 through 1.14.0, for building application and enforcement responsibilities.

The side headings identify the scope of the state agencies’ adoption as follows:

Adopt the entire chapter without state amendments

If there is an “X” under a particular state agency’s acronym in this row, it means that particular state agency has adopted the entire model code chapter without any state amendments.

Example:

CHAPTER 1 - GENERAL CODE PROVISIONS

CHAPTER 1 - GENERAL CODE PROVISIONS

Adopt the entire chapter as amended (amendments listed below)

If there is an “X” under a particular state agency”s acronym in this row, it means that a particular state agency has adopted the entire model code chapter, with state amendments.

Each state-amended section that the agency has added to that particular chapter is listed. There will be an “X” in the column, by that particular section, under the agency’s acronym, as well as an ”X” by each section that the agency has adopted.

Example:

CHAPTER 1 - GENERAL CODE PROVISIONS

CHAPTER 1 - GENERAL CODE PROVISIONS

xxv

Adopt only those sections which are listed below:

If there is an “X” under a particular state agency’s acronym in this row, it means that particular state agency is adoption only specific model code or state-amended sections within this chapter. There will be an “X” in the column under the agency’s acronym, as well as an “X” by each section that the agency has adopted.

Example:

CHAPTER 1 - GENERAL CODE PROVISIONS

CHAPTER 1 - GENERAL CODE PROVISIONS

Legend of Abbreviations of Adopting State Agencies
BSCCalifornia Building Standards Commission
SFMOffice of the State Fire Marshal
HCDDepartment of Housing and Community Development
DSA-ACDivision of the State Architect – Access Compliance
DSA-SSDivision of the State Architect – Structural Safety
DSA-SS/CCDivision of the State Architect – Structural Safety/Community Colleges
OSHPDOffice of Statewide Health Planning and Development
CADepartment of Consumer Affairs
DPHDepartment of Public Health
CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE - MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE
CHAPTER 1 - ADMINISTRATION
Adopting AgencyBSCSFMHCDDSAOSHPDCADPH
121/ACACSSSS/CC1234  
Adopt Entire Chapter              
Adopt Entire Chapter as amended (amended section listed below)              
Adopt only those sections that are listed belowXXXX££XXXXXXXX
Article/Section
Division I – California Administration              
1.1.0 – 1.1.7XXXX  XXXXXXXX
1.1.8XXXX    XXXXXX
1.1.9 – 1.1.11XXXX  XXXXXXXX
1.1.12XXXX    XXXXXX
1.2.0X             
1.4.0            X 
1.7.0             X
1.8.0 – 1.8.10  XX          
1.9.2.1      X       
1.9.2.2       X      
1.10.1        X     
1.10.2         X    
1.10.3          X   
1.10.4           X  
1.11.0 – 1.11.10 X            
Division II – Administration              
101.0 – 112.1        XXXX  
112.2 – 112.2.5  XX    XXXX  
113.0 – 117.0        XXXX  
1 2

CHAPTER 1
ADMINISTRATION

DIVISION I
CALIFORNIA ADMINISTRATION

1.1.0 General.

1.1.1 Title. These regulations shall be known as the California Mechanical Code, may be cited as such and will be referred to herein as “this code.” The California Mechanical Code is Part 4 of twelve parts of the official compilation and publication of the adoption, amendment, and repeal of mechanical regulations to the California Code of Regulations. Title 24, also referred to as the California Building Standards Code.This part incorporates by adoption the 2009 Uniform Mechanical Code of the International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials with necessary California amendments.

1.1.2 Purpose. The purpose of this code is to establish the minimum requirements to safeguard the public health, safety and general welfare through structural strength, means of egress facilities, stability, access to persons with disabilities, sanitation, adequate lighting and ventilation, and energy conservation; safety to life and property from fire and other hazards attributed to the built environment; and to provide safety to fire fighters and emergency responders during emergency operations.

1.1.3 Scope. The provisions of this code shall apply to the construction, alteration, movement, enlargement, replacement, repair, equipment, use and occupancy, location, maintenance, removal, and demolition of every building or structure or any appurtenances connected or attached to such buildings or structures throughout the State of California.

1.1.3.1 Nonstate-Regulated Buildings, Structures, and Applications. Except as modified by local ordinance pursuant to Section 1.1.8, the following standards in the California Code of Regulations, Title 24, Parts 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10 and 11 shall apply to all occupancies and applications not regulated by a state agency.

1.1.3.2 State-Regulated Buildings, Structures, and Applications. The model code, state amendments to the model code, and/or state amendments where there are no relevant model code provisions shall apply to the following buildings, structures, and applications regulated by state agencies as referenced in the Matrix Adoption Tables and as specified in Section 1.2.0 through 1.14.0. except where modified by local ordinance pursuant to Section 1.1.8. When adopted by a state agency, the provisions of this code shall be enforced by the appropriate enforcing agency, but only to the extent of authority granted to such agency by the state legislature.

Note: See Preface to distinguish the model code provisions from the California provisions.

  1. State-owned buildings, including buildings constructed by the Trustees of the California State University, and to the extent permitted by California laws, buildings designed and constructed by the Regents of the University of California, and regulated by the Building Standards Commission. See Section 1.2.0 for additional scope provisions.
  2. Local detention facilities regulated by the Corrections Standards Authority. See Section 1.3.0 for additional scope provisions.
  3. Barbering, cosmetology, or electrolysis establishments, acupuncture offices, pharmacies, veterinary facilities, and structural pest control locations regulated by the Department of Consumer Affairs. See Section 1.4.0 for additional scope provisions.
  4. Reserved for the California Energy Commission. See Section 1.5.0 for additional scope provisions.
  5. Dairies and places of meat inspection regulated by the Department of Food and Agriculture. See Section 1.6.0 for additional scope provisions.
  6. Organized camps, laboratory animal quarters, public swimming pools, radiation protection, commissaries serving mobile food preparation vehicles, and wild animal quarantine facilities regulated by the Department of Public Health. See Section 1.7.0 for additional scope provisions.
  7. Hotels, motels, lodging houses, apartment houses, dwellings, dormitories, condominiums, shelters for homeless persons, congregate residences, employee housing, factory-built housing, and other types of dwellings containing sleeping accommodations with or without common toilets or cooking facilities. See Section 1.8.2.1.1 for additional scope provisions.
  8. Accommodations for persons with disabilities in buildings containing newly constructed covered multifamily dwellings, new common use spaces serving existing covered multifamily dwellings, additions to existing buildings where the addition alone meets the definition of “COVERED MULTIFAMILY DWELLINGS,” and common-use spaces serving covered multifamily dwellings which are regulated by the Department of Housing and Community Development. See Section 1.8.2.1.2 for additional scope provisions.
  9. Permanent buildings and permanent accessory buildings or structures constructed within mobile – home parks and special occupancy parks regulated by the Department of Housing and Community Development. See Section 1.8.2.1.3 for additional scope provisions.
  10. Reserved for the Division of the State Architect — Access Compliance.
  11. Public elementary and secondary schools, community college buildings and state-owned or stateleased essential service buildings regulated by the 3 Division of the State Architect. See Section 1.9.2 for additional scope provisions.
  12. Reserved for the State Historical Building Safety Board with the Division of the State Architect.
  13. General acute care hospitals, acute psychiatric hospitals, skilled nursing and/or intermediate care facilities, clinics licensed by the Department of Public Health and correctional treatment centers regulated by the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development. See Section 1.10.0 for additional scope provisions.
  14. Applications regulated by the Office of State Fire Marshal include but are not limited to the following in accordance with Section 1.11.0:
    1. Buildings or structures used or intended for use as an:
      1. Asylum, jail.
      2. Mental hospital, hospital, home for the elderly, children 's nursery, children 's home or institution, school or any similar occupancy of any capacity.
      3. Theater, dancehall, skating rink, auditorium, assembly hall, meeting hall, nightclub, fair building, or similar place of assemblage where 50 or more persons may gather together in a building, room, or structure for the purpose of amusement, entertainment, instruction, deliberation, worship, drinking or dining, awaiting transportation, or education.
      4. Small family day care homes, large family day-care homes, residential facilities and residential facilities for the elderly, residential care facilities.
      5. State institutions or other state-owned or state-occupied buildings.
      6. High rise structures.
      7. Motion picture production studios.
      8. Organized camps.
      9. Residential structures.
    2. Tents, awnings, or other fabric enclosures used in connection with any occupancy.
    3. Fire alarm devices, equipment, and systems in connection with any occupancy.
    4. Hazardous materials, flammable, and combustible liquids.
    5. Public school automatic fire detection, alarm, and sprinkler systems.
    6. Wildland-urban interface fire areas.
  15. Public libraries constructed and renovated using funds from the California Library Construction and Renovation Bond Act of 1988 and regulated by the State Librarian. See Section 1.12.0 for additional scope provisions.
  16. Graywater systems regulated by the Department of Water Resources. See Section 1.13.0 for additional scope provisions.
  17. For applications listed in Section 1.9.1 regulated by the Division of the State Architect – Access Compliance, outdoor environments and uses shall be classified according to accessibility uses described in Chapters 11A, 11B, and 11C.
  18. Marine Oil Terminals regulated by the California State Lands Commission. See Section 1.14.0 for additional scope provisions.

1.1.4 Appendices. Provisions contained in the appendices of this code shall not apply unless specifically adopted by a state agency or adopted by a local enforcing agency in compliance with Health and Safety Code Section 18901 et. seq. for Building Standards Law, Health and Safety Code Section 17950 for State Housing Law and Health and Safety Code Section 13869.7 for Fire Protection Districts. See Section 1.1.8 of this code.

1.1.5 Referenced Codes. The codes, standards and publications adopted and set forth in this code, including other codes, standards, and publications referred to therein are, by title and date of publication, hereby adopted as standard reference documents of this code. When this code does not specifically cover any subject related to building design and construction, recognized architectural, or engineering practices shall be employed. The National Fire Codes, standards, and the Fire Protection Handbook of the National Fire Protection Association are permitted to be used as authoritative guides in determining recognized fire prevention engineering practices.

1.1.6 Non Building Standards, Orders and Regulations. Requirements contained in the Uniform Mechanical Code, or in any other referenced standard, code or document, which are not building standards as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 18909, shall not be construed as part of the provisions of this code. For nonbuilding standards, orders, and regulations, see other titles of the California Code of Regulations.

1.1.7 Order of Precedence and Use.

1.1.7.1 Differences. In the event of any differences between these building standards and the standard reference documents, the text of these building standards shall govern.

1.1.7.2 Specific Provisions. Where a specific provision varies from a general provision, the specific provision shall apply.

1.1.7.3 Conflicts. When the requirements of this code conflict with the requirements of any other part of the California Building Standards Code, Title 24, the most restrictive requirements shall prevail.

1.1.8 City, County, or City and County Amendments, Additions or Deletions. The provisions of this code do not limit the authority of city, county, or city and county governments to establish more restrictive and reasonably necessary differences to the provisions contained in this code pursuant to

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complying with Section 1.1.8.1. The effective date of amendments, additions, or deletions to this code by a city, county, or city and county filed pursuant to Section 1.1.8.1 shall be the date filed. However, in no case shall the amendments, additions, or deletions to this code be effective any sooner than the effective date of this code.

Local modifications shall comply with Health and Safety Code Section 18941.5 for Building Standards Law, Health and Safety Code Section 17958 for State Housing Law or Health and Safety Code Section 13869.7 for Fire Protection Districts.

1.1.8.1 Findings and Filings.

  1. The city, county, or city and county shall make express findings for each amendment, addition, or deletion based upon climatic, topographical, or geological conditions.

    Exception: Hazardous building ordinances and programs mitigating unreinforced masonry buildings.

  2. The city, county, or city and county shall file the amendments, additions, or deletions expressly marked and identified as to the applicable findings. Cities, counties, cities and counties, and fire departments shall file the amendments, additions, or deletions, and the findings with the California Building Standards Commission at 2525 Natomas Park Drive, Suite 130, Sacramento, CA 95833.
  3. Findings prepared by fire protection districts shall be ratified by the local city, county, or city and county and filed with the California Department of Housing and Community Development, Division of Codes and Standards, P.O. Box 1407, Sacramento, CA 95812-1407 or 1800 3rd Street, Room 260, Sacramento, CA 95811.

1.1.9 Effective Date of This Code. Only those standards approved by the California Building Standards Commission that are effective at the time an application for building permit is submitted shall apply to the plans and specifications for, and to the construction performed under, that permit. For the effective dates of the provisions contained in this code, see the History Note page of this code.

1.1.10 Availability of Codes. At least one complete copy each of Titles 8, 19, 20, 24, and 25 with all revisions shall be maintained in the office of the buildings official responsible for the administration and enforcement of this code. Each state department concerned and each city, county, or city and county shall have an up-to-date copy of the code available for public inspection. See Health and Safety Code Sections 18942(d)(1) and (2).

1.1.11 Format. This part fundamentally adopts the Uniform Mechanical Code by reference on a chapter-by-chapter basis. Such adoption is reflected in the Matrix Adoption Table of each chapter of this part. When the Matrix Adoption Tables make no reference to a specific chapter of the Uniform Mechanical Code, such chapter of the Uniform Mechanical Code is not adopted as a portion of this code.

1.1.12 Validity. If any chapter, section, subsection, sentence, clause, or phrase of this code is for any reason held to be unconstitutional, contrary to statute, exceeding the authority of the state as stipulated by statutes or otherwise inoperative, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portion of this code.

1.2.0 Building Standards Commission.

1.2.1 Specific scope of application of the agency responsible for enforcement, the enforcement agency, and the specific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, unless otherwise stated.

  1. State Buildings for all Occupancies.
    Application – State buildings (all occupancies), including buildings constructed by the Trustees of the California State University and the Regents of the University of California where no state agency has the authority to adopt building standards applicable to such buildings.
    Enforcing Agency – State or local agency specified by the applicable provisions of law.
    Authority Cited – Health and Safety Code, Section 18934.5.
    Reference – Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.5, commencing with Section 18901.
  2. University of California, California State Universities, and California Community Colleges.
    Application – Standards for lighting for parking lots and primary campus walkways at the University of California, California State Universities, and California Community Colleges.
    Enforcing Agency – State or local agency specified by the applicable provisions of law.
    Authority Cited – – Government Code Section 14617.
    Reference – Government Code Section 14617.
  3. Existing State-Owned Buildings, including those owned by the University of California and by the California State University. Building seismic retrofit standards including abating falling hazards of structural and nonstructural components and strengthening of building structures. See also Division of the State Architect.
    Enforcing Agency – State or local agency specified by the applicable provisions of law.
    Authority Cited – Government Code Section 16600.
    References – Government Code Sections 16600 through 16604.
  4. Unreinforced Masonry Bearing Wall Buildings.
    Application – Minimum seismic strengthening standards for buildings specified in Appendix Chapter 1 of the California Code for Building Conservation, except for buildings subject to building standards adopted pursuant to Part 1.5 (commencing with Section 17910).
    Enforcing Agency – State or local agency specified by the applicable provisions of law.
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    Authority Cited – Health and Safety Code Section 18934.6.
    References – Health and Safety Code Sections 18901 through 18949.

1.2.2 Alternative Materials, Design, and Methods Of Construction And Equipment.

The provisions of this code are not intended to prevent the installation of any material or to prohibit any design or method of construction not specifically prescribed by this code, provided that any such alternative has been approved. An alternative material, design, or method of construction shall be approved where the building official finds that the proposed design is satisfactory and complies with the intent of the provisions of this code, and that the material, method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, at least the equivalent of that prescribed in this code in quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety.

1.2.2.1 Research Reports. Supporting data, where necessary to assist in the approval of materials or assemblies not specifically provided for in this code, shall consist of valid research reports from approved sources.

1.2.2.2 Tests. Whenever there is insufficient evidence of compliance with the provisions of this code, or evidence that a material or method does not conform to the requirements of this code, or in order to substantiate claims for alternative materials or methods, the building official shall have the authority to require tests as evidence of compliance to be made at no expense to the jurisdiction. Test methods shall be as specified in this code or by other recognized test standards. In the absence of recognized and accepted test methods, the building official shall approve the testing procedures. Tests shall be performed by an approved agency. Reports of such tests shall be retained by the building official for the period required for retention of public records.

1.3.0 Reserved for Corrections Standards Authority.

1.4.0 Department of Consumer Affairs.

1.4.1 Specific scope of application of the agency responsible for enforcement, the enforcement agency, and the specific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, unless otherwise stated.

Board of Pharmacy.
Application – Pharmacies.
Enforcing Agency – State or local agency specified by applicable provisions of law.
Authority Cited – Business and Professions Code Section 4005.
References – Business and Professions Code Sections 4005, 4127.7, and 4201.

1.5.0 Reserved for California Energy Commission.

1.6.0 Reserved for Department of Food and Agriculture.

1.7.0 California Department of Public Health.

1.7.1 Specific scope of application of the agency responsible for enforcement, the enforcement agency, and the specific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, unless otherwise stated.

Department of Public Health.
Application – Food establishments.
Enforcing Agency – Department of Health Services and the local health agency.

Authority Cited – Health and Safety Code Sections 110065, 113710, and 131200.

References – Health and Safety Code Sections 110065, 113705, 114140, and 131200.

1.8.0 Department of Housing and Community Development (HCD).

1.8.1 Purpose. The purpose of this code is to establish the minimum requirements necessary to protect the health, safety, and general welfare of the occupants and the public by governing the erection, construction, reconstruction, enlargement, conversion, alteration, repair, moving, removal, demolition, ventilation, and maintenance or use of heating, ventilating, cooling, refrigeration systems, incinerators, and other miscellaneous heat-producing appliances.

1.8.2 Authority and Abbreviations.

1.8.2.1 General. The Department of Housing and Community Development is authorized by law to promulgate and adopt building standards and regulations for several types of building applications. These applications are grouped and identified by abbreviation in the Matrix Adoption Tables to show which model code sections and amendments are applicable to each application. The applications under the authority of the Department of Housing and Community Development are listed in Sections 1.8.2.1.1 through 1.8.2.1.3.

1.8.2.1.1 Housing Construction. Application - Hotels, motels, lodging houses, apartment houses, dwellings, dormitories, condominiums, shelters for homeless persons, congregate residences, employee housing, factory-built housing, and other types of dwellings containing sleeping accommodations with or without common toilet or cooking facilities including accessory buildings, facilities, and uses thereto. Sections of this code which pertain to applications listed in this section are identified in the Matrix Adoption Table using the abbreviation “HCD 1”.

Enforcing Agency – Local building department or the Department of Housing and Community Development.

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Authority Cited – Health and Safety Code Sections 17040, 17050, 17920.9, 17921, 17921.3, 17921.6, 17921.10, 17922, 17922.6, 17922.12, 17927, 17928, 17959.6, 18300, 18552, 18554, 18620, 18630, 18640, 18670, 18690, 18691, 18865, 18871.3, 18871.4, 18873, 18873.1, 18873.2, 18873.3, 18873.4, 18873.5, 18938.3, 18944.11, and 19990; and Government Code Section 12955.1.

References – Health and Safety Code Sections 17000 through 17062.5, 17910 through 17995.5, 18200 through 18700, 18860 through 18874, and 19960 through 19997; and Government Code Sections 12955.1 and 12955.1.1.

1.8.2.1.2 Housing Accessibility. Application - Covered multifamily dwellings as defined in Chapter 11A of the California Code of Regulations, Title 24, Part 2, also known as the California Building Code (CBC) including, but not limited to, lodging houses, dormitories, timeshares, condominiums, shelters for homeless persons, congregate residences, apartment houses, dwellings, employee housing, factory-built housing, and other types of dwellings containing sleeping accommodations with or without common toilet or cooking facilities.

Sections of this code identified in the Matrix Adoption Table by the abbreviation “HCD 1-AC” require specific accommodations for “PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES” as defined in Chapter 11A of the CBC. The application of such provisions shall be in conjunction with other requirements of this code and apply only to newly-constructed “COVERED MULTIFAMILY DWELLINGS” as defined in Chapter 11A of the CBC. “HCD 1-AC” applications include, but are not limited to, the following:

  1. All newly-constructed “COVERED MULTIFAMILY DWELLINGS” as defined in Chapter 11A of the CBC.
  2. New “COMMON USE AREAS” as defined in Chapter 11A of the CBC serving existing covered multifamily dwellings.
  3. Additions to existing buildings, where the addition alone meets the definition of “COVERED MULTIFAMILY DWELLINGS” as defined in Chapter 11A of the CBC.
  4. Common use areas serving covered multifamily dwellings.
  5. Where any portion of a building’s exterior is preserved, but the interior of the building is removed, including all structural portions of floors and ceilings, the building is considered a new building for determining the application of CBC, Chapter 11A.

“HCD 1-AC” building standards generally do not apply to public use areas or public accommodations such as hotels and motels. Public use areas or public accommodations, and housing which is publicly funded as defined in Chapter 2 of the CBC are subject to the Division of the State Architect (DSA-AC) and are referenced in Section 1.9.1.

Enforcing Agency – Local building department or the Department of Housing and Community Development.

Authority Cited – Health and Safety Code Sections 17040, 17050, 17920.9, 17921, 17921.3, 17921.6, 17921.10, 17922, 17922.6, 17922.12, 17927, 17928, 17959.6, 18300, 18552, 18554, 18620, 18630, 18640, 18670, 18690, 18691, 18865, 18871.3, 18871.4, 18873, 18873.1, 18873.2, 18873.3, 18873.4, 18873.5, 18938.3, 18944.11, and 19990; and Government Code Section 12955.1.

References – Health and Safety Code Sections 17000 through 17062.5, 17910 through 17995.5, 18200 through 18700, 18860 through 18874, and 19960 through 19997; and Government Code Sections 12955.1 and 12955.1.1.

1.8.2.1.3 Permanent Buildings in Mobilehome Parks and Special Occupancy Parks. Application - Permanent buildings, and permanent accessory buildings or structures, constructed within mobile-home parks and special occupancy parks that are under the control and ownership of the park operator. Sections of this code which pertain to applications listed in this section are identified in the Matrix Adoption Table using the abbreviation “HCD 2”.

Enforcing Agency – Local building department or other local agency responsible for the enforcement of Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.1, commencing with Section 18200 for mobilehome parks and Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.3, commencing with Section 18860 for special occupancy parks; or the Department of Housing and Community Development.

Authority Cited – Health and Safety Code Sections 17040, 17050, 17920.9, 17921, 17921.3, 17921.6, 17921.10, 17922, 17922.6, 17922.12, 17927, 17928, 17959.6, 18300, 18552, 18554, 18620, 18630, 18640, 18670, 18690, 18691, 18865, 18871.3, 18871.4, 18873, 18873.1, 18873.2, 18873.3, 18873.4, 18873.5, 18938.3, 18944.11, and 19990; and Government Code Section 12955.1.

References – Health and Safety Code Sections 17000 through 17062.5, 17910 through 17995.5, 18200 through 18700, 18860 through 18874, and 19960 through 19997; and Government Code Sections 12955.1 and 12955.1.1.

1.8.3 Local Enforcing Agency.

1.8.3.1 Duties and Powers. The building department of every city, county, or city and county shall enforce all the provisions of law, this code, and the other rules and regulations promulgated by the Department of Housing and Community Development pertaining to the installation, erection, construction, reconstruction, movement, enlargement, conversion, alteration, repair, removal, demolition, or arrangement of apart-

7

ment houses, hotels, motels, lodging houses, and dwellings, including accessory buildings, facilities, and uses thereto.

The provisions regulating the erection and construction of dwellings and appurtenant structures shall not apply to existing structures as to which construction is commenced or approved prior to the effective date of these regulations. Requirements relating to use, maintenance, and occupancy shall apply to all dwellings and appurtenant structures approved for construction or constructed before or after the effective date of this code.

For additional information regarding the use and occupancy of existing buildings and appurtenant structures, see California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 1.

1.8.3.2 Laws, Rules, and Regulations. Other than the building standards contained in this code, and notwith-standing other provisions of law, the statutory authority and location of the laws, rules, and regulations to be enforced by local enforcing agencies are listed by statute in Sections 1.8.3.2.1 through 1.8.3.2.5 below:

1.8.3.2.1 State Housing Law. Refer to the State Housing Law, California Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1.5, commencing with Section 17910, and California Code of Regulations. Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 1, for the erection, construction, reconstruction, movement, enlargement, conversion, alteration, repair, removal, demolition, or arrangement of apartment houses, hotels, motels, lodging houses, and dwellings, including accessory buildings, facilities, and uses thereto.

1.8.3.2.2 Mobilehome Parks Act. Refer to the Mobilehome Parks Act, California Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.1, commencing with Section 18200 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2, commencing with Section 1000 for mobilehome park administrative and enforcement authority, permits, plans, fees, violations, inspections, and penalties both within and outside mobilehome parks.
Exception: Mobilehome parks where the Department of Housing and Community Development is the enforcing agency.

1.8.3.2.3 Special Occupancy Parks Act. Refer to the Special Occupancy Parks Act, California Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.3, commencing with Section 18860 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2.2, commencing with Section 2000 for special occupancy park administrative and enforcement authority, permits, fees, violations, inspections, and penalties both within and outside of special occupancy parks.
Exception: Special occupancy parks where the Department of Housing and Community Development is the enforcing agency.

1.8.3.2.4 Employee Housing Act. Refer to the Employee Housing Act, California Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1, commencing with Section 17000 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 3, commencing with Section 600 for employee housing administrative and enforcement authority, permits, fees, violations, inspections, and penalties.

1.8.3.2.5 Factory-Built Housing Law. Refer to the Factory-Built Housing Law, California Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 6, commencing with Section 19960 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 3, Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 3000 for factory-built housing administrative and enforcement authority, permits, fees, violations, inspections, and penalties.

1.8.4 Permits, Fees, Applications, and Inspections.

1.8.4.1 Permits. A written construction permit shall be obtained from the enforcing agency prior to the erection, construction, reconstruction, installation, relocation, or alteration of any mechanical system.

Exceptions:

  1. Work exempt from permits as specified in Chapter 1, Administration, Division II, Sections 112.2 through 112.2.5 of this code.
  2. Changes, alterations, or repairs of a minor nature not affecting structural features, egress, sanitation, safety, or accessibility as determined by the enforcing agency.

Exemptions from permit requirements shall not be deemed to grant authorization for any work to be done in any manner in violation of other provisions of law or this code.

1.8.4.2 Fees. Subject to other provisions of law, the governing body of any city, county, or city and county may prescribe fees to defray the cost of enforcement of rules and regulations promulgated by the Department of Housing and Community Development. The amount of the fees shall not exceed the amount reasonably necessary to administer or process permits, certificates, forms, or other documents, or to defray the costs of enforcement. For additional information, see State Housing Law, Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1.5, Section 17951 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 1, Article 3, commencing with Section 6.

1.8.4.3 Plan Review and Time Limitations. Subject to other provisions of law, provisions related to plan checking, prohibition of excessive delays, and contracting with or employment of private parties to perform plan checking are set forth in the State Housing Law, Health and Safety Code Section 17960.1, and for employee housing, in Health and Safety Code Section 17021.

1.8.4.3.1 Retention of Plans. The building department of every city, county, or city and county shall maintain an official copy, microfilm, or electronic or other type of photographic copy of the plans of every building, during the life of the building, for which the department issued a building permit.

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Exceptions:

  1. Single or multiple dwellings not more than two stories and basement in height.
  2. Garages and other structures appurtenant to buildings listed in Exception 1.
  3. Farm or ranch buildings appurtenant to buildings listed in Exception 1.
  4. Any one-story building where the span between bearing walls does not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm), except a steel frame or concrete building.

All plans for common interest developments as defined in Section 1351 of the California Civil Code shall be retained. For additional information regarding plan retention and reproduction of plans by an enforcing agency, see Health and Safety Code Sections 19850 through 19852.

1.8.4.4 Inspections. Construction or work for which a permit is required shall be subject to inspection by the building official and such construction or work shall remain accessible and exposed for inspection purposes until approved. Approval as a result of an inspection shall not be constructed to be an approval of a violation of the provisions of this code or other regulations of the Department of Housing and Community Development.

1.8.5 Right of Entry for Enforcement.

1.8.5.1 General. Subject to other provisions of law, officers, and agents of the enforcing agency may enter and inspect public and private properties to secure compliance with the rules and regulations promulgated by the Department of Housing and Community Development. For limitations and additional information regarding enforcement, see the following:

  1. For applications subject to State Housing Law as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.1 of this code,refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1.5, commencing with Section 17910 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 1.
  2. For applications subject to the Mobilehome Parks Act as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.2 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.1, commencing with Section 18200, and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2, commencing with Section 1000.
  3. For applications subject to the Special Occupancy Parks Act as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.3 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.3, commencing with Section 18860, and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2.2, commencing with Section 2000.
  4. For applications subject to the Employee Housing Act as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.4 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1, commencing with Section 17000 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 3, commencing with Section 600.
  5. For applications subject to the Factory-Built Housing Law as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.5 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 6, commencing with Section 19960 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 3, Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 3000.

1.8.6 Local Modification by Ordinance or Regulation.

1.8.6.1 General. Subject to other provisions of law, a city, county, or city and county may make changes to the provisions adopted by the Department of Housing and Community Development. If any city, county, or city and county does not amend, add, or repeal by local ordinances or regulations the provisions published in this code or other regulations promulgated by the Department of Housing and Community Development, those provisions shall be applicable and shall become effective 180 days after publication by the California Building Standards Commission. Amendments, additions, and deletions to this code adopted by a city, county, or city and county pursuant to California Health and Safety Code Sections 17958.5, 17958.7 and 18941.5, together with all applicable portions of this code, shall also become effective 180 days after publication of the California Building Standards Code by the California Building Standards Commission.

1.8.6.2 Findings, Filings, and Rejections of Local Modifications. Prior to making any modifications or establishing more restrictive building standards, the governing body shall make express findings and filings, as required by California Health and Safety Code Section 17958.7, showing that such modifications are reasonably necessary due to local climatic, geological, or topographical conditions. No modification shall become effective or operative unless the following requirements are met:

  1. The express findings shall be made available as a public record.
  2. A copy of the modification and express finding, each document marked to cross-reference the other, shall be filed with the California Building Standards Commission for a city, county, or city and county, and with the Department of Housing and Community Development for fire protection districts.
  3. The California Building Standards Commission has not rejected the modification or change.

Nothing in this section shall limit the authority of fire protection districts pursuant to California Health and Safety, Code Section 13869.7(a).

1.8.7. Alternate Materials, Designs, Tests, and Methods of Construction.

1.8.7.1 General. The provisions of this code as adopted by the Department of Housing and Community Development are not intended to prevent the use of any alternate material, appliance, installation, device, arrangement, design, or method of construction not specifically prescribed by this code. Consideration and approval of

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alternates shall comply with Section 1.8.7.2 for local building departments and Section 1.8.7.3 for the Department of Housing and Community Development.

1.8.7.2 Local Building Departments. The building department of any city, county, or city and county may approve alternates for use in the erection, construction, reconstruction, movement, enlargement, conversion, alternation, repair, removal, demolition, or arrangement of an apartment house, hotel, motel, lodging house, dwelling, or an accessory structure, except for the following:

  1. Structures located in mobilehome parks as defined in California Health and Safety Code Section 18214.
  2. Structures located in special occupancy parks as defined in California Health and Safety Code Section 18862.43.
  3. Factory-built housing as defined in California Health and Safety Code Section 19971.

1.8.7.2.1 Approval of Alternates. The consideration and approval of alternates by a local building department shall comply with the following procedures and limitations:

  1. The approval shall be granted on a case-by-case basis.
  2. Evidence shall be submitted to substantiate claims that the proposed alternate, in performance, safety, and protection of life and health, conforms to, or is at least equivalent to, the standards contained in this code and other rules and regulations promulgated by the Department of Housing and Community Development.
  3. The local building department may require tests performed by an approved testing agency at the expense of the owner or owner’s agent as proof of compliance.
  4. If the proposed alternate is related to accessibility in covered multifamily dwellings or facilities serving “COVERED MULTIFAMILY DWELLINGS” as defined in Chapter 11A of the CBC, the proposed alternate must also meet the threshold set for “EQUIVALENT FACILITATION” as defined in Chapter 11A of the CBC.

    For additional information regarding approval of alternates by a local building department pursuant to the State Housing Law, see California Health and Safety Code Section 17951(e) and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 1.

1.8.7.3 Department of Housing and Community Development. The Department of Housing and Community Development may approve alternates for use in the erection, construction, reconstruction, movement, enlargement, conversion, alteration, repair, removal, or demolition of an apartment house, hotel, motel, lodging house, dwelling, or an accessory thereto. The consideration and approval of alternates shall comply with the following:

  1. The department may require tests at the expense of the owner or owner’s agent to substantiate compliance with the California Building Standards Code.
  2. The approved alternate shall, for its intended purpose, be at least equivalent in performance and safety to the materials, designs, tests, or methods of construction prescribed by this code.

1.8.8 Appeals Board.

1.8.8.1 General. Every city, county, or city and county, shall establish a local appeals board and a housing appeals board. The local appeals board and housing appeals board shall each be comprised of at least five voting members who shall serve at the pleasure of the city, county, or city and county. Appointees shall not be employees of the jurisdiction and shall be qualified and specifically knowledgeable in the California Building Standards Codes and applicable local ordinances.

1.8.8.2 Definitions. The following terms shall for the purposes of this section have the meaning shown.

Housing Appeals Board. The board or agency of a city, county, or city and county, or city and county which is authorized by the governing body of the city, county, or city and county to hear appeals regarding the requirements of the city, county, or city and county relating to the use, maintenance, and change of occupancy of buildings and structures, including requirements governing alteration, additions, repair, demolition, and moving. In any area in which there is no such board or agency, “Housing Appeals Board” means the local appeals board having jurisdiction over the area.

Local Appeals Board. The board or agency of a city, county, or city and county which is authorized by the governing body of the city, county, or city and county to hear appeals regarding the building requirements of the city, county, or city and county. In any area in which there is no such board or agency, “ Local Appeals Board” means the governing body of the city, county, or city and county having jurisdiction over the area.

1.8.8.3 Appeals. Except as otherwise provided by law, any person, firm, or corporation adversely affected by a decision, order, or determination by a city, county, or city and county relating to the application of building standards published in the California Building Standards Code, or any other applicable rule or regulation adopted by the Department of Housing and Community Development, or any lawfully enacted ordinance by a city, county, or city and county, may appeal the issue for resolution to the local appeals board or housing appeals board as appropriate.
The local appeals board shall hear appeals relating to new building construction and the housing appeals board shall hear appeals relating to existing buildings.

1.8.9 Unsafe Buildings or Structures.

1.8.9.1 Authority to Enforce. Subject to other provisions of law, the administration, enforcement, actions, proceedings, abatement, violations, and penalties for unsafe buildings and structures are contained in the following statutes and regulations:

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  1. For applications subject to State Housing Law as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.1 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1.5, commencing with Section 17910 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 1.
  2. For applications subject to the Mobilehome Parks Act as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.2 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.1, commencing with Section 18200 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2, commencing with Section 1000.
  3. For applications subject to the Special Occupancy Parks Act as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.3 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.3, commencing with Section 18860 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2.2, commencing with Section 2000.
  4. For applications subject to the Employee Housing Act as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.4 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1, commencing with Section 17000 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 3, commencing with Section 600.
  5. For applications subject to the Factory-Built Housing Law as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.5 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 6, commencing with Section 19960 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 3, Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 3000.

1.8.9.2 Actions and Proceedings. Subject to other provisions of law, punishments, penalties, and fines for violations of building standards are contained in the following statutes and regulations:

  1. For applications subject to the State Housing Law as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.1 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1.5, commencing with Section 17910 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 1.
  2. For applications subject to the Mobilehome Parks Act as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.2 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.1, commencing with Section 18200 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2, commencing with Section 1000.
  3. For applications subject to the Special Occupancy Parks Act as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.3 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.3, commencing with Section 18860 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2.2, commencing with Section 2000.
  4. For applications subject to the Employee Housing Act as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.4 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1, commencing with Section 17000 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 3, commencing with Section 600.
  5. For applications subject to the Factory-Built Housing Law as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.5 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 6, commencing with Section 19960 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 3, Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 3000.

1.8.10 Other Building Regulations.

1.8.10.1 Existing Structures. Notwithstanding other provisions of law, the replacement, retention, and extension of original materials and the use of original methods of construction for any existing building or accessory structure, or portions thereof, shall be permitted. For additional information, see California Health and Safety Code, Sections 17912 and 17958.8.

1.8.10.2 Moved Structures. Subject to the requirements of California Health and Safety Code Sections 17922.3 and 17958.9, local ordinances or regulations relating to a moved residential building or accessory structure thereto, shall, after July 1, 1978, permit the retention of existing materials and methods of construction so long as the structure does not become or continue to be a substandard building.

1.9.0 Division of the State Architect.

1.9.1 Reserved for the Division of the State Architect–Access Compliance.

1.9.2 Division of the State Architect – Structural Safety.

1.9.2.1 DSA-SS Division of the State Architect – Structural Safety.

Application – Public elementary and secondary schools, community college buildings, and state-owned or state-leased essential services buildings.

Enforcing Agency – Division of the State Architect – Structural Safety (DSA-SS).

The Division of the State Architect has been delegated the responsibility and authority by the Department of General Services to review and approve the design and oversee the construction of public elementary and secondary schools, community colleges, and state-owned or state-leased essential services buildings.

Authority Cited – Education Code Section 17310 and 81142, and Health & Safety Code Section 16022.

References – Education Code Sections 17280 through 17317 and 81130 through 81147, and Health & Safety Code Sections 16000 through 16023.

1.10.0 Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development.

1.10.1 OSHPD 1. Specific scope of application of the agency responsible for enforcement, enforcement agency, specific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, unless otherwise stated.

OSHPD 1

Application — General acute-care hospitals and acute psychiatric hospitals, excluding district part units or distinct part freestanding buildings providing skilled nursing or intermediate-care services. For Structural Regulations: Skilled nursing facilities and/or intermediate-care facilities except those skilled nursing facilities and intermediate care facilities of single story, Type V, wood or light steel-frame construction.

Enforcing Agency — Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD). The office shall enforce the Division of the State Architect access compliance regulations and the regulations of the Office of the State Fire Marshal for the above stated facility types.

1.10.1.1 Applicable Administrative Standards.

  1. Title 24, Part 1. California Code of Regulations: Chapters 6 and 7.
  2. Title 24, Part 2, California Code of Regulations: Sections 1.1.0 and 1.10.0, Chapter 1, Division 1, and Sections 101–117, Chapter 1, Division II.

1.10.1.2 Applicable Building Standards. California Building Standards Code, Title 24, Parts 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10 and 11.

Authority Cited — Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 127015, 1275, and 129850.

References – Health and Safety Code Sections 19958, 127010, 127015, 129680, 1275, and 129675 through 130070.

1.10.2 OSHPD 2. Specific scope of application of the agency responsible for enforcement, enforcement agency, specific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, unless otherwise stated.

OSHPD 2

Application – Skilled nursing facilities and intermediatecare facilities, including distinct part skilled nursing and intermediate-care services on a general acute-care or acute psychiatric hospital license, provided either in a separate unit or a freestanding building. For Structural Regulations: Single-story, Type V skilled nursing facility and/or intermediate-care facilities utilizing wood or light steel-frame construction.

Enforcing Agency – Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD). The office shall also enforce the Division of the State Architect access compliance regulations and the of the Office of the State Fire Marshal for the above stated facility type.

1.10.2.1 Applicable Administrative Standards:

  1. Title 24, Part 1, California Code of Regulations: Chapter 7.
  2. Title 24, Part 2, California Code of Regulations: Sections 1.1.0 and 1.10.0, Chapter 1, Division 1, and Sections 101–117, Chapter 1, Division 11.

1.10.2.2 Applicable Building Standards. California Building Standards Code, Title 24, Parts 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, and 11.

Authority Cited – Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 127015, 1275, and 129850.

References – Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 127015, 1275, and 129680.

1.10.3 OSHPD 3. Specific scope of application of the agency responsible for enforcement, enforcement agency, specific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, unless otherwise stated.

OSHPD 3

Applications – Licensed clinics and any freestanding building under a hospital license where outpatient clinical services are provided.

Enforcing Agency – Local building department.

1.10.3.1 Applicable Administrative Standards.

  1. Title 24, Part 1, California Code of Regulations: Chapter 7.
  2. Title 24, Part 2, California Code of Regulations: Sections 1.1.0 and 1.10.0, Chapter 1, Division I, and Sections 101-117, Chapter 1, Division 11.

1.10.3.2 Applicable Building Standards. California Building Standards Code, Title 24, Parts 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, and 11.

Authority Cited – Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 127015, and 1226.

References – Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 127015, 129885, and 1226, Government Code Section 54350, and State Constitution Article 11 Section 7.

1.10.4 OSHPD 4. Specific scope of application of the agency responsible for enforcement, enforcement agency, specific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, unless otherwise stated.

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OSHPD 4

Application – Correctional Treatment Centers.

Enforcing Agency – Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD). The Office shall also enforce the Division of the State Architect access compliance regulations and the regulations of the Office of the State Fire Marshal for the above stated facility types.

1.10.4.1 Applicable Administrative Standards.

  1. Title 24, Part 1, California Code of Regulations: Chapter 7.
  2. Title 24, Part 2, California Code of Regulations: Sections 1.1.0 and 1.10.0, Chapter 1, Division I, and Sections 101-117, Chapter 1, Division II.

1.10.4.2 Applicable Building Standards. California Building Standards Code, Title 24, Parts 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, and 11.

Authority Cited – Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 127015, and 129790.

References – Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 127015, 1275, and 129675 through 130070.

1.11.0 Office of the State Fire Marshal.

1.11.1 SFM – Office of the State Fire Marshal. Specific scope of application of the agency responsible for enforcement, the enforcement agency and the specific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, unless otherwise stated.

Application:

Institutional, Educational, or any Similar Occupancy. Any building or structure used or intended for use as an asylum, jail, mental hospital, hospital, sanitarium, home for the aged, children’s home, school, or any similar occupancy of any capacity.

Authority Cited – Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Reference – Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Assembly or Similar Place of Assemblage. Any theater, dancehall, skating rink, auditorium, assembly hall, meeting hall, nightclub, fair building, or similar place of assemblage where 50 or more persons may gather together in a building, room or structure for the purpose of amusement, entertainment, instruction, deliberation, worship, drinking or dining, awaiting transportation, or education.

Authority Cited – Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Reference – Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Small Family Day Care Homes.

Authority Cited – Health and Safety Code Sections 1597.45, 1597.54, 13143, and 17921.

Reference – Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Large Family Day Care Homes.

Authority Cited – Health and Safety Code Sections 1597.46, 1597.54, and 17921.

Reference – Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Residential Facilities and Residential Facilities for the Elderly.

Authority Cited – Health and Safety Code Section 13133.

Reference – Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Any State Institution, Other State-Owned or State-Occupied Building.

Authority Cited – Health and Safety Code Section 13108.

Reference – Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

High-Rise Structures.

Authority Cited – Health and Safety Code Section 13211.

Reference – Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Motion Picture Production Studios.

Authority cited – Health and Safety Code Section 13143.1.

Reference – Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Organized Camps.

Authority Cited – Health and Safety Code Section 18897.3.

Reference – Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Residential. All hotels, motels, lodging houses, apartment houses, and dwellings, including congregate residences and buildings and structures accessory thereto. Multiple-story structures existing on January 1, 1975, let for human habitation, including and limited to, hotels, motels and apartment houses, less than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest floor level having building access, wherein rooms used for sleeping are let above the ground floor.

Authority Cited – Health and Safety Code Sections 13143.2 and 17921.

Reference – Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Residential Care Facilities. Certified family care homes, out-of-home placement facilities, halfway houses, drug and/or alcohol rehabilitation facilities and any building or structure used or intended for use as a home or institution for the housing of any person of any age when such person is referred to or placed within such home or institution for protective social care and supervision services by any governmental agency.

Authority Cited – Health and Safety Code Section 13143.6

Reference – Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

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Tents, Awnings, or other Fabric Enclosures Used in Connection with any Occupancy.

Authority Cited – Health and Safety Code Section 13116.

Reference – Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Fire Alarm Devices, Equipment, and Systems in Connection with any Occupancy.

Authority Cited – Health and Safety Code Section 13114.

Reference – Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Hazardous Materials.

Authority Cited – Health and Safety Code Section 13143.9.

Reference – Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Flammable and Combustible Liquids.

Authority Cited – Health and Safety Code Section 13143.6.

Reference – Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Public School Automatic Fire Detection, Alarm, and Sprinkler Systems.

Authority Cited – Health and Safety Code Section 13143 and California Education Code Article 7.5, Sections 17074.50, 17074.52, and 17074.54.

References – Government Code Section 11152.5, Health and Safety Code Section 13143 and California Education Code Chapter 12.5, Leroy F. Greene School Facilities Act of 1998, Article 1.

Wildland-Urban Interface Fire Area.

Authority Cited – Health and Safety Code Sections 13143, 13108.5(a), 18949.2(b), (c) and Government Code Section 51189.

References – Health and Safety Code Sections 13143, Government Code Sections 51176, 51177, 51178, and 51179 and Public Resources Code Sections 4201 through 4204.

1.11.2 Duties and Powers of the Enforcing Agency.

1.11.2.1 Enforcement.

1.11.2.1.1 The responsibility for enforcement of building standards adopted by the State Fire Marshal and published in the California Building Standards Code relating to fire and panic safety and other regulations of the State Fire Marshal shall except as provided in Section 1.11.2.1.2 be as follows:

  1. The city, country, or city and county with jurisdiction in the area affected by the standard or regulation shall delegate the enforcement of the building standards relating to fire and panic safety and other regulations of the State Fire Marshal as they relate to Group R-3 occupancies, as described in Section 310.1 of Part 2 of the California Building Standards Code, to either of the following:
    1. The chief of the fire authority of the city, county, or city and county, or an authorized representative.
    2. The chief building official of the city, county, or city and county, or an authorized representative.
  2. The chief of any city or county fire department or of any fire protection district, and authorized representatives, shall enforce within the jurisdiction the building standards and other regulations of the State Fire Marshal, except those described in Item 1 or 4.
  3. The State Fire Marshal shall have authority to enforce the building standards and other regulations of the State Fire Marshal in areas outside of corporate cities and districts providing fire protection services.
  4. The State Fire Marshal shall have authority to enforce the building standards and other regulations of the State Fire Marshal in corporate cities and districts providing fire protection services on request of the chief fire official or the governing body.
  5. Any fee charged pursuant to the enforcement authority of this section shall not exceed the estimated reasonable cost of providing the service for which the fee is charged pursuant to Section 66014 of the Government Code.

1.11.2.1.2 Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13108, and except as otherwise provided in this section, building standards adopted by the State Fire Marshal published in the California Building Standards Code relating to fire and panic safety shall be enforced by the State Fire Marshal in all state-owned buildings, state-occupied buildings, and state institutions throughout the state. Upon the written request of the chief fire official of any city, county or fire protection district, the State Fire Marshal may authorize such chief fire official and his or her authorized representatives, in their geographical area of responsibility, to make fire prevention inspections of state-owned or state-occupied buildings, other than state institutions, for the purpose of enforcing the regulations relating to fire and panic safety adopted by the State Fire Marshal pursuant to this section and building standards relating to fire and panic safety published in the California Building Standards Code. Authorization from the State Fire Marshal shall be limited to those fire departments or fire districts which maintain a fire prevention bureau staffed by paid personnel.

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13108, any requirement or order made by any chief fire official who is authorized by the State Fire Marshal to make fire prevention inspections of state-owned or state-occupied buildings, other than state

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institutions, may be appealed to the State Fire Marshal. The State Fire Marshal shall, upon receiving an appeal and subject to the provisions of Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 18945) of Part 2.5 of Division 13 of the Health and Safety Code, determine if the requirement or order made is reasonably consistent with the fire and panic safety regulations adopted by the State Fire Marshal and building standards relating to fire and panic safety published in the California Building Code.

Any person may request a code interpretation from the State Fire Marshal relative to the intent of any regulation or provision adopted by the State Fire Marshal. When the request relates to a specific project, occupancy or building, the State Fire Marshal shall review the issue with the appropriate local enforcing agency prior to rendering such code interpretation.

1.11.2.1.3 Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13112, any person who violates any order, rule or regulation of the State Fire Marshal is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not less than $100.00 or more than $500.00, or by imprisonment for not less than six months, or by both. A person is guilty of a separate offense each day during which he or she commits, continues or permits a violation of, any provision of, or any order, rule or regulation of, the State Fire Marshal as contained in this code.

Any inspection authority who, in the exercise of his or her authority as a deputy State Fire Marshal, causes any legal complaints to be filed or any arrest to be made shall notify the State Fire Marshal immediately following such action.

1.11.2.2 Right of Entry. The fire chief of any city, county, or fire protection district, or such person's authorized representative, may enter any state institution or any other state-owned or state-occupied building for the purpose of preparing a fire suppression preplanning program or for the purpose of investigating any fire in a state-occupied building.

The State Fire Marshal, his or her deputies or salaried assistants, the chief of any city or county fire department or fire protection district and his or her authorized representatives may enter any building or premises not used for dwelling purposes at any reasonable hour for the purpose of enforcing this chapter. The owner, lessee, manager or operator of any such building or premises shall permit the State Fire Marshal, his or her deputies or salaried assistants and the chief of any city or county fire department or fire protection district and his or her authorized representatives to enter and inspect them at the time and for the purpose stated in this section.

1.11.2.3 More Restrictive Fire and Panic Safety Building Standards.

1.11.2.3.1 Any fire protection district organized pursuant to Health and Safety Code Part 2.7 (commencing with Section 13800) of Division 12 may adopt building standards relating to fire and panic safety that are more stringent than those building standards adopted by the State Fire Marshal and contained in the California Building Standards Code. For these purposes, the district board shall be deemed a legislative body and the district shall be deemed a local agency. Any changes or modifications that are more stringent than the requirements published in the California Building Standards Code relating to fire and panic safety shall be subject to Section 1.1.8.1.

1.11.2.3.2 Any fire protection district that proposes to adopt an ordinance pursuant to this section shall, not less than 30 days prior to noticing a proposed ordinance for public hearing, provide a copy of that ordinance, together with the adopted findings made pursuant to Section 1.11.2.3.1, to the city, county, or city and county where the ordinance will apply. The city, county, or city and county may provide the district with written comments, which shall become part of the fire protection district's public hearing record.

1.11.2.3.3 The fire protection district shall transmit the adopted ordinance to the city, county, or city and county where the ordinance will apply. The legislative body of the city, county, or city and county may ratify, modify or deny an adopted ordinance and transmit its determination to the district within 15 days of the determination. Any modification or denial of an adopted ordinance shall include a written statement describing the reasons for any modifications or denial. No ordinance adopted by the district shall be effective until ratification by the city, county, or city and county where the ordinance will apply. Upon ratification of an adopted ordinance, the city, county, or city and county shall file a copy of the findings of the district, and any findings of the city, county, or city and county, together with the adopted ordinance expressly marked and identified to which each finding refers, in accordance with Section 1.1.8.1, Item 3.

1.11.2.4 Request for Alternate Means of Protection. Requests for approval to use an alternative material, assembly or materials, equipment, method of construction, method of installation of equipment or means of protection shall be made in writing to the enforcing agency by the owner or the owner's authorized representative and shall be accompanied by a full statement of the conditions. Sufficient evidence or proof shall be submitted to substantiate any claim that may be made regarding its conformance. The enforcing agency may require tests and the submission of a test report from an approved testing organization as set forth in Title 19, California Code of Regulation, to substantiate the equivalency of the proposed alternative means of protection.

When a request for alternate means of protection involves hazardous materials, the authority having juris-

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diction may consider implementation of the findings and recommendations identified in a Risk Management Plan (RMP) developed in accordance with Title 19, Division 2, Chapter 4.5, Article 3.

Approval of a request for use of an alternative material, assembly of materials, equipment, method of construction, method of installation of equipment, or means of protection made pursuant to these provisions shall be limited to the particular case covered by request and shall not be construed as establishing any precedent for any future request.

1.11.2.5 Appeals. When a request for an alternate means of protection has been denied by the enforcing agency, the applicant may file a written appeal to the State Fire Marshal for consideration of the applicant's proposal. In considering such appeal, the State Fire Marshal may seek the advice of the State Board of Fire Services. The State Fire Marshal shall, after considering all of the facts presented, including any recommendations of the State Board of Fire Services, determine if the proposal is for the purposes intended, at least equivalent to that specified in these regulations in quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety, and shall transmit such findings and any recommendations to the applicant and to the enforcing agency.

1.11.3 Construction Documents.

1.11.3.1 Public Schools. Plans and specifications for the construction, alteration, or addition to any building owned, leased, or rented by any public school district shall be submitted to the Division of the State Architect.

1.11.3.2 Movable Walls and Partitions. Plans or diagrams shall be submitted to the enforcing agency for approval before the installation of, or rearrangement of, any movable wall or partition in any occupancy. Approval shall be granted only if there is no increase in the fire hazard.

1.11.3.3 New Construction High-Rise Buildings.

  1. Complete plans or specifications, or both, shall be prepared covering all work required to comply with new construction high-rise buildings. Such plans and specifications shall be submitted to the enforcing agency having jurisdiction.
  2. All plans and specifications shall be prepared under the responsible charge of an architect or a civil or structural engineer authorized by law to develop construction plans and specifications, or by both such architect and engineer. Plans and specifications shall be prepared by an engineer duly qualified in that branch of engineering necessary to perform such services. Administration of the work of construction shall be under the charge of the responsible architect or engineer except that where plans and specifications involve alterations or repairs, such work of construction may be administered by an engineer duly qualified to perform such services and holding a valid certificate under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 65700) of Division 3 of the Business and Professions Code for performance of services in that branch of engineering in which said plans, specifications and estimates and work of construction are applicable.

This section shall not be construed as preventing the design of fire-extinguishing systems by persons holding a C-16 license issued pursuant to Division 3, Chapter 9, Business and Professions Code. In such instances, however, the responsibility charge of this section shall prevail.

1.11.3.4 Existing High-Rise Buildings.

  1. Complete plans or specifications, or both, shall be prepared covering all work required by Section 3412 for existing high-rise buildings. Such plans or specifications shall be submitted to the enforcing agency having jurisdiction.
  2. When new construction is required to conform with the provisions of these regulations, complete plans or specifications, or both, shall be prepared in accordance with the provisions of this subsection. As used in this section, “new construction” is not intended to include repairs, replacements or minor alterations which do not disrupt or appreciably add to or affect the structural aspects of the building.

1.11.3.5 Retention of Plans. Refer to Building Standards Law, Health and Safety Code Sections 19850 and 19851 for permanent retention of plans.

1.11.4 Fees.

1.11.4.1 Other Fees. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13146.2, a city, county, or district which inspects a hotel, motel, lodging house, or apartment house may charge and collect a fee for the inspection from the owner of the structure in an amount, as determined by the city, country or district, sufficient to pay its costs of that inspection.

1.11.4.2 Large Family Day Care. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 1597.46, Large Family Day Care Homes, the local government shall process any required permit as economically as possible, and fees charged for review shall not exceed the costs of the review and permit process.

1.11.4.3 High-Rise. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13217, High-rise Structure Inspection: Fees and costs, a local agency which inspects a high-rise structure pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13217 may charge and collect a fee for the inspection from the owner of the high-rise structure in an amount, as determined by the local agency, sufficient to pay its costs of that inspection.

1.11.4.4 Fire Clearance Preinspection. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13235, Fire Clearance Preinspection, fee, upon receipt of a request from a prospective licensee of a community care facility, as defined in Section 1502, of a residential care facility for the elderly, as defined in Section 1569.2, or of a child day care facility.

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as defined in Section 1596.750, the local fire enforcing agency, as defined in Section 13244, or State Fire Marshal, whichever has primary jurisdiction, shall conduct a preinspection of the facility prior to the final fire clearance approval. At the time of the preinspection, the primary fire enforcing agency shall price consultation and interpretation of the fire safety regulations and shall notify the prospective licensee of the facility in writing of the specific fire safety regulations which shall be enforced in order to obtain fire clerance approval. A fee of not more than $50.00 may be charged for the preinspection of a facility with a capacity to serve 25 or fewer persons. A fee of not more than $100.00 may be charged for a preinspection of a facility with a capacity to serve 26 or more persons.

1.11.4.5 Care Facilities. The primary fire enforcing agency shall complete the final fire clearance inspection for a community care facility, residential care facility for the elderly, or child day care facility within 30 days of receipt of the request for the final inspection, or as of the date the prospective facility requests the final prelicensure inspection by the State Department of Social Services, whichever is later.

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13235, a preinspection fee of not more than $50.00 may be charged for a facility with a capacity to serve 25 or less clients. A fee of not more than $100.00 may be charged for a preinspection of a facility with a capacity to serve 26 or more clients.

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13131.5, a reasonable final inspection fee, not to exceed the actual cost of inspection services necessary to complete a final inspection may be charged for occupancies classified as Residential Care Facilities for the Elderly (RCFE).

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 1569.84, neither the State Fire Marshal nor any local public entity shall charge any fee for enforcing fire inspection regulations pursuant to state law or regulation or local ordinance, with respect to Residential Care Facilities for the Elderly (RCFE) which service six or fewer persons.

1.11.4.6 Requests of the Office of the State Fire Marshal. Whenever a local authority having jurisdiction requests that the State Fire Marshal perform plan review and⁄or inspection services related to a building permit, the applicable fees for such shall be payable to the Office of the State Fire Marshal.

1.11.5 Inspections. Work performed subject to the provisions of this code shall comply with the inspection requirements of Title 24, Part 2, California Building Standards Code, Sections, 109.1, 109.3, 109.3.4, 109.3.5, 109.3.6, 109.3.8, 109.3.9, 109.3.10, 109.5, and 109.6 as adopted by the Office of the State Fire Marshal.

1.11.5.1 Existing Group I-1 or R Occupancies. Licensed 24-hour care in a Group I-1 or R occupancy in existence and originally classified under previously adopted state codes shall be reinspected under the appropriate previous code, provided there is no change in the use or character which would place the facility in a different occupany group.

1.11.6 Certificate of Occupancy. A Certificate of Occupancy shall be issued as specified in Title 24, Part 2, California Building Code, Section 111.

Exception: Group R, Division 3 and Group U occupancies.

1.11.7 Temporary Structures and Uses. See Title 24, Part 2, California Building Code, Section 107.

1.11.8 Service Utilities. See Title 24, Part 2, California Building Code, Section 112.

1.11.9 Stop Work Order. See Title 24, Part 2, California Building Code, Section 115.

1.11.10 Unsafe Buildings, Structures, and Equipment. See Title 24, Part 2, California Building Code, Section 116.

1.12.0 Reserved for the State Librarian.

1.13.0 Reserved for the Department of Water Resources.

1.14.0 Reserved for the State Lands Commission.

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DIVISION II
ADMINISTRATION

Part I – General.

101.0 Title.

These regulations shall be known as the Uniform Mechanical Code, may be cited as such, and will be referred to herein as “this code.”

102.0 Purpose.

The purpose of this code is to provide minimum standards to safeguard life or limb, health, property, and public welfare by regulating and controlling the design, construction, installation, quality of materials, location, operation, and maintenance or use of heating, ventilating, cooling, and refrigeration systems; incinerators; and other miscellaneous heat-producing appliances within this jurisdiction.

The purpose of this code is not to create or otherwise establish or designate any particular class or group of persons who will or should be especially protected or benefited by the terms of this code.

103.0 Scope.

103.1 General. The provisions of this code shall apply to the addition to or erection, installation, alteration, repair, relocation, replacement, use, or maintenance of any heating, ventilating, cooling, refrigeration systems; incinerators; or other miscellaneous heat-producing appliances within this jurisdiction.

Additions, alterations, repairs to, and replacement of equipment or systems shall comply with the provisions for new equipment and systems, shall comply with the provisions for new equipment and systems, except as otherwise provided in Section 104.0 of this code.

103.2 Conflicts. Where, in any specific case, different sections of this code or referenced standards specify different materials, methods of construction, or other requirements, the most restrictive shall govern as determined by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. When there is a conflict between a general requirement and a specific requirement, the specific requirement shall be applicable.[OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] See Chapter 1, Division I, Section 1.1.7.

103.3 Design and Testing. The design and testing of equipment regulated by this code shall be subject to the approval of the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

103.4 Appendices. The standards contained in Appendix A shall be considered as part of this code. Appendices B and C contain recommended practices that shall not apply unless specifically adopted. Appendix D contains conversion tables and a table for determining the approximate minimum thickness for carbon sheet steel.

104.0 Application to Existing Mechanical Systems.

104.1 Additions, Alterations, or Repairs. Additions, alternations, or repairs shall be permitted to be made to any mechanical system without requiring the existing mechanical system to comply with all the requirements of this code, provided the addition, alteration, or repair conforms to that required for a new mechanical system. Additions, alterations, or repairs shall not cause an existing system to become unsafe or create unhealthy or overloaded conditions.

Minor additions, alterations, and repairs to existing mechanical systems shall be permitted to be installed in accordance with the law in effect at the time the original installation was made, when approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

104.2 Existing Installations. Mechanical systems lawfully in existence at the time of the adoption of this code shall be permitted to have their use, maintenance, or repair continued if the use, maintenance, or repair is in accordance with the original design and location and no hazard to life, health, or property has been created by such by such mechanical systems.

104.3 Changes in Building Occupancy. Mechanical systems that are a part of any building or structure undergoing a change in use or occupancy, as defined in the Building Code, shall comply with the requirements of this code that may be applicable to the new use or occupancy.

104.4 Maintenance. Mechanical systems, materials, and appurtenances, both existing and new, and parts thereof shall be maintained in proper operating condition in accordance with the original design and in a safe and hazard-free condition. Devices or safeguards that are required by this code shall be maintained in conformance with the code edition under which installed. The owner or the owner's designated agent shall be responsible for maintenance of mechanical systems and equipment. To determine compliance with this subsection, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be permitted to cause a mechanical system or equipment to be reinspected.

104.5 Moved Buildings. Mechanical systems or equipment that is a part of buildings or structures moved into or within this jurisdiction shall comply with the provisions of this code for new installations.

105.0 Alternate Materials and Methods of Construction Equivalency.

Nothing in this code is intended to prevent the use of systems, methods, or devices of equivalent or superior quality, strength, fire resistance, effectiveness, durability, and safety over those prescribed by this code. Technical documentation shall be submitted to the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall have the authority to approve or disapprove the system, method or device for the intended purpose.

106.0 Intent.

However, the exercise of this discretionary approval by the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall have no effect beyond the jurisdictional boundaries of said Authority Having Jurisdiction.

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Any alternate material or method of construction so approved shall not be considered as conforming to the requirements and/or intent of this code for any purpose other than that granted by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

107.0 Testing.

The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall have authority to require tests, as proof of equivalency.

107.1 Tests shall be made in accordance with approved testing standards by an approved testing agency at the expense of the applicant. In the absence of such standards, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall have the authority to specify the test procedure.

107.2 The Authority Having jurisdiction shall have the authority to require tests to be made or repeated if, at any time, there is reason to believe that any material or device no longer conforms to the requirements on which its approval was based.

Part II–Organization and Enforcement.

108.0 Powers and Duties of the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

108.1 General. The Authority Having Jurisdiction is hereby authorized and directed to enforce the provisions of this code. For such purposes, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall have the powers of a law enforcement officer.

The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall have the power to render interpretations of this code and to adopt and enforce rules and regulations supple-mental to this code as may be deemed necessary in order to clarify the application of the provisions of this code. Such interpretations, rules, and regulations shall be in accordance with the intent and purpose of this code.

108.2 Deputies. In accordance with the prescribed procedures and with the approval of the appointing authority, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be permitted to appoint such number of technical officers and inspectors and other employees as shall be authorized from time to time. The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be permitted to deputize such inspectors or employees as may be necessary to carry out the functions of the code enforcement agency.

108.3 Right of Entry. When it is necessary to make an inspection to enforce the provisions of this code, or when the Authority Having Jurisdiction has reasonable cause to believe that there exists in a building or upon a premises a condition that is contrary to or in violation of this code that makes the building or premises unsafe, dangerous, or hazardous, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be permitted to enter the building or premises at reasonable times to inspect or to perform the duties imposed by this code, provided that if such building or premises be occupied that credentials were presented to the occupant and entry requested. If such building or premises be unoccupied, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall first make a reasonable effort to locate the owner or other person having charge or control of the building or premises and request entry. If entry is refused, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall have recourse to the remedies provided by law to secure entry.

108.4 Stop Orders. When any work is being done contrary to the provisions of this code, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall have the authority to order the work stopped by notice in writing served on any persons engaged in doing or causing such work to be done, and such persons shall forth-with stop work until authorized by the Authority Having Jurisdiction to proceed with the work.

108.5 Authority to Disconnect Utilities in Emergencies. The Authority Having Jurisdiction or authorized representative shall be permitted to disconnect fuel gas utility service or energy supplies to a building, structure, premises, or equipment regulated by this code in case of emergency where necessary to eliminate an immediate hazard to life or property. The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall, whenever possible, notify the serving utility, the owner, and the occupant of the building, structure, or premises of the decision to disconnect prior to taking such action, and shall notify such serving utility, owner, and occupant of the building, structure, or premises in writing of such disconnection immediately there after.

108.6 Authority to Condemn Equipment. When the Authority Having Jurisdiction ascertains that any equipment, or portion thereof, regulated by this code has become hazardous to life, health, or property, it shall order in writing that the equipment either be removed or restored to a safe or sanitary condition, as appropriate. The written notice shall contain a fixed time limit for compliance with such order. Persons shall not use or maintain defective equipment after receiving a notice.

When equipment or an installation is to be disconnected, written notice of the disconnection and causes therefore shall be given within twenty-four (24) hours to the serving utility, owner, and occupant of the building, structure, or premises. When any equipment is maintained in violation of this code, and in violation of a notice issued pursuant to the provisions of this section, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall institute an appropriate action to prevent, restrain, correct, or abate the violation.

108.7 Connection After Order to Disconnect. Persons shall not make connections from an energy, fuel, or power supply nor supply energy or fuel to any equipment regulated by this code that has been disconnected or ordered to be disconnected by the Authority Having Jurisdiction until it has authorized the reconnection and use of such equipment.

108.8 Liability. The Authority Having Jurisdiction charged with the enforcement of this code acting in good faith and without malice in the discharge of the duties required by this code or other pertinent law or ordinance shall not thereby be rendered personally liable for damages that may accrue to persons or property as a result of an act or by reason of an act or omission in the discharge of such duties. A suit brought against the Authority Having Jurisdiction or employee because of such act or omission performed by the Authority Having Jurisdiction or employee in the enforcement of any provision of such codes or other pertinent laws or ordinances

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implemented through the enforcement of this code or enforced by the code enforcement agency shall be defended by this jurisdiction until final termination of such proceedings, and any judgment resulting therefrom shall be assumed by this jurisdiction.

This code shall not be construed to relieve from or lessen the responsibility of any person owning, operating, or controlling any equipment regulated herein for damages to persons or property caused by defects, nor shall the code enforcement agency or its parent jurisdiction be held as assuming any such liability by reason of the inspections authorized by this code or any permits or certificates issued under this code.

108.9 Cooperation of Other Officials and Officers. The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be permitted to request, and shall receive, the assistance and cooperation of other officials of this jurisdiction so far as required in the discharge of the duties required by this code or other pertinent law or ordinance.

109.0 Unsafe Equipment.

Equipment regulated by this code that is unsafe or that constitutes a fire or health hazard or is otherwise dangerous to human life is, for the purpose of this section, unsafe. Use of equipment regulated by this code constituting a hazard to safety, health, or public welfare by reason of inadequate maintenance, dilapidation, obsolescence, fire hazard, disaster, damage, or abandonment is, for the purpose of this section, an unsafe use. Unsafe equipment is hereby declared to be a public nuisance and shall be abated by repair, rehabilitation, demolition, or removal in accordance with procedures as may be adopted by this jurisdiction. As an alternative, the Authority Having Jurisdiction or other employee or official of this jurisdiction, as designated by the governing body, shall be permitted to institute other appropriate action to prevent, restrain, correct, or abate the violation.

110.0 Board of Appeals.

110.1 General. In order to hear and decide appeals of orders, decisions, or determinations made by the Authority Having Jurisdiction relative to the application and interpretations of this code, there shall be and is hereby created a Board of Appeals consisting of members who are qualified by experience and training to pass upon matters pertaining to mechanical design, construction, and maintenance and the public health aspects of mechanical systems and who are not employees of the jurisdiction. The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be an ex-officio member and shall act as secretary to said board but shall have no vote upon any matter before the board. The Board of Appeals shall be appointed by the governing body and shall hold office at its pleasure. The board shall adopt rules of procedure for conducting its business and shall render all decisions and findings in writing to the appellant with a duplicate copy to the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

110.2 Limitations of Authority. The Board of Appeals shall have no authority relative to interpretation of the administrative provisions of this code, nor shall the board be empowered to waive requirements of this code.

111.0 Violations.

It shall be unlawful for a person, firm, or corporation to erect, construct, enlarge, alter, repair, move, improve, remove, convert or demolish, equip, use, or maintain mechanical systems or equipment or cause or permit the same to be done in violation of this code.

Part III – Permits and Inspections.

112.0 Permits.

112.1 Permits Required. Except as permitted in Section 112.2, no mechanical system regulated by this code shall be installed, altered, repaired, replaced, or remodeled unless a separate mechanical permit for each separate building or structure has first been obtained.

112.2 Exempt Work. A mechanical permit shall not be required for the following:

112.2.1 A portable heating appliance, portable ventilating equipment, a portable cooling unit, or a portable evaporative cooler.

112.2.2 A closed system of steam, hot, or chilled water piping within heating or cooling equipment regulated by this code.

112.2.3 Replacement of any component part or assembly of an appliance that does not alter its original approval and complies with other applicable requirements of this code.

112.2.4 Refrigerating equipment that is part of the equipment for which a permit has been issued pursuant to the requirements of this code.

112.2.5 A unit refrigerating system. Exemption from the permit requirements of this code shall not be deemed to grant authorization for work to be done in violation of the provisions of this code or other laws or ordinances of this jurisdiction.

113.0 Application for Permit.

113.1 Application. To obtain a permit, the applicant shall first file an application in writing on a form furnished by the code enforcement agency for that purpose. Every such application shall:

113.1.1 Identify and describe the work to be covered by the permit for which application is made.

113.1.2 Describe the land on which the proposed work is to be done by legal description, street address, or similar description that will readily identify and definitely locate the proposed building or work.

113.1.3 Indicate the use or occupancy for which the proposed work is intended.

113.1.4 Be accompanied by plans, diagrams, computations, and specifications and other data as required in Section 113.2.

113.1.5 Be signed by the applicant or an authorized agent of the applicant.

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113.1.6 Give such other data and information as may be required by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

113.2 Plans and Specifications. Plans, engineering calculations, diagrams, and other data shall be submitted in one (1) or more sets with each application for a permit. When such plans are not prepared by an architect or engineer, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be permitted to require any applicant submitting such plans or other data to demonstrate that state law does not require that the plans be prepared by an architect or engineer. The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall also be permitted to require plans, computations, and specifications to be prepared and designed by an engineer or architect licensed by the state to practice as such even if not required by state law.

Exception: The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be permitted to waive the submission of plans, calculations, or other data if it is found that the nature of the work applied for is such that review of plans is not necessary to obtain compliance with this code.

113.3 Information on Plans and Specifications. Plans and specifications shall be drawn to scale upon substantial paper or cloth and shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature, and extent of the work proposed and show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of this code and relevant laws, ordinances, rules, and regulations.

Plans for buildings exceeding two (2) stories in height of other than Group R, Division 3 and Group U Occupancies shall indicate how required structural and fire-resistive integrity will be maintained where a penetration will be made for electrical, mechanical, plumbing, and communication conduits, pipes, and similar systems.

The installer shall submit plans showing the proposed installation, indicating the location of the heater and such accessories as may be required to ensure the proper and safe performance of its function.

114.0 Permit Issuance.

114.1 Issuance. If the Authority Having Jurisdiction finds that the work described in an application for a permit and the plans, specifications, and other data filed are in accordance with the requirements of this code and other pertinent laws and ordinances and that the fees specified in Section 115.0 have been paid, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall issue a permit to the applicant.

When issuing a permit where plans are required, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall endorse in writing or stamp the plans and specifications “APPROVED.” Such approved plans and specifications shall not be changed, modified, or altered without approval from the Authority Having Jurisdiction, and all work regulated by this code shall be done in accordance with the approved plans.

The Authority Having Jurisdiction has the authority to issue a permit for the construction of a part of a mechanical system before the entire plans and specifications for the whole system have been submitted or approved, provided adequate information and detailed statements have been filed complying with all pertinent requirements of this code.

The holder of a partial permit shall be permitted to proceed without assurance that the permit for the entire building, structure, or mechanical system will be granted.

114.2 Retention of Plans. One (1) set of approved plans, specifications, and computations shall be retained by the Authority Having Jurisdiction until final approval of the work is covered therein. One (1) set of approved plans and specifications shall be returned to the applicant, and shall be kept on the site of the building or work at all times during which the work authorized thereby is in progress.

114.3 Validity of Permit. The issuance of a permit or approval of plans, specifications, and computations shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an approval of, any violation of the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction. Permits presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid.

The issuance of a permit based upon plans, specifications, computations, and other data shall not prevent the Authority Having Jurisdiction from thereafter requiring the correction of errors in said plans, specifications, and other data or from preventing building operations being carried on thereunder when in violation of this code or of other ordinances of this jurisdiction.

114.4 Expiration. Every permit issued under the provisions of this code shall expire by limitation and become null and void if the work authorized by such permit is not commenced within one-hundred and eighty (180) days from the date of such permit, or if the work authorized by such permit is suspended or abandoned at any time after the work is commenced for a period of one-hundred and eighty (180) days. Before such work can be recommenced, a new permit shall be first obtained, and the fee therefore shall be one-half (½) the amount required for a new permit for such work, provided no changes have been made or will be made in the original plans and specifications for such work and provided further that such suspension or abandonment has not exceeded one (1) year. No permit shall be extended more than once. To renew action on a permit after expiration, the permittee shall pay a new full permit fee.

A permittee holding an unexpired permit shall be permitted to apply for an extension of the time within which work may be commenced under that permit when the permittee is unable to commence work within the time required by this section for good and satisfactory reasons. The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall have the authority to extend the time for action by the permittee for a period not exceeding one-hundred and eighty (180) days upon written request by the permittee showing that circumstances beyond the control of said permittee have prevented action from being taken.

114.5 Suspension or Revocation. The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall have the authority to suspend or revoke a permit issued under the provisions of this code whenever the permit is issued in error or on the basis of incorrect information supplied or in violation of other ordinances or regulations of the jurisdiction.

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115.0 Fees.

115.1 General. Fees shall be assessed in accordance with the provisions of this section and as set forth in the fee schedule, Table 1-1. The fees are to be determined and adopted by this jurisdiction.

115.2 Permit Fees. The fee for each permit shall be as set forth in Table 1-1.

115.3 Plan Review Fees. When plans or other data are required to be submitted by Section 113.2, a plan review fee shall be paid at the time of submitting plans and specifications for review. The plan review fees for mechanical work shall be determined and adopted by this jurisdiction.

The plan review fees specified in this subsection are separate fees from the permit fees specified in Section 115.2 and are in addition to the permit fees.

When plans are incomplete or changed so as to require additional plan review, an additional plan review fee shall be charged at the rate shown in Table 1-1.

115.4 Expiration of Plan Review. Applications for which no permit is issued within one-hundred and eighty (180) days following the date of application shall expire by limitation, and plans and other data submitted for review shall be permitted to be returned to the applicant or destroyed by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be permitted to extend the time for action by the applicant for a period not exceeding one-hundred and eighty (180) days upon request by the applicant showing that circumstances beyond the control of the applicant have prevented action from being taken. No application shall be extended more than once. In order to renew action on an application after expiration, the applicant shall resubmit plans and pay a new plan review fee.

115.5 Investigation Fees – Work Without a Permit.

115.5.1 Investigation. Whenever any work for which a permit is required by this code has been commenced without first obtaining said permit, a special investigation shall be made before a permit shall be permitted to be issued for such work.

115.5.2 Fee. An investigation fee, in addition to the permit fee, shall be collected whether or not a permit is then or subsequently issued. The investigation fee shall be equal to the amount of the permit fee that would be required by this code if a permit were to be issued. The payment of such investigation fee shall not exempt any person from compliance with other provisions of this code or from any penalty prescribed by law.

115.6 Fee Refunds. The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be permitted to authorize the refunding of any fee paid hereunder that has been erroneously paid or collected.

115.6.1 The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be permitted to authorize a refund not exceeding a percentage, as determined by this jurisdiction, when no work has been done under a permit issued in accordance with this code.

115.6.2 The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be permitted to authorize refunding not exceeding a percentage, as determined by this jurisdiction, when an application for a permit for which a plan review fee has been paid is withdrawn or canceled before any plan review effort has been expended.

115.6.3 The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall not authorize refunding of any fee paid except upon written application filed by the original permittee not exceeding one-hundred and eighty (180) days after the date of fee payment.

116.0 Inspections.

116.1 General. Mechanical systems for which a permit is required by this code shall be subject to inspection and such mechanical systems shall remain accessible and exposed for inspection purposes until approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

It shall be the duty of the permit applicant to cause the mechanical systems to remain accessible and exposed for inspection purposes. The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall not be liable for expense entailed in the removal or replacement of any material required to permit inspection. When the installation of a mechanical system is complete, an additional and final inspection shall be made. Mechanical systems regulated by this code shall not be connected to the energy fuel supply lines until authorized by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

Approval, as a result of an inspection, shall not be constructed to be an approval of a violation of the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction. Inspections presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid.

116.2 Operation of Mechanical Equipment. The requirements of this section shall not be considered to prohibit the operation of mechanical systems installed to replace existing equipment or fixtures serving an occupied portion of the building in the event a request for inspection of such equipment or fixture has been filed with the Authority Having Jurisdiction not exceeding forty-eight (48) hours after such replacement work is completed and before any portion of such mechanical system is concealed by any permanent portion of the building.

116.3 Testing of Equipment. Refrigeration equipment regulated by this code shall be tested and approved as required by Section 1124.0 of this code.

Steam and hot-water boilers and piping shall be tested and approved as required by Sections 1021.0, 1201.2.8, and 1207.0 of this code.

Where applicable (See Section 103.0), fuel gas piping shall be tested and approved as required by Section 1304.0 of this code.

116.4 Inspection Requests. It shall be the duty of the person doing the work authorized by a permit to notify the Authority Having Jurisdiction that such work is ready for inspection. The request for inspection must be filed not less than one (1) working day before such inspection is desired.

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It shall be the duty of the person requesting inspections required by this code to provide access to and means for inspection of such work.

116.5 Other Inspections. In addition to the called inspections required by this code, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be permitted to make or require other inspections of mechanical work to ascertain compliance with the provisions of this code and other laws that are enforced by the code enforcement agency.

116.6 Reinspections. The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be permitted to assess a reinspection fee for each inspection or reinspection when such portion of work for which inspection is requested is not complete or when required corrections have not been made.

This provision shall not be interpreted as requiring reinspection fees the first time a job is rejected for failure to comply with the requirements of this code, but as controlling the practice of calling for inspections before the job is ready for inspection or reinspection.

To obtain reinspection, the applicant shall file an application therefore in writing upon a form furnished for that purpose and pay the reinspection fee in accordance with Table 1-1 or as set forth in the fee schedule adopted by the jurisdiction.

In instances when reinspection fees have been assessed, no additional inspection of the work will be performed until the required fees have been paid.

117.0 Connection Approval.

117.1 Energy Connections. No person shall make connections from a source of energy or fuel to any mechanical system or equipment regulated by this code and for which a permit is required until approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

117.2 Temporary Connections. The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be permitted to authorize temporary connection of the mechanical equipment to the source of energy or fuel for the purpose of testing the equipment or for use under a temporary certificate of occupancy.

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TABLE 1-1
MECHANICAL PERMIT FEES
* Jurisdiction will indicate their fees here.
PERMIT ISSUANCE
1. For the issuance of each permit___*
2. For issuing each supplemental permit for which the original permit has not expired or been canceled or finalized___*
UNIT FEE SCHEDULE
Note:The following do not include permit-issuing fees.
1. FURNACES
For the installation or relocation of each forced-air or gravity-type furnace or burner, including ducts and vents attached to such appliance, up to and including 100,000 Btu/h (29.3 kW)___*
For the installation or relocation of each forced-air or gravity-type furnace or burner, including ducts and vents attached to such appliance, over 100,000 Btu/h (29.3 kW)___*
For the installation or relocation of each floor furnace, including vent___*
For the installation or relocation of each suspended heater, recessed wall heater, or floor-mounted unit heater___*
2. APPLIANCE VENTS
For the installation, relocation, or replacement of each appliance vent installed and not included in an appliance permit___*
3. REPAIRS OR ADDITIONS
For the repair of, alteration of, or addition to each heating appliance, refrigeration unit, cooling unit, absorption unit, or each heating, cooling, absorption, or evaporative cooling system, including installation of controls regulated by this code___*
4. BOILERS, COMPRESSORS, AND ABSORPTION SYSTEMS
For the installation or relocation of each boiler or compressor, up to and including three (3) horsepower, or each absorption system up to and including 100,000 Btu/h (29.3 kW)___*
For the installation or relocation of each boiler or compressor exceeding three (3) horsepower (2.24 kW), up to and including 15 horsepower (11.19 kW), or each absorption system exceeding 100,000 Btu/h (29.3 kW) and including 500,000 Btu/h (146.48 kW)___*
For the installation or relocation of each boiler or compressor exceeding 15 horsepower (11.19 kW), up to and including thirty (30) horsepower (22.37 kW), or each absorption system exceeding 500,000 Btu/h (146.48 kW), up to and including 1,000,000 Btu/h (29.3 kW)___*
For the installation or relocation of each boiler or compressor exceeding thirty (30) horsepower (22.37 kW), up to and including fifty (50) horsepower (37.3 kW), or for each absorption system exceeding 1,000,000 Btu/h (292.95 kW), up to and including 1,750,000 Btu/h (512.66 kW)___*
For the installation or relocation of each boiler or compressor exceeding fifty (50) horsepower (37.3 kW), or each absorption system exceeding 1,750,000 Btu/h (512.66 kW)___*
5. AIR HANDLERS
For each air-handling unit up to and including 10,000 cfm (4.72 m3/S), including ducts attached thereto___*
Note: This fee shall not apply to an air-handling unit that is a portion of a factory-assembled appliance, cooling unit, evaporative cooler, or absorption unit for which a permit is required elsewhere in this code.
6. EVAPORATIVE COOLERS
For each air-handling unit exceeding 10,000 cfm (4.72 m3/S)___*
For each evaporative cooler other than portable type___*
7. VENTILATION AND EXHAUST
For each ventilation fan connected to a single duct___*
For each ventilation system that is not a portion of any heating or air-conditioning system authorized by a permit___*
For each installation of each hood that is served by mechanical exhaust, including the ducts for such hood___*
8. INCINERATORS
For the installation or relocation of each domestic-type incinerator___*
For the installation or relocation of each commercial or industrial-type incinerator___* 25
9. MISCELLANEOUS
For each appliance or piece of equipment regulated by this code, but not classed in other appliance categories, or for which no other fee is listed in this table___*
10. When Chapter 13 or Appendix B is applicable (See Section 103.0), permit fees for fuel-gas piping shall be as follows:
For each gas piping system of one (1) to five (5) outlets___*
For each additional gas piping system, per outlet___*
11. PROCESS PIPING:
For each hazardous process piping system (HPP) of one (1) to four (4) outlets___*
For each HPP piping system of five (5) or more outlets, per outlet___*
For each nonhazardous process piping system (NPP) of one (1) to four (4) outlets___*
For each NPP piping system of five (5) or more outlets, per outlet___*
OTHER INSPECTIONS AND FEES
1. Inspections outside of normal business hours, per hour (minimum charge — two (2) hours)___*
2. Reinspection fees assessed under provisions of Section 116.6, per inspection___*
3. Inspections for which no fee is specifically indicated, per hour (minimum charge—one-half(½) hour)___*
4. Additional plan review required by changes, additions, or revisions to plans or to plans for which an initial review has been completed, per hour (minimum charge — one-half (½) hour)___*
26
CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE - MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE
CHAPTER 2 - DEFINITIONS
Adopting AgencyBSCSFMHCDDSAOSHPDCADPH
121/ACACSSSS/CC1234
Adopt Entire Chapter              
Adopt Entire Chapter as amended (amended sections listed below)XXXX XXXXXXX  
Adopt only those sections that are listed below              
Article/Section              
203.0 XXX    XXXX  
204.0 XXX    XXXX  
206.0  XX          
207.0 XXX    XXXX  
208.0 XXX          
209.0XXXX XXXXXXX  
210.0        XXXX  
214.0 XXX          
215.0 X            
216.0 XXX          
217.0  XX    XXXX  
218.0  XX          
221.0        XXXX  
222.0  XX          
223.0 XXX    XXXX  
27 28

CHAPTER 2
DEFINITIONS

201.0 General.

For the purpose of this code, certain abbreviations, terms, phrases, words, and their derivatives shall be construed as specified in this chapter. Words used in the singular include the plural, and the plural the singular. Words used in the masculine gender include the feminine, and the feminine the masculine.

202.0 Accepted Meanings.

Except as defined in this chapter or elsewhere in this code, the interpretation of words used in this code shall be in accordance with the meanings defined in the applicable building, electric, fire, or plumbing code and Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged, copyright 1993.

203.0 –A–

Absorption Unit. An absorption refrigeration system that has been factory-assembled and tested prior to its installation.

Accessible. Having access to but which first shall be permitted to require the removal of an access panel, door, or similar obstruction covering the item described.

Accessible, Readily. Capable of being reached safely and quickly for operation, repair, or inspection without requiring those to whom ready access is requisite to climb over or remove obstacles, or to resort to the use of portable access equipment.

Air, Combustion. See Combustion Air.

Air, Conditioned. Air that has been treated to achieve a desired level of temperature, humidity, or cleanliness.

Air, Exhaust. Air being removed from any space or piece of equipment and conveyed directly to the atmosphere by means of openings or ducts.

Air-Handling Unit. A blower or fan used for the purpose of distributing supply air to a room, space, or area.

Air, Makeup. Air that is provided to replace air being exhausted.

Air-Moving System. A system designed to provide heating, cooling, or ventilation in which one or more air-handling units are used to supply air to a common space or are drawing air from a common plenum or space.

Air, Outside. Air from outside the building intentionally conveyed by openings or ducts to rooms or to conditioning equipment.

Air, Relief. [OSHPD 1,2,3 & 4] Air being exhausted directly from a building or a return duct system which is not contaminated by odors or other contaminants and could otherwise be used as return air if not exhausted from the building.

Air, Return. Air from the conditioned area that is returned to the conditioning equipment for reconditioning.

Air, Supply. Air being conveyed to a conditioned area through ducts or plenums from a heat exchanger of a heating, cooling, absorption, or evaporative cooling system.

Appliance. A device that utilizes fuel or other forms of energy to produce light, heat, power, refrigeration, or air-conditioning. This definition also shall include a vented decorative appliance.

Approved. Acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

Exception: [HCD 1 & HCD 2] “Approved” means meeting the approval of the Enforcing Agency, except as otherwise provided by law, when used in connection with any system, material, type of construction, fixture or appliance as the result of investigations and tests conducted by the agency, or by reason of accepted principles or tests by national authorities, or technical, health, or scientific organizations or agencies.

Notes:

  1. See Health and Safety Code Section 17920 for “Approved” as applied to residential construction and buildings or structures accessory thereto, as referenced in Sections 1.8.2.1.1 and 1.8.2.1.2.
  2. See Health and Safety Code Section 17921.1 for “Approved” as applied to the use of hotplates in residential construction referenced in Sections 1.8.2.1.1 and 1.8.2.1.2.
  3. See Health and Safety Code Section 17921.3 for “Approved” as applied to low-flush water closets in residential construction, as referenced in Sections 1.8.2.1.1 and 1.8.2.1.2.
  4. See Health and Safety Code Section 19966 for “Approved” as applied to Factory-Built Housing as referenced in Sections 1.8.2.1.1 and 1.8.2.1.2.
  5. See Health and Safety Code Section 18201 for “Approved” as applied to Mobilehome Parks as referenced in Section 1.8.2.1.3.
  6. See Health and Safety Code Section 18862.1 for “Approved” as applied to Special Occupancy Parks as referenced in Section 1.8.2.1.3.

Approved Testing Agency. An organization primarily established for purposes of testing to approved standards and approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] “Approved Testing Agency” is any agency which is determined by the Enforcing Agency, except as otherwise provided by statute, to have adequate personnel and expertise to carry out the testing of systems, materials, and various types of construction, fixtures or appliances.

Assembly Building. A building or a portion of a building used for the gathering together of fifty (50) or more persons for such purposes as deliberation, education, instruction, worship, entertainment, amusement, drinking, dining, or awaiting transportation. [HCD 1, HCD 2 and SFM] Refer to the California Building Code, Title 24, Part 2 for use and occupancy classification.

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Authority Having Jurisdiction. The organization, office, or individual responsible for enforcing the requirements of a code or standard, or for approving equipment, materials, installations, or procedures. The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be a federal, state, local, or other regional department or an individual such as a plumbing official, mechanical official, labor department official, health department official, building official, or others having statutory authority. In the absence of a statutory authority, the Authority Having Jurisdiction may be some other responsible party. This definition shall include the Authority Having Jurisdiction’s duly authorized representative. [HCD 1, HCD 2, OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4 and SFM] “Authority Having Jurisdiction” shall mean “Enforcing Agency” as defined in Section 207.0 of this code.

Automatic. That which provides a function without the necessity of human intervention. [NFPA 96:3.3.6]

Azeotrope. A refrigerant blend comprising multiple components of different volatiles that, when used in refrigeration cycles, do not change volumetric composition or saturation temperature as they evaporate or condense at constant pressure.

204.0 –B–

Boiler, High-Pressure. A boiler furnishing steam at pressures in excess of fifteen (15) pounds per square inch (103.4 kPa) or hot water at temperatures in excess of 250°F (121°C) or at pressures in excess of one-hundred and sixty (160) pounds per square inch (1,102.4 kPa).

Boiler Room. Any room containing a steam or hot water boiler.

Bonding Jumper. A reliable conductor to ensure the required electrical conductivity between metal parts required to be electrically connected. [NFPA 70:100.1]

Breathing Zone. The region within an occupied space between three (3) planes three (3) and seventy-two (72) inches (75 and 1,800 mm) above the floor and more than two (2) feet (600 mm) from the walls or fixed air-conditioning equipment. [ASHRAE 62.1:3]

Breathing Zone Outdoor Airflow (Vbz). The rate of outdoor airflow required in the breathing zone of an occupiable space.

Breeching. A metal connector for medium- and high-heat appliances.

BTU/H. The listed maximum capacity of any appliance, absorption unit, or burner expressed in British thermal units input per hour, unless otherwise noted.

Building. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] Any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy.

Exceptions: “Building” shall not include the following:

  1. Any mobilehome as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 18008.
  2. Any manufactured home as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 18007.
  3. Any commercial modular as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 18001.8 or any special purpose commercial modular as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 18012.5.
  4. Any recreational vehicle as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 18010.
  5. Any multifamily manufactured home, as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 18008.7.

For additional information, see Health and Safety Code Section 18908.

Building Code. The building code that is adopted by this jurisdiction. [HCD 1, HCD 2, OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4, and SFM] “Building Code” shall mean the California Building Code, Title 24, Part 2.

Building Official. See Authority Having Jurisdiction. For applications listed in Section 1.11.0 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal “Building Official” is the officer charged with the administration and enforcement of this code, or a regular deputy. See “Enforcing Agency”. For the State of California, “Building Official” shall be the “Enforcing Agency” as specified in Section 1.11.0.

205.0 –C–

CAS Number. The Chemical Abstract System registry number.

Central Heating Plant or Heating Plant. Environmental heating equipment installed in a manner to supply heat by means of ducts or pipes to areas other than the room or space in which the equipment is located.

Certified. A formally stated recognition and approval of an acceptable level of competency, acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction. [NFPA 96:3.3.9]

Chimney. A vertical shaft enclosing one or more flues for conveying flue gases to the outside atmosphere.

Factory-Built Chimney. A listed Chimney.
Masonry Chimney. A chimney of solid masonry units, bricks, stones, listed masonry units, or reinforced concrete, lined with suitable flue liners.
Metal Chimney. A chimney constructed of metal with a minimum thickness not less than one-hundred and twenty-seven one-hundredths (0.127) inch (3.23 mm) (No. 10 manufacturer’s standard gauge) steel sheet.

Chimney Classifications:

Chimney, Residential Appliance-Type. A factory-built or masonry chimney suitable for removing products of combustion from residential-type appliances producing combustion gases not in excess of 1,000°F (538°C), measured at the appliance flue outlet. Factory-built Type HT chimneys have high-temperature thermal shock resistance.

Chimney, Low-Heat Appliance-Type. A factory-built, masonry, or metal chimney suitable for removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning low-heat appliances producing combustion gases not in excess of 1,000°F (538°C) under normal operating conditions, but capable of producing combustion gases of 1,400°F (760°C) during intermittent forced firing for periods up to one hour. All temperatures are measured at the appliance flue outlet.

30

Chimney, Medium-Heat Appliance-Type. A factory built, masonry, or metal chimney suitable for removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning medium-heat appliances producing combustion gases not in excess of 2,000°F (1,093°C), measured at the appliance flue outlet.

Chimney, High-Heat Appliance-Type. A factory-built, masonry, or metal chimney suitable for removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning high-heat appliances producing combustion gases in excess of 2,000°F (1,093°C), measured at the appliance flue outlet.

Chimney Connector. The pipe that connects a fuel-burning appliance to a chimney.

Closed Combustion Solid-Fuel-Burning Appliance. A heat-producing appliance that employs a combustion chamber that has no openings other than the flue collar, fuel-charging door, and adjustable openings provided to control the amount of combustion air that enters the combustion chamber.

Closet. See Confined Space.

Clothes Dryer. An appliance used to dry wet laundry by means of heat derived from the combustion of fuel gases or electric heating elements.

Clothes Dryer, Type 1. Primarily used in family living environment. May or may not be coin operated for public use. [NFPA 54:3.3.18.1]

Clothes Dryer, Type 2. Used in business with direct intercourse of the function with the public. May or may not be operated by public or hired attendant. May or may not be coin operated. [NFPA 54:3.3.18.2]

Code. A standard that is an extensive compilation of provisions covering broad subject matter or that is suitable for adoption into law independently of other codes and standards.

Combustion Air. The total amount of air provided to the space that contains fuel-burning equipment. Includes air for fuel combustion, draft hood dilution, and ventilation of the equipment enclosure.

Compressor, Positive Displacement. A compressor in which increase in pressure is attained by changing the internal volume of the compression chamber.

Compressor, Refrigerant. A machine, with or without accessories, for compressing a refrigerant vapor.

Condenser. The part of the system designed to liquefy refrigerant vapor by removal of heat.

Condensing Appliance. An appliance that condenses part of the water vapor generated by the burning of hydrogen in fuels.

Condensing Unit. A mechanical refrigeration system, consisting of one or more power-driven compressors, condensers, liquid receivers if provided, and the regularly furnished accessories that have been factory assembled and tested prior to its installation.

Conditioned Space. An area, room, or space normally occupied and being heated or cooled for human habitation by any equipment.

Confined Space. A room or space having a volume less than fifty (50) cubic feet (1.42 m³) per 1,000 Btu/h (293 W) of the aggregate input rating of all fuel-burning appliances installed in that space.

Cooling. Air cooling to provide a room or space temperature of 68°F (20°C) or above.

Cooling System. All of that equipment, including associated refrigeration, intended or installed for the purpose of cooling air by mechanical means and discharging such air into any room or space. This definition shall not include any evaporative cooler.

Cooling Unit. A self-contained refrigeration system that has been factory assembled, tested, and installed with or without conditioned air and ducts, without connecting any refrigerant-containing parts. This definition shall not include a portable cooling unit or an absorption unit.

Crawl Space. In a building, an area accessible by crawling, having a clearance less than human height, for access to plumbing or wiring, storage, etc.

CSST. An acronym for corrugated stainless steel tubing.

206.0 –D–

Dampers shall be defined as follows:

Fire Damper. An automatic-closing metal assembly consisting of one or more louvers, blades, slats, or vanes that closes upon detection of heat so as to restrict the passage of flame and is listed to the applicable recognized standards.

Smoke Damper. A damper arranged to seal off airflow automatically through a part of an air duct system so as to restrict the passage of smoke and is listed to the applicable recognized standard.

Volume Damper. Any device that, when installed, will restrict, retard, or direct the flow of air in any duct, or the products of combustion in any heat-producing equipment, its vent connector, vent, or chimney.

Department. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] “Department” means the Department of Housing and Community Development.

Design Flood Elevation. The elevation of the “design flood,” including wave height, relative to the datum specified on the community’s legally designated flood hazard map.

Direct Gas-Fired Makeup Air Heater. A heater in which all the products of combustion generated by the gas-burning device are released into the outside airstream being heated.

Direct Vent Appliance. An appliance that is constructed and installed so that all air for combustion is derived from the outside atmosphere and all flue gases are discharged to the outside atmosphere.

District Heating Plant. A power boiler plant designed to distribute hot water or steam to users located off the premises.

Draft Hood. A device built into an appliance or made a part of the vent connector from an appliance, that is designed to:

31
  1. Assure the ready escape of the flue gases in the event of no draft, back draft, or stoppage beyond the draft hood.
  2. Prevent a back draft from entering the appliance.
  3. Neutralize the effect of stack action of the chimney or gas vent upon the operation of the appliance.

Duct. Any tube or conduit for transmission of air, fumes, vapors, or dusts. This definition shall not include:

  1. A vent, vent connector, or chimney connector.
  2. Any tube or conduit wherein the pressure of the air exceeds one (1) pound per square inch.
  3. The air passages of listed self-contained systems.

Duct Furnace. A warm-air furnace normally installed in an air-distribution duct to supply warm air for heating. This definition shall apply only to a warm-air heating appliance that depends for air circulation on a blower not furnished as part of the furnace.

Duct System. Includes all ducts, duct fittings, plenums, and fans assembled to form a continuous passageway for the distribution of air.

Dwelling. A building or portion thereof that contains not more than two dwelling units.

Dwelling Unit. A building or portion thereof that contains living facilities, including provisions for sleeping, eating, cooking, and sanitation, as required by this code, for not more than one family.

207.0 –E–

Electric Heating Appliance. A device that produces heat energy to create a warm environment by the application of electric power to resistance elements, refrigerant compressors, or dissimilar material junctions.

Electrical Code. The National Electrical Code promulgated by the National Fire Protection Association, as adopted by this jurisdiction. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] Whenever the term “Electrical Code” is used in this code, it shall mean the California Electrical Code, Title 24, Part 3.

Enforcing Agency. [HCD 1, HCD 2, SFM and OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] “Enforcing Agency” is the designated department or agency as specified by statute and regulation.

Equipment. A general term including materials, fittings, devices, appliances, and apparatus used as part of or in connection with installations regulated by this code.

Evaporative Cooler. A device used for reducing the sensible heat of air for cooling by the process of evaporation of water into an airstream.

Evaporative Cooling System. All of that equipment intended or installed for the purpose of environmental cooling by an evaporative cooler from which the conditioned air is distributed through ducts or plenums to the conditioned area.

Evaporator. That part of a refrigeration system in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized to produce refrigeration.

Excess Flow Valve (EFV). A valve designed to activate when the fuel gas passing through it exceeds a prescribed flow rate.

208.0 –F–

Family. [HCD 1] “Family” is an individual or two or more persons who are related by blood or marriage, or otherwise, live together in a dwelling unit.

Fire Code. Whenever the term “Fire Code” is used in this code, it shall mean the California Fire Code, Title 24, Part 9.

Fireplace Stove. A chimney-connected, solid-fuel-burning stove (appliance) having part of its fire chamber open to the room.

Fire-Resistive Construction. Construction complying with the requirements of the Building Code for the time period specified.

Flood Hazard Area. The greater of the following two areas:

  1. The area within a floodplain subject to a 1 percent or greater chance of flooding in any given year.
  2. The area designated as a flood hazard area on a community’s flood hazard map, or otherwise legally designated.

Flood Hazard Area Subject to High Velocity Wave Action. Area within the flood hazard area that is subject to high velocity wave action, and shown on a Flood Insurance Rate Map or other flood hazard map as Zone V, VO, VE or V1-30.

Floor Furnace. A completely self-contained furnace suspended from the floor of the space being heated, taking air for combustion from outside such space and with means for observing flames and lighting the appliance from such space.

Forced-Air-Type Central Furnace. A central furnace equipped with a fan or blower that provides the primary means for circulation of air.

Horizontal-Type Central Furnace. A furnace designed for low-headroom installations with airflow through the appliance in a horizontal path.

Upflow-Type Central Furnace. A furnace designed with airflow essentially in a vertical path, discharging air at or near the top of the furnace.

Downflow-Type Central Furnace. A furnace designed with airflow essentially in a vertical path, discharging air at or near the bottom of the furnace.

Enclosed Furnace. A specific heating or heating and ventilating furnace incorporating an integral total enclosure and using only outside air for combustion.

Fractionation. A change in composition of a blend by preferential evaporation of the more volatile component or condensation of the less volatile component.

Fusible Plug. A device arranged to relieve pressure by operation of a fusible member at a predetermined temperature.

209.0 –G–

Galvanized Steel. Any steel conforming to the requirements of ASTM A653/A653M-07 Standard Specification for Steel Sheet, Zinc-Coat (Galvanized) or Zinc-Iron Alloy-Coat (Galvannealed) by the Hot Dip Process.

32

Generator. A device equipped with a means of heating used in an absorption system to drive refrigerant out of solution.

Gravity Heating System. Any heating system consisting of a gravity-type warm-air furnace, together with all air ducts or pipes and accessory apparatus installed in connection therewith.

Gravity-Type Warm-Air Furnace. A warm-air furnace depending primarily on circulation of air through the furnace by gravity. This definition also shall include any furnace approved with a booster-type fan that does not materially restrict free circulation of air through the furnace when the fan is not in operation.

Grounding Electrode. A conducting object through which a direct connection to earth is established. [NFPA 70:100.1]

210.0 –H–

Hazardous Location. Any area or space where combustible dust, ignitable fibers or flammable, volatile liquids, gases, vapors or mixtures are or may be present in the air in quantities sufficient to produce explosive or ignitable mixtures.

Health Facilities.[OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] Buildings specified within the statutory authority of the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development.

Heat (Energy) Recovery Ventilator. A device intended to remove air from buildings, replace it with outside air, and in the process transfer heat from the warmer to the colder airstreams.

Heating Degree Day. A unit, based upon temperature difference and time, used in estimating fuel consumption and specifying nominal annual heating load of a building. For any one day when the mean temperature is less than 65°F (18°C), there exist as many degree days as there are Fahrenheit degrees difference in temperature between mean temperature for the day and 65°F (18°C).

Heating Equipment. Includes all warm-air furnaces, warm-air heaters, combustion products vents, heating air-distribution ducts and fans, and all steam and hot water piping, together with all control devices and accessories installed as part of, or in connection with, any environmental heating system or appliance regulated by this code.

Heating System. A warm air heating plant consisting of a heat exchanger enclosed in a casing, from which the heated air is distributed through ducts to various rooms and areas. A heating system includes the outside air, return air and supply air system, and all accessory apparatus and equipment installed in connection therewith.

Heat Pump. A refrigeration system that extracts heat from one substance and transfers it to another portion of the same substance or to a second substance at a higher temperature for a beneficial purpose.

High Side. The parts of a refrigeration system subjected to approximately condenser pressure.

Hood. An air-intake device connected to a mechanical exhaust system for collecting vapors, fumes, smoke, dust, steam, heat or odors from, at, or near the equipment, place, or area where generated, produced, or released.

211.0 –I–

IDLH (Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health). A concentration of airborne contaminant‘s, normally expressed in parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m³), that represents the maximum level from which one could escape within thirty (30) minutes without any escape impairing symptoms or irreversible health effects. This level is established by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).

Industrial Heating Equipment. Includes appliances, devices, or equipment used, or intended to be used, in an industrial, manufacturing, or commercial occupancy for applying heat to any material being processed, but shall not include water heaters, boilers, or portable equipment used by artisans in pursuit of a trade.

Insanitary Location. An area, space, or room where the air is unfit or undesirable for circulation to occupied parts of a building.

212.0 –J–

Joint, Brazed. Any joint obtained by joining of metal parts with alloys that melt at temperatures higher than 840°F (449°C) but lower than the melting temperature of the parts being joined.

Joint, Compression. Any multipiece joint with cup-shaped threaded nuts that, when tightened, compress tapered sleeves so that they form a tight joint on the periphery of the tubing they connect.

Joint, Flanged. One made by bolting together a pair of flanged ends.

Joint, Flared. Any metal-to-metal compression joint in which a conical spread is made on the end of a tube that is compressed by a flare nut against a mating flare.

Joint, Mechanical. General form for gastight joints obtained by the joining of metal parts through a positive holding mechanical construction (such as flanged joint, screwed joint, or flared joint).

Joint, Soldered. A joint made by the joining of metal parts with metallic mixtures or alloys that melt at a temperature up to and including 840°F (449°C).

213.0 –K–

No definitions.

214.0 –L–

Labeled. Equipment or materials bearing a label of a listing agency (accredited conformity assessment body). See Listed (Third Party Certified). [HCD 1 & HCD 2] “Labeled” means equipment or materials to which has been attached a label, symbol, or other identifying mark of an organization, approved by the Department, that maintains a periodic inspection program of production of labeled products, installations, equipment, or materials and by whose labeling the manufacturer indicates compliance with appropriate standards or performance in a specified manner.

33

LEL (Lower Explosive Limit). SeeLFL.

LFL (Lower Flammable Limit or Lower Limit of Flammability). The minimum concentration of a combustible substance that is capable of propagating a flame through homogeneous mixture of the combustible and a gaseous oxidizer under the specified condition of test. The LFL is sometimes referred to as LEL (Lower Explosive Limit). For the purposes of this definition, LFL and LEL are identical.

Line Contact Installation. An installation in which a furnace is installed so that building joists, studs, or framing are contacted by the furnace jacket upon the lines formed by the intersection of the jacket sides with the top surface.

Liquefied Petroleum Gas or LPG (LP Gas). Means and includes a material composed pre-dominantly of any of the following hydrocarbons or mixtures of them: propane, propylene, butane's (normal butane or isobutane), and butylenes. When reference is made to liquefied petroleum gas in this code, it shall refer to liquefied petroleum gases in either the liquid or gaseous state.

Listed (Third Party Certified). Equipment or materials included in a list published by a listing agency (accredited conformity assessment body) that maintains periodic inspection on current production of listed equipment or materials and whose listing states either that the equipment or material complies with approved standards or has been tested and found suitable for use in a specified manner. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] “Listed” means all products that appear in a list published by an approved testing or listing agency. For additional information, see Health and Safety Code Section 17920(h).

Listed and Listing.[SFM] “Listed” and “Listing” are terms referring to equipment or materials included in a list published by an approved testing laboratory, inspection agency, or other organization concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of current productions of listed equipment or materials and which listing states that the material or equipment complies with approved nationally recognized codes, standards, or tests and has been tested or evaluated and found suitable for use in a specific manner. These terms shall also mean equipment or materials accepted by the State Fire Marshal as conforming to the provisions of these regulations and which are included in a list published by the State Fire Marshal.

Listing Agency. An agency accredited by an independent and authoritative conformity assessment body to operate a material and product listing and labeling (certification) system and that is accepted by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, which is in the business of listing or labeling. The system includes initial and ongoing product testing, a periodic inspection on current production of listed (certified) products, and that makes available a published report of such listing in which specific information is included that the material or product conforms to applicable standards and found safe for use in a specific manner. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] “Listing Agency” means an agency approved by the Department that is in the business of listing and labeling products, materials, equipment, and installations tested by an approved testing agency, and that maintains a periodic inspection program on current production of listed products, equipment, and installations, and that at least annually makes available a published report of these listings. For additional information, see Health and Safety Code Section 17920(i).

Low-Pressure Hot-Water-Heating Boiler. A boiler furnishing hot water at pressures not exceeding 160 pounds per square inch (1,102.4 kPa) and at temperatures not exceeding 250°F (121°C).

Low-Pressure Steam-Heating Boiler. A boiler furnishing steam at pressures not exceeding fifteen (15) pounds per square inch (103.4 kPa).

Low Side. Refers to the parts of a refrigeration system subjected to approximate evaporator pressure.

215.0 –M–

Machinery. The refrigeration equipment forming a part of the refrigeration system, including, but not limited to, the following: compressors, condensers, liquid receivers, evaporators, and connecting piping.

Machinery Room.[SFM] Machinery Room is a room in which a refrigeration system is permanently installed and operated but not including evaporators located in a cold storage room, refrigerator box, air-cooled space or other enclosed space. Closets solely contained within, and opening only into, a room shall not be considered machinery rooms, but shall be considered a part of the machinery rooms in which they are contained or open into. It is not the intent of this definition to cause the space in which unit or selfcontained systems of Group I refrigerants are locate to be classified as machinery rooms.

Manufacturer. The company or organization that evidences its responsibility by affixing its name, trademark, or trade name to equipment or devices.

Manufacturer's Installation Instructions. Printed instructions included with equipment or devices for the purpose of providing information regarding safe and proper installation and use whether or not as part of the conditions of listing.

216.0 –N–

Noncombustible. As applied to building construction material, means a material that in the form in which it is used is either one of the following:

  1. A material that, in the form in which it is used and under the conditions anticipated, will not ignite, burn, support combustion, or release flammable vapors when subjected to fire or heat. Materials that are reported as passing ASTM E 136, Standard Test Method for Behavior of Materials in a vertical Tube Furnace at 750°, are considered noncombustible material. [NFPA 220:3.3.4]
  2. Material having a structural base of noncombustible material as defined in 1 above, with a surfacing material not over one-eighth (1/8) inch (3.2 mm) thick that has a flame-spread index not higher than fifty (50).

Noncombustible does not apply to surface finish materials. Material required to be noncombustible for reduced clearances to flues, heating appliances, or other sources of high

34

temperature shall refer to material conforming to 1 above. No material shall be classed as noncombustible that is subject to increase in combustibility or flame-spread index beyond the limits herein established, through the effects of age, moisture, or other atmospheric condition.

Nuisance. [HCD 1 & HCD 2]“Nuisance” shall mean any nuisance as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 17920(k).

Notes:

  1. For applications subject to the Mobilehome Parks Act as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.2 of this code, refer to California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2 for the definition of “Nuisance”.
  2. For applications subject to the Special Occupancy Parks Act as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.3 of this code, refer to California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2.2 for the definition of “Nuisance”.

217.0 –O–

Occupancy. The purpose for which a building or part thereof is used or intended to be used.

Occupancy Classification. Classifications are defined in the California Building Code.

Occupied Space. An enclosed space intended for human activities excluding those spaces intended primarily for other purposes such as storage rooms and equipment rooms that are only occupied occasionally and for short periods of time.

218.0 –P–

PEL (Permissible Exposure Limit). The maximum permitted eight-hour time-weighted average concentration of an airborne contaminant. The maximum permitted time-weighted average exposures to be utilized are those published in 29 CFR 1910.1000.

PEX. An acronym for cross-linked polyethylene.

Piping. The pipe or tube mains for interconnecting the various parts of a system. Piping includes pipe, tube, flanges, bolting, gaskets, valves, fittings the pressure-containing parts of other components such as expansion joints, strainers, and devices that serve such purposes as mixing, separating, snubbing, distributing, metering, or controlling flow pipe-supporting fixtures and structural attachments.

Plenum. An air compartment or chamber including uninhabited crawl spaces areas above a ceiling or below a floor, including air spaces below raised floors of computer/data processing centers or attic spaces, to that one or more ducts are connected and that forms part of either the supply-air, return-air or exhaust-air system, other than the occupied space being conditioned.

Plumbing Code. The Uniform Plumbing Code promulgated by the International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials, as adopted by this jurisdiction. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] Whenever the term “Plumbing Code” is used in this code, it shall mean the California Plumbing Code, Title 24, Part 5.

Portable Cooling Unit. A self-contained refrigerating system, not over 3 horsepower rating, that has been factory assembled and tested, installed without supply-air ducts and without connecting any refrigerant-containing parts. This definition shall not include an absorption unit.

Portable Evaporative Cooler. An evaporative cooler that discharges the conditioned air directly into the conditioned area without the use of ducts and can be readily transported from place to place without dismantling any portion thereof.

Portable Heating Appliance. A heating appliance designed for environmental heating that may have a self-contained fuel supply and is not secured or attached to a building by any means other than by a factory-installed power supply cord.

Portable Ventilating Equipment. Ventilating equipment that can be readily transported from place to place without dismantling a portion thereof and that is not connected to a duct.

Positive Displacement Compressor. A compressor in which increase in pressure is attained by changing the internal volume of the compression chamber.

Power Boiler Plant. One or more power steam boilers or power hot water boilers and connecting piping and vessels within the same premises.

PP. An acronym for polypropylene.

Pressure, Design. The maximum working pressure for which a specific part of a refrigeration system is designed.

Pressure, Field Test. A test performed in the field to prove system tightness.

Pressure-Imposing Element. A device or portion of the equipment used for the purpose of increasing the pressure of the refrigerant vapor.

Pressure-Limiting Device. A pressure- responsive mechanism designed to automatically stop the operation of the pressure-imposing element at a predetermined pressure.

Pressure-Relief Device. A pressure-actuated valve or rupture member or fusible plug designed to automatically relieve excessive pressure.

Pressure Test. The minimum gauge pressure to which a specific system component is subjected under test condition.

Pressure Vessel – Refrigerant. A refrigerant-containing receptacle that is a portion of a refrigeration system, but shall not include evaporators, headers, or piping of certain limited size and capacity.

219.0 –Q–

Qualified. A competent and capable person or company that has met the requirements and training for a given field acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction. [NFPA 96:3.3.38]

220.0 –R–

Radiant Heater. A heater designed to transfer heat primarily by direct radiation.

Receiver, Liquid. A vessel permanently connected to a refrigeration system by inlet and outlet pipes for storage of liquid.

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Refrigerant Safety Classifications. Made up of a letter (A or B), that indicates the toxicity class, followed by a number (1, 2, or 3), that indicates the flammability class. Refrigerant blends are similarly classified, based on the compositions at their worst cases of fractionation, as separately determined for toxicity and flammability. In some cases, the worst case of fractionation is the original formulation.

Toxicity. Classes A and B signify refrigerants with “lower toxicity” and “higher toxicity,” respectively, based on prescribed measures of chronic (long-term, repeated exposures) toxicity.

Flammability. Class 1 indicates refrigerants that do not show flame propagation in air when tested by prescribed methods at specified conditions. Classes 2 and 3 signify refrigerants with “lower flammability” and “higher flammability.” respectively. The distinction depends on both the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) and heat of combustion.

Refrigeration Machinery Room. A space designed to safely house compressors and pressure vessels.

Refrigeration Room or Space. A room or space in which an evaporator or brine coil is located for the purpose of reducing or controlling the temperature within the room or space to below 68°F (20°C).

Refrigeration System, Absorption. A heat-operated closed-refrigeration cycle in which a secondary fluid, the absorbent, absorbs a primary fluid, the refrigerant, that has been vaporized in the evaporator.

Refrigeration System, Mechanical. A combination of interconnected refrigerant-containing parts constituting one closed refrigerant circuit in which a refrigerant is circulated for the purpose of extracting heat and in which a compressor is used for compressing the refrigerant vapor.

Refrigeration System, Self-Contained. A complete factory-assembled and tested system that is shipped in one or more sections and has no refrigerant-containing parts that are joined in the field by other than companion or block valves.

Residential Building. A building or portion thereof designed or used for human habitation.

Riser Heat Pipe. A duct that extends at an angle of more than forty-five (45) degrees (0.79 rad) from the horizontal. This definition shall not include any boot connection.

Room Heater. A freestanding, nonrecessed, environmental heating appliance installed in the space being heated and not connected to ducts.

Room Heater, Unvented. An unvented, self-contained, free-standing, nonrecessed, fuel-gas burning appliance for furnishing warm air by gravity or fan circulation to the space in which installed, directly from the heater without duct connection. [NFPA 54:3.3.55.6]

Room Large in Comparison with Size of Equipment. A room having a volume of at least twelve (12) times the total volume of a furnace or air-conditioning appliance and at least sixteen (16) times the total volume of a boiler. Total volume of the appliance is determined from exterior dimensions and includes fan compartments and burner vestibules when used. When the actual ceiling height of a room is greater than eight (8) feet (2,438 mm), the volume of the room is figured on the basis of a ceiling height of eight (8) feet (2,438 mm).

Rupture Member. A pressure-relief device that operates by the rupture of a diaphragm within the device on a rise to a predetermined pressure.

221.0 –S–

Seam, Welded. See Joint, Welded.

Self-Contained. Having all essential working parts, except energy and control connections, so contained in a case or framework that they do not depend on appliances or fastenings outside of the machine.

Shaft. An interior space enclosed by walls or construction extending through one or more stories or basements that connects openings in successive floors, or floors and roof, to accommodate elevators, dumbwaiters, mechanical equipment, or similar devices to transmit light or ventilation air.

Shaft Enclosure. The walls or construction forming the boundaries of a shaft.

Shall. Indicates a mandatory requirement.

Should. Indicates a recommendation or that which is advised but not required.

Smoke Detector. An approved device that senses visible or invisible particles of combustion.

Standard. A document, the main text of which contains only mandatory provisions using the word “shall” to indicate requirements and that is in a form generally suitable for mandatory reference by another standard or code or for adoption into law. Nonmandatory provisions shall be located in an appendix, footnote, or fine-print note and are not to be considered a part of the requirements of a standard.

State Building Code. [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] is the most recent edition of the California Building Code.

Stationary Fuel Cell Power Plant. A self-contained package or factory-matched packages that constitute an automatically operated assembly of integrated systems for generating useful electrical energy and recoverable energy that is permanently connected and fixed in place.

Strength, Ultimate. The highest stress level that the component can tolerate without rupture.

System Outdoor Airflow (Vot). The rate of outdoor airflow required at the ventilation system outdoor air intake.

222.0 –T–

Testing Agency. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] See “Approved Testing Agency”.

Trained. A person who has become proficient in performing a skill reliably and safely through instruction and practice/field experience acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction. [NFPA 96:3.3.48]

223.0 –U–

UMC. [HCD 1, HCD 2, OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4 and SFM] The most recent edition of Uniform Mechanical Code published

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by the International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials.

UMC Standards. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] The Uniform Mechanical Code Standards listed in Appendix A of the most recent edition of the Uniform Mechanical Code published by the International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials.

Unit Heater. A heating appliance designed for nonresidential space heating and equipped with an integral means for circulation of air.

Unusually Tight Construction is construction where:

  1. Walls and ceilings exposed to the outside atmosphere have a continuous water vapor retarder with a rating of one (1) perm or less with any openings gasketed or sealed;
  2. Weatherstripping is on openable windows and doors; and
  3. Caulking or sealants are applied to areas such as joints around window and door frames, between sole plates and floors, between wall-ceiling joints, between wall panels, and at penetrations for plumbing, electrical, and gas lines and at other openings.

224.0 –V–

Valve, Pressure-Relief. A pressure-actuated valve held closed by a spring or other means and designed to automatically relieve pressure in excess of its setting; also called a safety valve.

Valve, Stop. A device in a piping system to shut off the flow of the fluid.

Valve, Three-Way-Type Stop. A manually operated valve with one inlet that alternately can stop flow to either of two outlets.

Valves, Companion or Block. Pairs of mating stop valves valving off sections of refrigeration systems and arranged so that these sections may be joined before opening these valves or separated after closing them.

Vent. A listed factory-made vent pipe and vent fittings for conveying flue gases to the outside atmosphere.

Type B Gas Vent. A factory-made gas vent listed by a nationally recognized testing agency for venting listed or approved appliances equipped to burn only gas.
Type BW Gas Vent. A factory-made gas vent listed by a nationally recognized testing agency for venting listed or approved gas-fired vented wall furnaces.
Type L. A venting system consisting of listed vent piping and fittings for use with oil-burning appliances listed for use with Type L or with listed gas appliances.

Vent Connector, Gas. That portion of a gas-venting system that connects a listed gas appliance to a gas vent and is installed within the space or area in which the appliance is located.

Vented Appliance Categories.

Category I. An appliance that operates with a nonpositive vent static pressure and with a vent gas temperature that avoids excessive condensate production in the vent.
Category II. An appliance that operates with a non-positive vent static pressure and with a vent gas temperature that may cause excessive condensate production in the vent.
Category III. An appliance that operates with a positive vent static pressure and with a vent gas temperature that avoids excessive condensate production in the vent.
Category IV. An appliance that operates with a positive vent static pressure and with a vent gas temperature that may cause excessive condensate production in the vent.

Vented Decorative Appliance. A vented appliance whose only function is providing an aesthetic effect of flames.

Vented Wall Furnace. A vented environmental heating appliance designed for incorporation in, or permanent attachment to, a wall, floor, ceiling, or partition and arranged to furnish heated air by gravity or by a fan. This definition shall not include floor furnaces, unit heaters, and room heaters.

Ventilating Ceiling. A suspended ceiling containing many small apertures through which air, at low pressure, is forced downward from an overhead plenum dimensioned by the concealed space between the suspended ceiling and the floor or roof above.

Ventilation System. All of that equipment intended or installed for the purpose of supplying air to, or removing air from, any room or space by mechanical means, other than equipment that is a portion of an environmental heating, cooling, absorption, or evaporative cooling system.

Venting Collar. The outlet opening of an appliance provided for connection of the vent system.

Venting System. The vent or chimney and its connectors, assembled to form a continuous open passageway from an appliance to the outside atmosphere for the purpose of removing products of combustion. This definition also shall include a venting assembly that is an integral part of an appliance.

Venting System – Gravity-Type. A system that depends entirely on the heat from the fuel being used to provide the energy required to vent an appliance.

Venting System – Power-Type. A system that depends on a mechanical device to provide a positive draft within the venting system.

Volume, Internal Gross. The volume as determined from internal dimensions of the container, with no allowance for the volume of the internal parts.

225.0 –W–

Wall Heater. See Vented Wall Furnace.

Warm Air Furnace. An environmental heating appliance designed or arranged to discharge heated air through any duct or ducts. This definition shall not include a unit heater.

Water Heater or Hot-Water-Heating Boiler. An appliance designed primarily to supply hot water and equipped with automatic controls limiting water temperature to a maximum of 210°F (99°C).

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226.0 –X–

No definitions.

227.0 –Y–

No definitions.

228.0 –Z–

Zeotrope. A blend comprising multiple components of different volatiles that, when used in refrigeration cycles, change volumetric composition and saturation temperatures as they evaporate or condense at constant pressure.

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CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE - MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE
CHAPTER 3 - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
Adopting AgencyBSCSFMHCDDSAOSHPDCADPH
121/ACACSSSS/CC1234
Adopt Entire ChapterX     XX      
Adopt Entire Chapter as amended (amended sections listed below) XXX    XXXX  
Adopt only those sections that are listed below              
Article/Section              
303.2, Exception 2        XXXX  
303.7 XXX          
312.0        XXXX  
313.0        XX X  
314.1        X  X  
314.2         X X  
314.3          X   
315.1        X  X  
316.0        XXXX  
Table 315        XXXX  
39 40

CHAPTER 3
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

301.0 Scope.

This chapter covers general requirements for heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, refrigeration, miscellaneous heat-producing, and energy-utilizing equipment. Such equipment shall conform to the requirements of this code.

Equipment shall not be installed or altered in violation of this code, nor shall the fuel input rate to equipment be increased in excess of the approved Btu/h (kW) rating at the altitude where it is being used.

Defective material or parts shall be replaced in such a manner as not to invalidate any approval.

302.0 Approval.

302.1 How Obtained. Each appliance shall be approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction for safe use or comply with applicable nationally recognized standards as evidenced by the listing and label of an approved agency. A list of accepted standards is included in Chapter 17.

302.2 Complying Design of Equipment. Installers shall furnish satisfactory evidence that the appliance is constructed in conformity with the requirements of this code. The permanently attached label of an approved agency may be accepted as such evidence.

302.3 Oil-Burning Appliances. The tank, piping, and valves for appliances burning oil shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 31. Standard for the Installation of Oil-Burning Equipment.

303.0 Installation.

303.1 Listed Appliances. Except as otherwise provided in the code, the installation of appliances regulated by this code shall conform to the conditions of listing. The appliance installer shall leave the manufacturer’s installation and operating instructions attached to the appliance. Clearances of listed appliances from combustible materials shall be as specified in the listing or on the rating plate.

303.2 Room Large in Comparison to Size of Equipment. Central-heating furnaces not listed for closet or alcove installation shall be installed in a room or space having a volume at least twelve (12) times the total volume of the furnace; central-heating boilers not listed for closet or alcove installation shall be installed in a room or space having a volume sixteen (16) times the volume of the boiler. [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] The total volume of the boilers shall be based on the total number of central-heating boilers that can operate at the same time.

Exceptions:

  1. The installation clearances for furnaces and boilers in rooms not large in comparison with the size of the equipment shall be as specified in the appliance listing regardless of whether the enclosure is of combustible or noncombustible materials and shall not be reduced by the protection methods described in Table 3-2 or any other method.
  2. [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] A 25 percent reduction in the boiler room volume is allowed with forced-draft boiler and approved ventilation of the boiler room. In no case shall boiler room volume or clearances be reduced below those required by the conditions of the boiler listing. The boiler and the boiler room ventilation system, including fans, controls, and damper motors shall be on emergency power when required by Section 316.0. The ventilation system shall either operate continuously, or, if interlocked with the boiler(s) it shall not interfere with the proper boiler operation.

If the ceiling height of the room or space is greater than eight (8) feet (2,438 mm), the volume shall be calculated on the basis of an eight (8) foot (2,438 mm) height.

303.3 Unlisted Appliances. Unlisted appliances shall be installed with the standard clearances from combustible construction specified in Table 3-2. Unlisted appliances may have the standard clearances of Table 3-2 reduced by employing the forms of protection specified in Table 3-3. Forms of protection specified in Table 3-3 may be utilized to reduce clearances to combustible construction for all applicable appliances.

303.4 Anchorage of Appliances. Appliances designed to be fixed in position shall be securely fastened in place. Supports for appliances shall be designed and constructed to sustain vertical and horizontal loads within the stress limitations specified in the Building Code.

303.5 Movement of appliances with casters shall be limited by a restraining device installed in accordance with the connector and appliance manufacturer’s installation instructions.

303.6 Identification of Equipment. When more than one heating, cooling, ventilating, or refrigerating system is installed on the roof of a building or within a building, it shall be permanently identified as to the area or space served by the equipment.

303.7 Liquefied Petroleum Gas Facilities. Containers, container valves regulating equipment, and appurtenances for the storage and supply of liquefied petroleum gas shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 58 and the California Fire Code.

303.7.1 Liquefied Petroleum Gas Appliances. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] Liuefied petroleum gas-burning appliances shall not be installed in a pit, basement, or similar location where heavier-than-air gas might collect. Appliances so fueled shall not be installed in an above-grade under-floor space or basement unless such location is provided with an approved means for removal of unburned gas.

41

303.8 Equipment on Roofs.

303.8.1 General.

303.8.1.1 Enclosures. Equipment on roof shall be designed or enclosed so as to withstand climatic conditions in the areas in which it is installed. Where enclosures are provided, each enclosure shall be of reasonable height, and shall have at least a thirty (30) inch (762 mm) clearance between the entire service access panel(s) of the equipment and the wall of the enclosure.

303.8.1.2 Roof Support. Roofs on which equipment is to be installed shall be capable of supporting the additional load or shall be reinforced to support the additional load.

303.8.1.3 Corrosion Resistance. All access locks, screws, and bolts shall be of corrosion-resistant material.

303.8.1.4 Roof Drainage. Equipment shall be installed on a well-drained surface of the roof.

303.8.1.5 Guards or Rails. At least six (6) ft. (1,829 mm) between any part of the equipment and the edge of a roof or similar hazard, or rigidly fixed rail, guards, parapets, or other building structures at least forty-two (42) inches (1,067 mm) in height shall be provided on the exposed side.

303.8.1.6 Electrical Power. All equipment requiring an external source of electrical power for its operation shall be provided with:

  1. Readily accessible electrical disconnecting means within sight of the equipment.
  2. A 120 VAC grounding-type receptacle outlet on the roof adjacent to the equipment. The receptacle outlet shall be on the supply side of the disconnect switch.

304.0 Service and Access to Equipment and Appliances.

Equipment and appliances shall be accessible for inspection, service, repair, and replacement without removing permanent construction. Sufficient clearance shall be maintained to permit cleaning of heating surfaces; the replacement of filters, blowers, motors, burners, controls, and vent connections; the lubrication of moving parts where necessary; the adjustment and cleaning of burners and pilots; and the proper functioning of explosion vents, if provided. [NFPA 54-09:9.2.1]

Unless otherwise specified, not less than thirty (30) inches (762 mm) in depth, width, and height of working space shall be provided.

Exception: Unit heaters and room heaters may be installed with an eighteen (18) inch (457 mm) minimum depth working space. A platform shall not be required for unit heaters or room heaters. The operating instructions shall be attached to the appliance where they can be read easily.

304.1 Access to Equipment on Roofs.

304.1.1 General. Equipment and appliances located on roofs or other elevated locations shall be accessible. [NFPA 54:9.4.3.1]

304.1.2 Access from Inside. Buildings of more than fifteen (15) feet (4,572 mm) in height shall have an inside means of access to the roof, unless other means acceptable to the roof, unless other means acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction are used. [NFPA 54:9.4.3.2]

304.1.2.1 Door or Scuttle. The inside means of access shall be a permanent or foldaway inside stairway or ladder, terminating in an enclosure, scuttle, or trap door. Such scuttles or trap doors shall be at least twenty-two (22) inches × twenty-four (24) inches (560 mm × 610 mm) in size, shall open easily and safely under all conditions, especially snow, and shall be constructed so as to permit access on the inside.

304.1.2.2 Guards or Rails. At least six (6) feet (1,829 mm) of clearance shall be available between the access opening and the edge of the roof or similar hazard, or rigidly fixed rails or guards a minimum of forty-two (42) inches (1,067 mm) in height shall be provided on the exposed side. Where parapets or other building structures are utilized in lieu of guards or rails, they shall be a minimum of forty-two (42) inches (1,067 mm) in height. [NFPA 54:9.4.3.3]

304.1.3 Permanent Lighting. Permanent lighting shall be provided at the roof access. The switch for such lighting shall be located inside the building near the access means leading to the roof. [NFPA 54:9.4.3.4]

304.1.4 Standing Water. Where water stands on the roof at the equipment, in the passageways to the equipment, where the roof is of a design having a water seal, a suitable platform, walkway, or both shall be provided above the waterline. Such platform(s) or walkway(s) shall be located adjacent to the equipment and control panels so that the equipment can be safely serviced where water stands on the roof.

305.0 Automatic Control Devices.

Heating appliances shall be equipped with a listed device or devices that will shut off the fuel supply to the main burner or burners in the event of pilot or ignition failure. In addition, liquefied petroleum gas-air-burning heating appliances shall be equipped with a listed automatic device or devices that will shut off the flow of gas to the pilot in the event of ignition failure.

Exception: The listed shutoff devices shall not be required on range or cooking tops, log lighters, lights, or other open-burner manually operated appliances, or listed appliances not requiring such devices and specific industrial appliances as approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

Heating appliances whose manual fuel controls are not readily accessible from the main portion of the building being heated shall be equipped with remote controls.

Forced-air and gravity-type warm-air furnaces shall be equipped with a listed air outlet temperature limit control that cannot be set for temperatures higher than 250°F (121°C). Such controls shall be located in the bonnet or plenum, within two (2) feet (610 mm) of the discharge side of the heating.

42

element of gravity furnaces or in accordance with the conditions of listing.

Electric duct heaters shall be equipped with an approved automatic reset air outlet temperature limit control that will limit the outlet air temperature to not more than 200°F (93°C). The electric elements of the heater shall be equipped with fusible links or a manual reset temperature limit control that will prevent outlet air temperature in excess of 250°F (121°C).

306.0 Labeling.

306.1 Fuel-Burning Appliances. Fuel-burning heating appliances shall bear a permanent and legible factory-applied nameplate on which shall appear:

306.1.1 The manufacturer’s name.

306.1.2 The approved fuel input rating of the appliance, expressed in Btu/h (W).

306.1.3 The model and serial number.

306.1.4 Instructions for the lighting, operation, and shutdown of the appliance.

306.1.5 The type of fuel approved for use with the appliance.

306.1.6 The symbol of an approved agency certifying compliance of the equipment with recognized standards.

306.1.7 Required clearances from combustible surfaces on which or adjacent to which it may be mounted.

306.2 Electric Heating Appliances. Electric heating appliances shall bear a permanent and legible factory-applied nameplate on which shall appear:

306.2.1 The name or trademark of the manufacturer.

306.2.2 The catalog (model) number or equivalent.

306.2.3 The electrical rating in volts, amperes (or watts), and; for other than single phase, the number of phases.

306.2.4The output rating in Btu/h or kW.

306.2.5 The electrical rating in volts, amperes, or watts of each field-replaceable electrical component.

306.2.6 The symbol of an approved agency certifying compliance of equipment with recognized standards.

306.2.7 Required clearances from combustible surfaces on which or adjacent to which it may be mounted.

Also, the appliance shall be accompanied by clear and complete installation instructions, including required clearances from combustibles other than mounting or adjacent surfaces, and temperature rating of field-installed wiring connections of over 140°F (60°C).

306.3 Heat Pump and Electric Cooling Appliances. Heat pumps and electric cooling appliances shall bear a permanent and legible factory-applied nameplate on which shall appear:

306.3.1 The name or trademark of the manufacturer.

306.3.2 The catalog model nomenclature.

306.3.3 The amount and type of refrigerant.

306.3.4 The factory test pressures or pressures applied.

306.3.5 The electrical rating in volts, amperes, and, for other than single phase, the number of phases.

306.3.6 The output rating in Btu/h or W.

306.3.7 The electrical rating in volts, amperes, or watts of each field replaceable electrical component.

306.3.8 The symbol of an approved agency certifying compliance of the equipment with recognized standards.

306.3.9 Required clearances from combustible surfaces on which or adjacent to which it is permitted to be mounted.

Also, the appliance shall be accompanied by clear and complete installation instructions, including required clearances from combustible other than mounting or adjacent surfaces, and temperature rating of field-installed wiring connections over 140°F (60°C).

307.0 Location.

307.1 Protection Against Damage. Appliances installed in garages, warehouses, or other areas subject to mechanical damage shall be guarded against such damage by being installed behind protective barriers or by being elevated or located out of the normal path of vehicles.

Heating and cooling equipment located in a garage and that generates a glow, spark, or flame capable of igniting flammable vapors shall be installed with the pilots and burners or heating elements and switches at least eighteen (18) inches (457 mm) above the floor level.

Where such appliances installed within a garage are enclosed in a separate, approved compartment having access only from outside of the garage, such appliances may be installed at floor level, provided the required combustion air is taken from and discharged to the exterior of the garage.

Heating equipment located in rooms where cellulose nitrate plastic is stored or processed shall comply with the Fire Code.

307.2 Protection Against Flood Damage. For buildings located in flood hazard areas, heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, refrigeration, miscellaneous heat-producing, and energy-utilizing equipment and appliances shall be elevated at or above the design flood elevation.

Exception: Equipment and appliances are permitted to be located below the design flood elevation provided that they are designed and installed to prevent water from entering or accumulating within the components and to resist hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and stresses, including the effects of buoyancy, during the occurrence of flooding to the design flood elevation in compliance with the flood-resistant construction requirements of the Building Code.

307.2.1 Walls Below Buildings in Flood Hazard Areas Subject to High Velocity Wave Action. In flood hazard areas subject to high velocity wave action, equipment and appliances, including piping, shall not be mounted on or penetrate walls intended to break away under flood loads.

307.2.2 Air Exhaust and Intake Openings. Outside air exhaust openings and air intake openings shall be located at or above the design flood elevation.

308.0 Electrical Connections.

Equipment regulated by this code requiring electrical connections of more than fifty (50) volts shall have a positive means

43

of disconnect adjacent to and in sight from the equipment served. A 120 volt receptacle shall be located within twenty-five (25) feet (7,620 mm) of the equipment for service and maintenance purposes. The receptacle need not be located on the same level as the equipment. Low-voltage wiring of fifty (50) volts or less within a structure shall be installed in a manner to prevent physical damage.

309.0 Condensate Wastes and Control.

309.1 Condensate Disposal. Condensate from air washers, air-cooling coils, fuel-burning condensing appliances, and the overflow from evaporative coolers and similar water-supplied equipment or similar air-conditioning equipment shall be collected and discharged to an approved plumbing fixture or disposal area. If discharged into the drainage system, equipment shall drain by means of an indirect waste pipe. The waste pipe shall have a slope of not less than 1/8 inch per foot (10.5 mm/m) or 1 percent slope and shall be of approved corrosion-resistant material not smaller than the outlet size as required in either Section 309.3 or 309.4 for air-cooling coils or condensing fuel-burning appliances, respectively. Condensate or wastewater shall not drain over a public way.

309.2 Condensate Control. When a cooling coil or cooling unit is located in an attic or furred space where damage may result from condensate overflow, an additional watertight pan of corrosion-resistant metal shall be installed beneath the cooling coil or unit top to catch the overflow condensate due to a clogged primary condensate drain, or one pan with a standing overflow and a separate secondary drain may be provided in lieu of the secondary drain pan. The additional pan or the standing overflow shall be provided with a drain pipe, minimum 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) nominal pipe size, discharging at a point that can be readily observed.

This requirement is in addition to the requirements in Sections 309.3 and 309.4.

309.3 Condensate Waste Sizing. Condensate waste pipes from air-cooling coils shall be sized in accordance with equipment capacity as follows:

TABLE 3-1
MINIMUM CONDENSATE PIPE SIZE
EQUIPMENT CAPACITY INMINIMUM CONDENSATE PIPE DIAMETER
Tons of Refrigeration(kW)Inches(mm)
Up to 20(Up to 70.34)3/4(20)
21 — 40(73.85 — 140.67)1(25)
41 — 90(144.19 — 316.6)(32)
91 — 125(320.03 — 439.6)(40)
126 — 250(443.12 — 879.2)2(50)

The size of condensate waste pipes may be for one unit or a combination of units, or as recommended by the manufacturer. The capacity of waste pipes assumes a one-eights (1/8) inch per foot (10.5 mm/m) or 1 percent slope, with the pipe running three-quarters (3/4) full at the following conditions:

Outside Air — 20%Room Air — 80%
DBWBDBWB
90°F73°F75°F62.5°F
(32°C)(23°C)(24°C)(17°C)

Condensate drain sizing for other slopes or other conditions shall be approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

309.4 Fuel-Burning Appliance Condensate Drains. Condensate drain lines from individual fuel-burning condensing appliances shall be sized according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Condensate drain lines serving more than one appliance shall be approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction prior to installation.

309.5 Plastic Fittings. Female PVC screwed fittings shall be used with plastic male fittings and plastic male threads only.

310.0 Personnel Protection.

A suitable and substantial metal guard shall be provided around exposed flywheels, fans, pulleys, belts, and moving machinery that are portions of a heating, ventilating, or refrigerating system.

311.0 Heating or Cooling Air System.

311.1 Source. A heating or cooling air system shall be provided with return air, outside air, or both. A heating or cooling air system regulated by this code and designed to replace required ventilation shall be arranged to discharge into a conditioned space not less than the amount of outside air specified in Chapter 4.

311.2 Air Filters. Air filters shall be installed in a heating, cooling, or makeup air system. Such filters shall comply with the standard, Air Filter Units, Test Performance of, that is referenced in Chapter 17, as Class I or II filters.

Exception: Systems serving single guest rooms or dwelling units shall not require a listed filter.

311.3 Prohibited Source. Outside or return air for a heating or cooling air system shall not be taken from the following locations:

  1. Closer than ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) from an appliance vent outlet, a vent opening of a plumbing drainage system, or the discharge outlet of an exhaust fan, unless the outlet is three (3) feet (914 mm) above the outside-air-inlet.
  2. Where it is less than ten (10) feet above the surface of any abutting public way, driveway, sidewalk, street, alley or driveway.
  3. A hazardous or insanitary location or a refrigeration machinery room as defined in this code.
  4. From an area, the volume of which is less than 25 percent of the entire volume served by such system, unless there is a permanent opening to an area the volume of which is equal to 25 percent of the entire volume served. 44
    Exception: Such openings when used for a heating or cooling air system in a dwelling unit shall be permitted to be reduced to not less than 50 percent of the required area, provided the balance of the required return air is taken from a room or hall having not less than three (3) doors leading to other rooms served by the furnace.
  5. A closet, bathroom, toilet room, or kitchen.
  6. From rooms or spaces containing a fuel-burning appliance therein. Where such room or space serves as source of return air.

    Exceptions:

    1. This shall not apply to fireplaces, fireplace appliance, residential cooking appliance, direct vent appliance, enclosed furnaces, and domestic-type clothes dryers installed within the room or space.
    2. This shall not apply to a gravity-type or listed vented wall heating or cooling air system.
    3. This shall not apply to a blower-type heating or cooling air system complying with the following requirements:
      1. Where the return air is taken from a room or space having a volume exceeding one (1) cubic foot for each ten (10) Btu/h (2.93 W) fuel input rating of all fuel-burning appliances therein.
      2. Not less than 75 percent of the supply air is discharged back into the same room or space.
      3. Return-air inlets shall not be located within ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) from any appliance firebox or draft diverter in the same enclosed room or confined space.

311.4 Return-Air Limitations. Return air from one dwelling unit shall not discharge into another dwelling unit through the heating or cooling air system.

311.5 Outside Air Inlet Protection. Required outside-air inlets shall be covered with a screen having not less than one-fourth (1/4) inch (6.4 mm) openings.

Exception: An outside-air inlet serving a nonresidential portion of a building shall be permitted to be covered with a screen having openings larger than 1/4 inch (6.4 mm), but in no case exceeding one (1) inch (25.4 mm).

312.0 Water Supply.

Water supplies and backflow protection shall be as required by the California Plumbing Code.

313.0 Scope.

313.1 Applicability. This part is applicable to health facilities regulated by OSHPD (See Adoption Tables for application for specific sections.)

Note: This section has no corresponding provisions in the UMC. For the scope and authority of each state agency, refer to Chapter 1.

313.2 Services/Systems and Utilities. Refer to Section 1224.4.1 California Building Code.

314.0 Steam and Hot-Water Systems.

314.1 Requirements for Hospitals and Optional Services Provided in Correctional Treatment Centers. [OSHPD 1 & 4]

314.1.1 Boilers shall have the capacity, based upon the rest ratings published by the Hydronics Institute or another acceptable national standard to supply the normal operating requirements of all connected systems and equipment.

314.1.2 A minimum of two boilers shall be provided. The arrangement of boilers shall be based on the capacity and capability of a boiler or boilers to operate all systems during-periods of breakdown or maintenance of any one boiler.

314.1.3 Boiler systems providing space heating shall be designed to maintain a minimum temperature of 60°F (15.6°C) in general patient areas and the temperatures specified in Table 315 for sensitive areas during periods of breakdown or maintenance of any one boiler. Winter design temperature shall be based on the Median of Extremes shown by the 1982 ASHRAE Climatic Data for Region X and ASHRAE 1994 Supplement to Climatic Data for Region X.

314.1.4 Boiler feed pumps, condensate return pumps, fuel oil pumps, and heating circulating pumps shall be connected and installed to provide standby service in the event of pump failure. Installation of duplex pumps or provision of a spare pump will meet this requirement.

314.1.5 At least two sources of heat (e.g. two pieces of equipment) shall be provided for supplying essential services such as sterilizers, hot water for dishwashing, and domestic hot water for minimum patient service, such as handwashing and baths. Booster heaters for dishwashing providing 125°F to 180°F (52°C to 82°C) water may be counted as the second source of heat for that service.

314.2 Requirements for Skilled Nursing, Intermediate Care Facilities and Basic Services Provided in Correctional Treatment Centers. [For OSHPD 2 & 4]

314.2.1 Boilers, if provided, shall accommodate Section 314.1.

314.2.2 Two or more interconnected water heaters are an acceptable means to provide two sources of heat for hot water (See Section 314.1.5).

314.3 Requirements for Outpatient Facilities and Licensed Clinics. [For OSHPD 3]

314.3.1 The system shall be designed to provide the temperature and humidities for sensitive areas for rooms shown in Table 315.

315.0 Air Conditioning and Heating Systems.

315.1 Requirements for Hospitals and Optional Services Provided in Correctional Treatment Centers. [OSHPD 1 & 4]

315.1.1 The systems shall be designed to provide the temperatures for sensitive areas or rooms shown in Table 315. When outdoor humidity and internal moisture sources are not sufficient to meet the requirements of

45

Table 315, humidification shall be provided by means of the health-care facility air-handling systems. Temperature shall be individually controlled for each operating and delivery room. Burn unit patient rooms that require humidifiers to comply with Table 315 shall be provided with individual humidity control.

315.1.2 For occupied areas not shown in Table 315, heating systems shall be designed to provide 70°F to 75°F (21.1°C to 23.9°C) based on the Median of Extremes shown by the 1982 ASHRAE Climatic Data for Region X and ASHRAE 1994 Supplement to Climatic Data for Region X. The systems shall be thermostatically controlled with appropriate zoning to achieve the above conditions.

315.1.3 For occupied areas not shown in Table 315, cooling systems shall be designed to provide 75°F (23.9°C) maximum based on the 0.5 percent summer design dry bulb temperatures shown by the 1982 ASHRAE Climatic Data for Region X and ASHRAE 1994 Supplement to Climatic Data for Region X. The systems shall be thermostatically controlled with appropriate zoning to achieve the above conditions.

TABLE 315
HEATING, COOLING, AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY
REQUIREMENTS FOR SENSITIVE AREAS OR ROOMS
Area or Room DesignationTEMPERATURE RANGE1, 2
°F
RELATIVE HUMIDITY1, 3
Percent
1 Thermostats and humidistat shall be either locally resetable and of the non-locking type or remotely resetable and of the locking type.
2Systems shall be capable of maintaining the rooms within the range during normal operation. Lower or higher temperature shall be permitted when patients' comfort and/or medical conditions require those conditions.
3 The ranges listed are the minimum and maximum limits where control is specifically needed.
4Types of intensive care service spaces are listed in the California Building Code.
Operating room68-7530-60
Cystoscopy68-7530-60
Cardiac catheterization lab70-75max 60
Delivery room68-7530-60
Post-Anesthesia Care Unit70-7530-60
Newborn nursery72-7830-60
Newborn Intensive-care nursery unit70-7530-60
Intensive care470-7530-60
Burn Unit70-7540-60

316.0 Essential Mechanical Provisions. [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 (Surgical Clinics only) & 4] During periods of power outages essential electrical power shall be provided for the following equipment:

316.1 (Does not apply to OSHPD 3 surgical clinic.) All heating equipment necessary to maintain a minimum temperature of 60°F (15.6°) in patient areas which are not specified in Table 315.

316.2 All heating equipment necessary to maintain the minimum temperatures for sensitive areas as specified in Table 315.

316.3 Equipment necessary for humidification of the areas listed in Table 315.

316.4 All supply, return, and exhaust fans required to maintain the positive and negative air balances as required in Table 4-A.

316.5 All control components and control systems necessary for the normal operation of equipment required to have essential electrical power.

316.6 Alarms for airborne infection isolation rooms and protective environment rooms.

46
TABLE 3-2
STANDARD INSTALLATION CLEARANCES IN INCHES FOR UNLISTED HEAT-PRODUCING APPLIANCES
[NFPA 54: TABLE 10.3.3]
SEE SECTION 303.0
RESIDENTIAL-TYPE APPLIANCES APPLIANCE
FUELABOVE TOP OF CASING OR APPLIANCEFROM TOP AND SIDES OF WARM-AIR BONNET OR PLENUMFROM FRONT1FROM BACKFROM SIDES
BOILERS AND WATER HEATERS11      
Steam Boilers — 15 psi (103.4 kPa)      
Water Boilers — 250°F (121°C)Automatic Oil or Comb. Gas-Oil62466
Water Heaters — 200°F (93°C)Solid64866
All Water Walled or JacketedAutomatic Gas61866
FURNACES—CENTRAL; OR HEATERS11—ELECTRIC CENTRAL WARM-AIR FURNACESAutomatic Oil or Comb. Gas-Oil6224666
Gravity, Upflow, Downflow, Horizontal and Duct Warm-Air—250°F (121°C) max.Automatic Gas62621866
 Solid183183481818
 Electric62621866
FURNACES—FLOORAutomatic Oil or Comb. Gas-Oil36121212
For Mounting in Combustible FloorsAutomatic Gas36121212
HEAT EXCHANGERS      
Steam—15 psi (103.4 kPa) max. 11111
Hot Water—250°F (121°C) max.      
ROOM HEATERS4Oil or Solid36241212
Circulating TypeGas36241212
Radiant or Other TypeOil or Solid36363636
 Gas36361818
 Gas with double metal or ceramic back36361218
Fireplace StoveSolid48554485485
RADIATORS      
Steam or Hot Water636666
RANGES—COOKING STOVESFiring SideOpp.Side
 Oil30792418
 Gas307666
 Solid Clay-Lined Firepot307242418
 Solid Unlined Firepot307363618
 Electric  6  
      6
INCINERATORS      
Domestic Types368483636
COMMERCIAL INDUSTRIAL-TYPE APPLIANCES ANY AND ALL PHYSICAL SIZES EXCEPT AS NOTED11 APPLIANCE
FUELABOVE TOP OF CASING OR APPLIANCEFROM TOP AND SIDES OF WARM-AIR BONNET OR PLENUMFROM FRONT1FROM BACK9FROM SIDES9
BOILERS AND WATER HEATERS11      
100 cu. ft. (2.832 m3) or less Steam, any pressureAll Fuels18481818
50 psi (345 kPa) or less Any sizeAll Fuels18481818
UNIT HEATERSSteam or Hot     
Floor Mounted or Suspended—Any SizeWater111
Suspended—100 cu. ft. (2.832 m3) or lessOil or Comb.     
 Gas-Oil6241818
Suspended—100 cu. ft. (2.832 m3) or lessGas6181818
Suspended—Over 100 cu. ft. (2.832 m3)All Fuels18481818
Floor Mounted—Any SizeAll Fuels18481818
RANGES—RESTAURANT-TYPE      
Floor MountedAll Fuels48481818
OTHER LOW-HEAT INDUSTRIAL APPLIANCES      
Floor Mounted or SuspendedAll Fuels1818481818
47
TABLE 3-2 (continued)
STANDARD INSTALLATION CLEARANCES IN INCHES FOR UNLISTED HEAT-PRODUCING APPLIANCES
[NFPA 54: TABLE 10.3.3]
COMMERCIAL INDUSTRIAL-TYPE APPLIANCES ANY AND ALL PHYSICAL SIZES EXCEPT AS NOTED11 APPLIANCE
FUELABOVE TOP OF CASING OR APPLIANCEFROM TOP AND SIDES OF WARM-AIR BONNET OR PLENUMFROM FRONT1FROM BACK10FROM SIDES10
Notes:
1 The minimum dimension shall be that necessary for servicing the appliance, including access for cleaning and normal care, tube removal, etc.
2 For a listed oil, combination gas-oil, gas, or electric furnace, this dimension may be two (2) inches (51 mm) if the furnace limit control cannot be set higher than 250°F (121°C), or this dimension may be one (1) inch (25.4 mm) if the limit control cannot be set higher than 200°F (93°C), or the appliance shall be marked to indicate that the outlet air temperature cannot exceed 200°F (93°C).
3 The dimension may be six (6) inches (152 mm) for an automatically stoker-fired forced-warm-air furnace equipped with 250°F (121°C) limit control and with barometric draft control operated by draft intensity and permanently set to limit draft to a maximum intensity of 0.13 inch (3.3 mm) water gauge.
4 Unlisted appliances shall be installed on noncombustible floors and may be installed on protected combustible floors. Heating appliances approved for installation on protected combustible flooring shall be so constructed that flame and hot gases do not come in contact with the appliance base. Protection for combustible floors shall consist of four (4) inch (102 mm) hollow masonry covered with sheet metal at least 0.021 inch (0.53 mm) thick (No. 24 manufacturer's standard gauge). Masonry shall be permanently fastened in place in an approved manner with the ends unsealed and joints matched so as to provide free circulation of air through the masonry. Floor protection shall extend twelve (12) inches (305 mm) at the sides and rear of the appliance, except that at least eighteen (18) inches (457 mm) shall be required on the appliance-opening side or sides measured horizontally from the edges of the opening.
5 The forty-eight (48) inch (1,219 mm) clearance may be reduced to 36 inches (914 mm) when protection equivalent to that provided by (a) (g) of Table 3-2 is applied to the combustible construction.
6 Steam pipes and hot water heating pipes shall be installed with a clearance of at least one (1) inch (25 mm) to all combustible construction or material, except that at the points where pipes carrying steam at not over fifteen (15) pounds gauge pressure (103.4 kPa) or hot water that emerge from a floor, wall, or ceiling, the clearance at the opening through the finish floorboards or wall-ceiling boards may be reduced to not less than one-half (1/2) inch (12.7 mm). Each such opening shall be covered with a plate of noncombustible material.
Such pipes passing through stock shelving shall be covered with not less than one (1) inch (25.4 mm) of approved insulation.
Wood boxes or casings enclosing uninsulated steam or hot water heating pipes or wooden covers to recesses in walls in which such uninsulated pipes are placed shall be lined with metal or insulating millboard.
Where the temperature of the boiler piping does not exceed 160°F (71°C), the provisions of this table shall not apply.
Coverings or insulation used on steam or hot water pipes shall be of material suitable for the operating temperature of the system. The insulation or jackets shall be of noncombustible materials, or the insulation or jackets and lap-seal adhesives shall be tested as a composite product. Such composite product shall have a flame-spread rating of not more than twenty-five (25) and a smoke-developed rating not to exceed fifty (50) when tested in accordance with UBC Standard No. 42-1.
7 To combustible material or metal cabinets. If the underside of such combustible material or metal cabinet is protected with insulating millboard at least one-quarter (1/4) inch (6.4 mm) thick covered with sheet metal of not less than 0.013 inch (0.33 mm) (No. 28 gauge), the distance may be reduced to twenty-four (24) inches (610 mm).
8 Clearance above charging door shall be at least forty-eight (48) inches (1,219 mm).
9 If the appliance is encased in brick, the eighteen (18) inch (457 mm) clearance above and at the sides and rear may be reduced to twelve (12) inches (305 mm).
10 If the appliance is encased in brick, the clearance above may be reduced to thirty-six (36) inches (914 mm) and at the sides and rear may be reduced to eighteen (18) inches (457 mm).
11 A central heating boiler or furnace shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and shall be installed on a floor of noncombustible construction with noncombustible flooring and surface finish and with no combustible material against the underside thereof, or on fire-resistive slabs or arches having no combustible material against the underside thereof.
Exception No. 1: Appliances listed for installation on a combustible floor.
Exception No. 2: Installation on a floor protected in an approved manner.
1 in. = 25.4 mm
BOILERS AND WATER HEATERS      
Over 50 psi (345 kPa)All Fuels48963636
Over 100 cu. ft (2832 m3)      
OTHER MEDIUM-HEAT INDUSTRIAL      
AppliancesAll Fuels4836963636
All Sizes      
INCINERATORS      
All Sizes48963636
INDUSTRIAL-TYPE HIGH-HEAT APPLIANCES HIGH-HEAT INDUSTRIAL APPLIANCESAll Fuels180360120120
All Sizes      
48
TABLE 3-3
CLEARANCES, IN INCHES, WITH SPECIFIED FORMS OF PROTECTION1, 2
TYPE OF PROTECTION4
Applied to the Combustible Material Unless Otherwise Specified and Covering All Surfaces within the Distance Specified as the Required Clearance with No Protection (Thicknesses Are Minimum)
WHERE THE STANDARD CLEARANCE IN TABLE 3-1 WITH NO PROTECTION IS:
36 inches18 inches12 inches9 inches6 inches
ABOVESIDES AND REARCHIMNEY OR VENT CONNECTORABOVESIDES AND REARCHIMNEY OR VENT CONNECTORABOVESIDES AND REARCHIMNEY OR VENT CONNECTORABOVESIDES AND REARCHIMNEY OR VENT CONNECTOR
Notes:
1 For appliances complying with Sections 303.2 and 303.3
2 Except for the protection described in (e), all clearances shall be measured from the outer surface of the appliance to the combustible material, disregarding any intervening protection applied to the combustible material.
3 Spacers shall be of noncombustible material.
4 Insulating millboard is a factory-made product formed of noncombustible materials, normally fibers, and having a thermal conductivity of 1 Btu-inch per square foot per degree F [1.73 W/(m•K)] or less.
1 in = 25.4 mm
(a) ¼" insulating millboard spaced out 1"330183015912966323
(b) 0.013" (No. 28 manufacturer's standard gauge) steel sheet on ¼" insulating millboard24182412912964322
(c) 0.013" (No. 28 manufacturer's standard gauge) steel sheet spaced out 1"3181218969644222
(d) 0.013" (No. 28 manufacturer's standard gauge) steel sheet on 1/8" insulating millboard spaced out 1"3181218969644222
(e) 1½" insulating cement covering on heating appliance1812369618649216
(f) ¼" insulating millboard on 1" mineral fiber batts reinforced with wire mesh or equivalent181218666444222
(g) 0.027" (No. 22 manufacturer"s standard gauge) steel sheet on 1" mineral fiber batts reinforced with wire or equivalent181212433222222
(h) ¼" insulating millboard36363618181812129444

FIGURE 3-1 EXTENT OF PROTECTION REQUIRED TO REDUCE CLEARANCES FROM APPLIANCE, CHIMNEY, OR VENT CONNECTORS.

FIGURE 3-1 EXTENT OF PROTECTION REQUIRED TO REDUCE CLEARANCES FROM APPLIANCE, CHIMNEY, OR VENT CONNECTORS.

49
TABLE 3-4
CHIMNEY CONNECTOR AND VENT CONNECTOR CLEARANCES
FROM COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS
 MINIMUM CLEARANCE,1
DESCRIPTION OF APPLIANCESInches(mm)
Notes:
1 These clearances apply except if the listing of an appliance specifies different clearance, in which case the listed clearance takes precedence.
2 The clearances from connectors to combustible materials may be reduced if the combustible material is protected in accordance with Table 3-3.
3 The dimension may be six (6) inches (152 mm), provided the maximum flue temperatures entering the draft hood do not exceed 550°F (288°C).
4 If listed Type L venting system piping is used, the clearance may be in accordance with the venting system listing.
5 If listed Type B or Type L venting system piping is used, the clearance may be in accordance with the venting system listing.
SINGLE-WALL METAL PIPE CONNECTORS2££
Gas appliances without draft hoods18(457)
Electric, gas, and oil incinerators18(457)
Oil and solid-fuel appliances18(457)
Unlisted gas appliances with draft hoods9(229)
Boilers and furnaces equipped with listed gas burners and with draft hoods93(229)
Oil appliances listed as suitable for use with Type L venting systems (but only when connected to chimneys)9(229)
Listed gas appliances with draft hoods6(152)
TYPE L VENTING SYSTEM PIPING CONNECTORS  
Gas appliances without draft hoods9(229)
Electric, gas, and oil incinerators9(229)
Oil and solid-fuel appliances9(229)
Unlisted gas appliances with draft hoods6(152)
Boilers and furnaces equipped with listed gas burners and with draft hoods6(152)
Oil appliances listed as suitable for use with Type L venting systems4
Listed gas appliances with draft hoods5
TYPE B GAS VENT PIPING CONNECTORS  
Listed gas appliances with draft hoods5
COMMERCIAL-INDUSTRIAL TYPE APPLIANCES  
LOW-HEAT APPLIANCES  
SINGLE-WALL METAL PIPE CONNECTORS2  
Gas, oil, and solid-fuel boilers, furnaces, and water heaters18(457)
Ranges, restaurant-type18(457)
Oil unit heaters18(457)
Unlisted gas unit heaters18(457)
Listed gas unit heaters with draft hoods6(152)
Other low-heat industrial appliances18(457)
MEDIUM-HEAT APPLIANCES  
SINGLE-WALL METAL PIPE CONNECTORS2  
All gas, oil, and solid-fuel appliances36(914)
50
TABLE 3-5
CAPACITIES OF LISTED METAL APPLIANCE CONNECTORS1

FOR USE WITH GAS PRESSURES 8-INCH OR MORE WATER COLUMN (1.99-kPa)
SEMIRIGID CONNECTOR O.D.2FLEXIBLE CONNECTOR NOMINAL I.D.3CAPACITIES FOR VARIOUS LENGTHS IN THOUSANDS Btu/h (BASED ON A PRESSURE DROP OF 0.2 INCH (10.2 MM) WATER COLUMN) NATURAL GAS OF 1,100 Btu/cu. ft. (11.4 W/L)4
11121131415161
Inches(mm)Inches(mm)ALL GAS APPLIANCESRANGES AND CLOTHES DRYERS
Notes:
1 Gas connectors are certified by the testing agency as complete assemblies, including the fittings and valves. Capacities shown are based on the use of fittings and valves supplied with the connector.
2 Outside diameter.
3 Internal diameter.
4 For liquefied petroleum gas, use 1.6 times the natural gas capacities shown.
1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1 Btu/h = 0.29 Watt
3/8(10)¼(8)4033292725
½(15)3/8(10)9376666258
5/8(18)½(15)1891551341251161019080
¾(20)404330287266244
1(25)803661573534500
TABLE 3-6
CAPACITIES OF LISTED METAL APPLIANCE CONNECTORS1

FOR USE WITH GAS PRESSURES LESS THAN 8-INCH WATER COLUMN (1.99-kPa)
SEMIRIGID CONNECTOR O.D.2FLEXIBLE CONNECTOR NOMINAL I.D.3CAPACITIES FOR VARIOUS LENGTHS IN THOUSANDS Btu/h (BASED ON A PRESSURE DROP OF 0.2 INCH (10.2 MM) WATER COLUMN) NATURAL GAS OF 1,100 Btu/cu. ft. (11.4 W/L)4
11121131415161
Inches(mm)Inches(mm)ALL GAS APPLIANCESRANGES AND CLOTHES DRYERS
Notes:
1 Gas connectors are certified by the testing agency as complete assemblies, including the fittings and valves. Capacities shown are based on the use of fittings and valves supplied with the connector.
2 Semirigid connector listings are based on the outside diameter.
3 Flexible connector listings are based on nominal diameter.
4 For liquefied petroleum gas, use 1.6 times the natural gas capacities shown.
1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1 Btu/h = 0.29 Watt
3/8(10)¼(8)2823201917
½(15)3/8(10)6654474441
5/8(18)½(15)134110958882726357
¾(20)285233202188174
1(25)567467405378353
51 52
CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE — MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE
CHAPTER 4 — VENTILATION AIR SUPPLY
Adopting AgencyBSCSFMHCDDSAOSHPDCADPH
121/ACACSSSS/CC1234
Adopt Entire Chapter      XX      
Adopt Entire Chapter as amended (amended sections listed below)XXXX          
Adopt only those sections that are listed below££££££££XXXX££
Article/Section
401.0 X      XXXX  
402.0        XXXX  
402.1X X     XXXX  
403.0        XXXX  
403.8 — 403.8.2.2XXXX          
404.0        XXXX  
405.4        XXXX  
407.0        XXXX  
408.0        XXXX  
409.0        XXXX  
410.0        XXXX  
411.0        XXXX  
412.0        XXXX  
413.0        XXXX  
414.0        XXXX  
415.0        XXXX  
416.0        XXXX  
416.3           X  
417.0        XXXX  
418.0        XXXX  
Table 4-A        XXXX  
Table 4-B        X X   
Table 4-C         X X  
53 54

CHAPTER 4
VENTILATION AIR SUPPLY

401.0 General.

This chapter contains requirements for ventilation air supply and exhaust, evaporative cooling systems, and makeup-air requirements for direct-gas-fired heaters, industrial air heaters, and miscellaneous heaters. [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] See Sections 404.0 through 418.0. [SFM] Air filters shall comply with all requirements of Part 12, Title 24, Chapter 12-71, SFM Standard 12-71-1.

402.0 Ventilation Air. [Not permitted for OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4]

402.1 General Requirements. [Not permitted for OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] All rooms and occupied spaces listed in Table 4-1 shall be designed to have ventilation (outdoor) air for occupants in accordance with this chapter. Ventilation air supply requirements for occupancies regulated by the California Energy Commission are found in the California Energy Code.

402.1.1 Construction Documents. The outdoor air ventilation rate and air distribution assumptions made in the design of the ventilation system shall be clearly identified on the construction documents.

402.2 Natural Ventilation. Use of natural ventilation systems designed in accordance with this section shall be permitted in lieu of or in conjunction with mechanical ventilation systems. [ASHRAE 62.1:5.1]

Exception: An engineered natural ventilation system when approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction need not meet the requirements of 402.2.1 and 402.2.2. [ASHRAE 62.1:5.1]

402.2.1 Location and Size of Openings. Naturally ventilated spaces shall be permanently open to and within twenty-five (25) feet (7,620mm) of operable wall or roof openings to the outdoors, the openable area of which is a minimum of 4 percent of the net occupiable floor area. Where the openings are covered with louvers or otherwise obstructed, openable area shall be based on the free unobstructed area through the opening. Where interior spaces without direct openings to the outdoors are ventilated through adjoining rooms, the opening between rooms shall be permanently unobstructed and have a free area of not less than 8 percent of the area of the interior room nor less than 25 ft2 (2.3 m2). [ASHRAE 62.1:5.1.1]

402.2.2 Control and Accessibility. The means to open required operable openings shall be readily accessible to building occupants whenever the space is occupied. [ASHRAE 62.1:5.1.2]

402.3 Mechanical Ventilation. Where natural ventilation is not permitted by this section or the Building Code, mechanical ventilation systems shall be designed, constructed, and installed to provide a method of supply air and exhaust air. The system shall operate so that all rooms and spaces are continuously provided with the required ventilation rate while occupied.

403.0 Ventilation Rates. [Not permitted for OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] The design outdoor air intake flow rate for a ventilation system shall be determined in accordance with Sections 403.1 through 403.6.

403.1 Zone Calculations. Zone parameters shall be determined in accordance with Sections 403.1.1 through 403.1.3. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.2]

403.1.1 Breathing Zone Outdoor Airflow. The design outdoor airflow required in the breathing zone of the occupiable space or spaces in a zone, i.e., the breathing zone outdoor airflow (Vbz), shall be determined in accordance with Equation 4-1. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.2.1]

(Equation 4-1) Image

Where:

Az = zone floor area: the net occupiable floor area of the zone ft.2 (m2).

Pz = zone population: The largest number of people expected to occupy the zone during typical usage. If the number of people expected to occupy the zone fluctuates, Pz shall be permitted to be estimated based on averaging approaches described in Section 403.5.2. If Pz cannot be accurately predicted during design, it shall be estimated based on the zone floor area and the default occupant density listed in Table 4-1.

Rp = outdoor airflow rate required per person as determined from Table 4-1.

Ra = outdoor airflow rate required per unit area as determined from Table 4-1. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.2.1]

403.1.2 Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness. The zone air distribution effectiveness (Ez) shall be determined using Table 4-2. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.2.2]

403.1.3 Zone Outdoor Airflow. The design zone outdoor airflow (Voz), i.e., the outdoor airflow that must be provided to the zone by the supply air distribution system, shall be determined in accordance with Equation 4-2. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.2.3]

(Equation 4-2) Image

403.2 Single-Zone Systems. When one air handler supplies a mixture of outdoor air and recirculated air to only one zone, the outdoor air intake flow (Vot) shall be determined in accordance with Equation 4-3. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.3]

(Equation 4-3) Image
55

403.3 100% Outdoor Air Systems. When one air handler supplies only outdoor air to one or more zones, the outdoor air intake flow (Vot) shall be determined in accordance with Equation 4-4. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.4]

(Equation 4-4) Image

403.4 Multiple-Zone Recirculating Systems. When one air handler supplies a mixture of outdoor air and recirculated return air to more than one zone, the outdoor air intake flow (Vot) shall be determined in accordance with Sections 403.4.1 through 403.4.4. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.5]

403.4.1 Primary Outdoor Air Fraction. When Table 4-3 is used to determine system ventilation efficiency, the zone primary outdoor air fraction (Zp) shall be determined in accordance with Equation 4-5. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.5.1]

((Equation 4-5) Image

Vpz is the primary airflow to the zone from the air handler, including outdoor air and recirculated return air. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.5.1]

403.4.2 System ventilation Efficiency. The system ventilation efficiency (Ev) shall be determined using Table 4-3 or Appendix A of ASHRAE 62.1. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.5.2]

403.4.3 Uncorrected Outdoor Air Intake. The design uncorrected outdoor air intake (Vou) shall be determined in accordance with Equation 4-6.

(Equation 4-6) Image

The occupant diversity, D, shall be permitted to be used to account for variations in occupancy within the zones served by the system.

The occupancy diversity is defined as:

(Equation 4-7) Image

Where the system population (Ps) is the total population in the area served by the system. Alternative methods shall be permitted to be used to account for population diversity when calculating Vou’ provided that the resulting value is no less than that determined by Equation 4-6. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.5.3]

403.4.4 Outdoor Air Intake. The design outdoor air intake flow (Vot) shall be determined in accordance with Equation 4-8. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.5.4]

(Equation 4-8) Image

403.5 Design for Varying Operating Conditions.

403.5.1 Variable Load Conditions. Ventilation systems shall be designed to be capable of providing the required ventilation rates in the breathing zone whenever the zones served by the system are occupied, including all full and part-load conditions. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.6.1]

403.5.2 Short-Term Conditions. If it is known that peak occupancy will be of short duration or the ventilation rate will be varied or interrupted for a short period of time, the design shall be permitted to be based on the average conditions over a time period T determined by Equation 4-9. [ASHRAE 62.1:6.2.6.2]:

(Equation 4-9) Image

Where:

T = averaging time period, (min)

v = the volume of the zone for which averaging is being applied, ft.3 (m3).

Vbz = the breathing zone outdoor airflow calculated using Equation 4-1 and the design value of the zone population Pz’ cfm (L/s).

403.6 Dynamic Reset. The system shall be permitted to be designed to vary the design outdoor air intake flow (Vot), or the space or zone airflow as operating conditions change.

403.7 Exhaust Ventilation. Exhaust airflow shall be provided in accordance with the requirements in Table 4-4. Exhaust makeup air shall be permitted to be any combination of outdoor air, recirculated air, and transfer air.

403.8 Exhaust Ventilation for Enclosed Parking Garages. Exhaust airflow for enclosed parking garages shall be provided in accordance with the requirements in Table 4-4 and this Section. Exhaust makeup air shall be permitted to be any combination of outdoor air or transfer air.

403.8.1 Exhaust Inlet Distribution. To ensure proper exhaust of contaminated air and fumes from parking garages, exhaust systems utilizing multiple exhaust inlets shall be designed so that exhaust inlets are distributed in such a manner that no portion of the parking garage is more than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from an exhaust inlet. Such exhaust inlets shall be installed so that the highest elevation of the exhaust inlet is no greater than 12 inches (305 mm) below the lowest ceiling level.

Exception: Garage exhaust systems designed without distributed exhaust inlets shall have their exhaust inlets designed based on the principles of engineering and mechanics and shall provide the minimum required exhaust rate in Table 4-4.

403.8.2 Alternative Exhaust Ventilation for Enclosed Parking Garages. Mechanical ventilation systems used for enclosed parking garages shall be permitted to operate intermittently where the system is arranged to operate automatically upon detection of vehicle operation or the presence of occupants by approved automatic detection devices.

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403.8.2.1 Minimum Exhaust Rate. Ventilation systems shall be capable of providing 14 000 cfm (6608 L/s) of exhaust air for each operating vehicle. Number of operating vehicles shall be determined based on 2.5 percent of all parking spaces (and not less than one vehicle).

403.8.2.2 Automatic Carbon Monoxide Sensing Devices. Automatic carbon monoxide sensing devices may be employed to modulate the ventilation system to maintain a maximum average concentration of carbon monoxide of 50 parts per million during any eight-hour period, with a maximum concentration not greater than 200 parts per million for a period not exceeding one hour. Automatic carbon monoxide sensing devices employed to modulate parking garage ventilation systems shall be approved pursuant to the requirements in Section 302.1.

404.0 Makeup Air.

Makeup-air requirements for direct gas-fired heaters, industrial air heaters, and miscellaneous heaters are found in Chapters 5 and 9.

405.0 Evaporative Cooling Systems.

Evaporative cooling systems shall comply with this chapter.

Evaporative cooling systems shall be provided with outside air as specified for cooling systems in this code.

Air ducts and fire dampers that are a portion of an evaporative cooling system shall comply with this code.

405.1 Location. Evaporative cooling systems shall be installed so as to minimize the probability of damage from an external source.

405.2 Access, Inspection, and Repair. Evaporative coolers shall be accessible for inspection, service, and replacement without removing permanent construction.

405.3 Installation. An evaporative cooler supported by the building structure shall be installed on a substantial level base and shall be secured directly or indirectly to the building structure by suitable means to prevent displacement of the cooler.

Modifications made to the supporting framework of buildings as a result of the installation shall be in accordance with the requirements of the Building Code. Openings in exterior walls shall be flashed in an approved manner in accordance with the requirements of the Building Code.

An evaporative cooler supported directly by the ground shall be isolated from the ground by a level concrete slab extending not less than three (3) inches (76 mm) above the adjoining ground level.

An evaporative cooler supported on an aboveground platform shall be elevated at least six (6) inches (152 mm) above adjoining ground level.

Example: Determine the outdoor air rate required for a single zone AC unit serving an interior 2,000 ft.2 meeting/conference room with a design occupancy of 100 people. The system supplies and returns air from the ceiling.

Per Table 4-2, the zone air distribution effectiveness is 1.0 since the system supplies cooling only from the ceiling. Using the rates from Table 4-1 for a meeting/conference room, the minimum system outdoor air rate is calculated to be:

Image

405.4 Evaporative Cooling System for Health Care Facilities. [For OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] Direct evaporative cooling systems where the air directly contacts the wetted surface or spray shall be limited in health facilities to nonpatient areas such as laundry rooms, food preparation areas, and boiler or machinery rooms. Similar rooms with high heating-producing equipment will be considered when specifically approved by the enforcing agency. The evaporative pads shall be a synthetic type. Filters shall be required in accordance with Tables 4-B and 4-C except utility rooms, i.e.: boiler or machinery rooms.

406.0 Reserved.

407.0 Ventilation System Details. [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4]

407.1 General.

407.1.1 All supply-air, return air, and exhaust-air systems shall be mechanically operated and such systems for areas listed in Table 4-A shall be operated continuously. Natural ventilation through windows or other openings such as louvers will be considered as supplemental to the required mechanical ventilation systems.

Exceptions:

  1. Natural ventilation shall not be used in airborne infection isolation rooms and protective environment rooms.
  2. The number of air changes may be reduced to 25 percent of the indicated value in Table 4-A, when the room is unoccupied, if provisions are made to ensure the following:
    1. The number of air changes per hour indicated is reestablished whenever the space is occupied.
    2. The pressure relationship with the surrounding rooms is maintained when the air changes per hour are reduced. In areas requiring no continuous directional control as identified in accordance with Table 4-A, ventilation systems may be shut down when the space is unoccupied and ventilation is not otherwise required. Ventilation shall not be reduced in rooms specifically used for airborne infection control, such as waiting rooms, triage rooms, corridors, reception areas, areas adjacent to waiting areas, airborne infection isolation rooms, negative pressure exam room, negative pressure x-ray treatment rooms, and protective environment rooms. All operating and delivery rooms shall maintain a minimum of six air changes per hour of total air when not in use.
57

407.1.2 Fans serving exhaust systems shall be located at the discharge end of the system. The ventilation rates shown in Table 4-A shall be considered as minimum acceptable rates and shall not be construed as precluding the use of higher ventilation rates if they are required to meet design conditions.

407.1.3 Services/Systems and Utilities (See Section 313.2).

407.2 Outdoor Air Intakes and Exhaust Outlets.

407.2.1 Outdoor Air Intakes. Outdoor air intakes shall be located at least 25 feet (7.62 m) from exhaust outlets of ventilating systems, combustion equipment stacks, medical-surgical vacuum systems, cooling towers, plumbing vents, and areas that may collect vehicular exhaust or other noxious fumes. The bottom of outdoor air intakes shall be located as high as practicable, but not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) above ground level. If installed through the roof, they shall be located 18 inches (457 mm) above roof level or 3 feet (914 mm) above a flat roof where heavy snowfall is anticipated.

Exceptions:

  1. These dimensions may be reduced if it is demonstrated by the submission of details and calculations that location of intakes with respect to exhausts and their orientation, or the use of special filters, provides equal performance.
  2. The requirements regarding the bottom of outdoor air intakes and installation through the roof do not apply to skilled nursing facilities, intermediate-care facilities or nonsensitive areas in correctional treatment centers.

407.2.2 Exhaust Outlets. Exhaust outlets shall be located a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) above adjoining grade and 10 feet (3048 mm) from doors, occupied areas, and operable windows.

Exception: Airborne infection isolation rooms shall comply with Section 414.1

407.2.3 Relief Air Discharge. Building relief air discharge shall discharge at least 10 feet (3048 mm) from any outside air intake.

407.3 Air Balance.

407.3.1 The ventilation systems shall be designed and balanced to provide the general air balance relationship to adjacent areas, shown in Table 4-A. The ventilation systems shall be balanced in accordance with the latest edition of standards published by the Associated Air Balance Council (AABC), the National Environmental Balancing Bureau (NEBB), or the Testing, Adjusting and Balancing Bureau (TABB).

407.3.2 Where the variation in static pressure drop across filters is a significant portion of the total pressure drop, static pressure or pressure differential controls or constant volume devices may be required to ensure the maintenance of air balance relationships shown in Table 4-A regardless of filter loading.

Exception: This section does not pertain to skilled nursing facilities, intermediate-care facilities and nonsensitive areas in correctional treatment centers, except for airborne infection isolation rooms and protective environment rooms.

407.4 Air Circulation.

407.4.1 Design of the ventilation system shall provide air movement that is generally from clean to less clean areas.

407.4.1.1 Air supplied to operating rooms, cesarean operating rooms, cardiac catheterization labs, cystoscopy rooms, delivery rooms, and nurseries, shall be delivered at or near the ceiling of the area served, and all air removed from the area shall be removed near floor level. Exhaust or recirculation inlets shall be located not less than 3 inches (76 mm) nor more than 8 inches (203 mm) above the finished floor. At least two exhaust or recirculation air inlets shall be used in all cardiac catheterization labs, cystoscopy rooms, operating rooms, and delivery rooms and shall be located not less than 3 inches (76 mm) nor more than 8 inches (203 mm) above the finished floor.

Exception: For airborne infection isolation rooms and protective environment rooms, see Sections 414.0 and 415.0.

407.4.1.2 Room supply air outlets and room recirculation and exhaust air inlets installed in nonsensitive areas shall be located not less than 3 inches (76 mm) above the floor.

Exception: For airborne infection isolation rooms and protective environment rooms. see Sections 414.0 and 415.0.

407.4.1.3 Corridors shall not be used to convey supply, return, or exhaust air to or from any room if the corridor is required to be of fire resistive construction per the California Building Code.

Exceptions:

  1. Mechanically exhausted toilet rooms of 50 square feet (4.7 m2) or less and small rooms of 30 square feet (2.79 m2) or less such as janitor closets, housekeeping rooms, and electrical or telephone closets opening directly onto corridor.
  2. Air transfer caused by pressure differentials in rooms required to have a positive or negative air balance by Table 4-A.

407.4.1.4 No space above a ceiling may be utilized an an outside-air, relief-air, supply-air, exhaust-air, or return-air plenum.

Exception: Designs specifically approved by the enforcing agency.

407.4.1.5 Air from a patient room, exam room, treatment room shall not be transferred to another similar room without first having passed through air filters as required by Table 4-B or Table 4-C.

407.4.1.6 Supply outlets and return and exhaust air inlets shall be located to prevent short-circuiting.

58

407.5 Variable Air Volume.

407.5.1 Variable Air Volume Systems (VAV). Variable air volume systems subjecting the patient to a fluctuating air movement are not acceptable for airborne infection isolation rooms, protective environment rooms or those critically sensitive areas listed in Table 315. For nonsensitive areas, variable air volume systems meeting the following criteria can be considered:

407.5.1.1 The VAV system shall comply with code requirements for outside air, total air, and pressure relationship through the full range of operation from minimum to maximum.

407.5.1.2 The central return or exhaust fan shall be controlled to accomplish the variable air volume requirements of the individual rooms served by the fan as described in Section 407.5.1.3.

407.5.1.3 Variable air volume for return or exhaust air shall be accomplished by utilizing an automatic modulating damper in the return or exhaust air for each zone. The damper will modulate from full open to minimum position in conjunction with the supply air VAV terminal box.

408.0 Filters. [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4]

408.1 General. Filter efficiencies shall be certified by the manufacturer and shall be based on ASHRAE Standard 52.1-1992, Gravimetric and Dust-spot Procedures for Testing Air-Cleaning Devices Used in General Ventilation for Removing Particulate Matter or ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999, Method of Testing General Ventilation Air-Cleaning Devices for Removal Efficiency by Particle Size when specifically set forth in these standards.

408.1.1 A filter gauge shall be installed across each filter bank serving central air systems. The gauge shall be red lined or a filter alarm light installed to signal when the recommended maximum static pressure drop has been reached.

408.1.2 Central air-handling systems are defined as any unit requiring duct work on the supply or inlet side that serve more than one room.

408.1.3 Filter banks shall be visually inspected for torn media and bypass in filter frames by means of a flashlight or equivalent, both with fans in operation and stopped. Tears in media and bypass in filter frames shall be eliminated in accordance with the manufacturer's directions and the requirements of the enforcing agency prior to commencing operation of the system.

408.1.4 Central air-handling systems shall be maintained in a reasonably clean condition during construction and shall be cleaned as necessary prior to replacement of temporary filter used during construction to ensure that clean air will be delivered to the occupied spaces.

408.1.5 Filter bank No. 1 shall be located upstream of the air-conditioning equipment. Filter bank No. 2 and filter bank No. 3 shall be located downstream of the supply fan and all cooling and humidification equipment with efficiencies as indicated in Table 4-B or Table 4-C.

Exception: Dry stream-type humidifiers for local room humidity control may be installed in the supply air duct downstream of the final filter bank where designs are specifically approved by the enforcing agency.

408.1.6 Filter bank No. 2 and filter bank No. 3 media shall be rigid or supported (noncollapsing type) and shall operate on the principles of impingement, straining, and diffusion.

408.2 Filters for Hospitals.

408.2.1 All air-ventilation systems shall comply with code requirements of this section and shall have filter bank efficiencies as listed in Table 4-B.

408.2.2 Noncentral recirculating air systems providing cooling to high heat producing equipment located in nonsensitive areas shall have a filter with 30 percent average efficiency based on ASHRAE Standard 52.1-1992 or a minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 8 based on ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999.

408.2.3 Noncentral air systems serving any areas not listed in Table 4-B shall be provided with filter arrangement and efficiency specifically approved by the enforcing agency.

408.2.4 Noncentral recirculating air handling systems, for example, through-the-wall units, fan coil units, and heat pumps may be utilized for single patient rooms of one or more beds. Filtration for these units shall have a minimum weight arrestance value of 50 percent, based on ASHRAE Standard 52.1-1992 or a minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 1, based on ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999. The air ventilation system providing the minimum air changes of outdoor air shall comply with Table 4-B. These units may be used as recirculating units only. All outdoor air requirements shall be met by a separate central air handling systems.

408.3 Filters for Skilled Nursing Facilities, Intermediate Care Facilities, and Correctional Treatment Centers.

408.3.1 The air ventilation systems shall comply with code requirements of this section for skilled nursing facilities, intermediate care facilities and correctional treatment centers and shall have filter bank efficiencies as listed in Table 4-C.

408.3.2 Noncentral air systems serving single patient rooms of one or more beds shall comply with Table 4-C.

408.3.3 Noncentral recirculating air-handling systems, i.e. through the wall units, may be utilized for each patient room with one or more beds. Filtration for these units shall have a minimum weight arrestance value of 50 percent, based on ASHRAE Standard 52.1-1992 or a minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 1, based on ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999. The air ventilation system providing the minimum air changes of outdoor air shall comply with Table 4-C. These units may be used as recirculating units only. All outdoor air requirements shall be met by a separate central air handling system.

408.3.4 Airborne infection isolation rooms, protective environment rooms, and sensitive areas in correctional treatment centers shall comply with Section 408.2.

59

408.4 Filters for Outpatient Facilities.

408.4.1 The air ventilation systems shall comply with code requirements of this section for outpatient facilities and shall have filter bank efficiencies as listed in Table 4-B.

408.4.2 Noncentral air systems serving individual rooms shall comply with Table 4-B.

409.0 Ducts. [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4]

409.1 Ducts which penetrate construction, intended for X-ray or other radiation protection, shall not impair the effectiveness of the protection.

409.2 Duct linings and their use shall meet the requirements of Chapter 6, California Mechanical Code.

409.3 Cold-air ducts shall be insulated wherever necessary or to prevent condensation problems.

409.4 The anchorage and supporting structural elements for airducts shall be designed to withstand the lateral forces as required by the California Building Code, Title 24, Part 2.

410.0 Laboratory Ventilating Systems and Hoods. [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4]

410.1 Laboratory Ventilating Systems. Laboratory ventilating systems shall comply with NFPA 99, as required by Section 1224.4.6.4 of the California Building Code.

410.2 Exhaust Hoods and Safety Cabinets. Hoods and safety cabinets may be used for normal exhaust of a space provided minimum air change rates are maintained. If air change standards in Table 4-A do not provide sufficient air for proper operation of exhaust hoods and safety cabinets (when in use), supplementary makeup air (filtered and preheated) shall be provided around these units to maintain the required airflow direction and exhaust velocity. Makeup systems for hoods shall be arranged to minimize “short circuiting” of air and to avoid reduction in air velocity at the point of contaminant capture.

410.3 Laboratory Fume Hoods. Laboratory fume hoods shall meet the following standards:

410.3.1 General Standard. Average face velocity shall be at least 75 feet per minute (0.38 meters per second). Exhaust system shall be separate from the building exhaust system shall be separate from the building exhaust system. Exhaust fan shall be located at the discharge end of the system. Exhaust duct system shall be of noncombustible corrosion-resistant material as required to meet the planned usage of the hood.

410.3.2 Special Standards for Use with Strong Oxidants. Fume hoods and their associated equipment in the air stream intended for use with perchloric acid and other strong oxidants shall be constructed of stainless steel or other material consistent with special exposures. Hoods and equipment shall be provided with a water wash and drain system to permit periodic flushing of duct and hood. When perchloric acid or other strong oxidants are only transferred from one container to another, standard laboratory fume hoods and the associated equipment may be used in lieu of stainless steel construction.

410.3.3 Special Standards for Use with Infectious or Radioactive Materials. Each hood shall have a minimum face velocity of 90 to 110 feet per minute (0.45 to 0.56 meters per second) with suitable pressure-independent air-modulating devices and alarms to alert staff of fan shutdown or loss of airflow. Each hood shall have filters with a 99.97 percent efficiency (based on the DOP test method) in the exhaust stream and be designed and equipped to permit the safe removal, disposal, and replacement of contaminated filters. Filters shall be as close to the hood as practical to minimize duct contamination. Fume hoods intended for use with radioactive isotopes shall be constructed of stainless steel or other material suitable for the particular exposure.

411.0 Kitchen and Dining Areas. [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4]

411.1 The air from dining areas may be used to ventilate the food preparation areas only after it has passed through a filter with at least an 80 percent average efficiency based on ASHRAE Standard 52.1-1992 or a minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 13, based on ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999.

Exception: For skilled nursing facilities, intermediate care facilities and correctional treatment centers, the air from dining area may be used to ventilate food preparation areas only after it has passed through a filter with a 50 percent average efficiency based on ASHRAE Standard 52.1-192 or a minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 10, based on ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999.

412.0 Boiler, Mechanical, and Electrical Rooms. [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4]

412.1 Boiler, heater and electrical equipment rooms shall be provided with outdoor air so as to maintain combustion rates of equipment and temperatures in the rooms and in adjoining areas as rated in this chapter.

412.2 Floor surfaces in occupied spaces above such rooms should not exceed a temperature of 85°F (29.4°C), and suitable insulation may be required.

413.0 Odorous Rooms. [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4]

413.1 Rooms in areas where excessive heat or moisture is generated, where objectional odors or dust are present, or where flammable or toxic gases may accumulate, which are used by health facility personnel or patients, shall be provided with exhaust ventilation to change the air a minimum of ten times per hour.

413.2 Kitchen, morgues and laundries located inside a hospital building or skilled nursing facility in which patients are accommodated, or treated, shall be ventilated with exhaust systems which will provide a minimum of ten air changes per hour and prevent odors from entering patient areas.

60

414.0 Airborne Infection Isolations Rooms. [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4]

414.1 Exhaust Systems. A separate, dedicated exhaust system shall be provided for airborne infection isolation rooms. The dedicated system may serve more than one airborne infection isolation room, adjoining toilet room and anteroom. The exhaust ducts shall be identified by appropriate labeling with the words “Caution Airborne Infection Isolation Rooms Exhaust” or similar terminology. Such labeling shall be in a manner which is not readily removable and shall appear on the exhaust duct at intervals of not more than 20 feet (6096 mm) and at least once near each room and each story traversed by the exhaust system. Exhaust fans shall comply with Section 407.1.2. The discharge from exhaust fans shall be located above the roof and shall be located above the roof and shall be located a minimum of 25 feet (7620 mm) from areas that may be occupied, doors, operable windows, outdoor air intakes, or other openings into the building. The exhaust fan discharge shall be labeled in a manner which readily identifies the precautions which should be observed. To ensure that the airborne contaminates do not reenter the building, one of the following shall be provided:

414.1.1 Exhaust discharge from fan shall extend at least 7 feet (2134 mm) above the roof and discharge vertically upward. Self-draining stacks or equivalent shall be used for rain protection. Rain caps which divert the exhaust toward the roof shall be prohibited; or

414.1.2 Exhaust shall discharge above roof level and through an accessible HEPA filter. The HEPA filter shall be located upstream of the exhaust fan and have a minimum efficiency of 99.97 percent based on the DOP method in accordance with Mil-Std. 282 or a minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 17, based on ASHRAE Standard 52.2 1999. Filter gage shall be installed across the filter. For maintenance of air balance relationship, see Section 407.3.2. The 25-foot (7620 mm) dimension required by Section 414.1 may be reduced when a 99.97 percent HEPA filter or a minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 17, based on ASHRAE Standard 52.2 1999 is used and the reduced dimension is specifically approved by the enforcing agency.

414.2 Air Distribution. The supply outlets and exhaust inlets shall be located to provide airflow patterns that prevent stagnation of the air and eliminate short circuiting of the supply to the exhaust, and minimize exposure of health care workers to airborne infectious particles. Supply-air outlets shall be located at or near the ceiling and at the end of the airborne infection isolation room which is opposite the head of the bed. Exhaust registers shall be located on the wall behind the patient's head, or as close to that wall as practical and shall be located not less than 3 inches (76 mm) nor more than 24 inches (610 mm) above the finished floor.

Exception: For correctional treatment centers, the location and design of the supply outlets an exhaust or return inlets shall not compromise the safety, security and protection of staff, inmates and property.

415.0 Protective Environment Rooms. [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4]

415.1 Air Distribution. The supply outlets and exhaust and return inlets shall be located to provide airflow patterns that prevent stagnation of the air and eliminate short circuiting of the supply to the exhaust or return. Supply air shall be delivered at or near the ceiling and near the patient's bed. All exhaust or return registers shall be located near the entrance to the protective environment room and not less than 3 inches (76 mm) nor more than 8 inches (203 mm) above the finished floor.

Exception: For correctional treatment centers, the location and design of the supply outlets and exhaust or return inlets shall not compromise the safety, security, and protection of staff, inmates and property.

416.0 Alarms – Airborne Infection Isolation Rooms and Protective Environment Rooms. [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4]

416.1 An alarm system which is based on static pressure control, volumetric control, or directional flow measurement shall be provided for each isolation room. The alarm system shall consist of a display monitor located on the corridor wall near the door to the room and a visual and audible alarm which annunciates at the room and at a nurses' station or other suitable location that will provide responsible surveillance. A time delay shall be provided to allow for routine openings of doors. The alarm shall annunciate when the supply, return, or exhaust fans are interrupted and when one of the following conditions is not being met during closed door conditions:

  1. When the minimum air quantity difference of 75 cfm (35.4 L/s) required by Table 4-A is not being maintained; or
  2. When a minimum pressure differential of 0.001 inch (0.003 kPa) of water and a minimum inward (outward for protective environment rooms) air velocity of 100 feet per minute (0.508 m/s) is not being maintained at the air transfer opening required by Table 4-A.

416.2 Other acceptable alarm systems will be allowed when designs are specifically approved by the enforcing agency.

416.3 [For OSHPD 4] For correctional treatment centers, the alarm system shall not create false alarms or security hazards.

416.4 Prior to acceptance of the rooms, the alarm system shall be tested and operated to demonstrate to the owner or designated representative that the installation and performance of the system conforms to design intent.

417.0 Testing and Balancing Airborne Infection Isolation Rooms and Protective Environment Rooms. [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] Prior to acceptance of the rooms, all mechanical systems shall be tested, balanced, and operated to demonstrate to the owner or designated representative that the installation and performance of the systems conform to design intent. All testing and balancing shall be performed by a qualified independent agency certified by the Associated Air Balance Council (AABC): the National Environmental Balancing Bureau (NEBB); or the Testing, Adjusting and Balancing Bureau (TABB).

61

418.0 Design Requirements for Ethylene Oxide (ETO) Sterilization Areas. [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4]

418.1 Air Changes. The ETO sterilization equipment room shall be provided with minimum air changes per hour per Table 4-A and be maintained at a negative air balance.

418.2 Exhaust Requirements.

418.2.1 All air from the ETO sterilizer equipment room shall be exhausted to the outside by a dedicated system or other approved method.

418.2.2 The exhaust fan for the dedicated system shall be located at the discharge point of the system and identified as ETO Equipment Room Exhaust.

418.2.3 Discharge Point. The discharge point shall be a minimum of 25 feet (7620 mm) away from any outside intake, operable window or personnel passage.

418.3 Ventilation Requirements.

418.3.1 Aeration Units. The aeration units shall be ventilated through a nonrecirculating dedicated ventilation exhaust system.

418.3.2 Capture Box. When the drain is not located in the ETO sterilizer equipment room, ventilation is required by a capture box.

418.3.3 Cylinder Change. When not located in the ETO sterilizer equipment room, exhaust during cylinder change is required by installing a hood that is part of a dedicated ventilation exhaust system, positioned no more than 1 foot (305 mm) above or behind the point where the change of cylinders takes place.

418.3.4 Sterilizer Relief Valve. The ventilation of sterilizer relief valve is required through a pipe connected to the outlet of the relief valve exhausted directly to the outdoors at a point high enough to be away from passers by, and not near any windows that open, nor near any air-conditioning or ventilation air intakes.

418.3.5 Ventilation of Sterilizer Door Area. The system shall be designed to capture the ETO when the door is opened following the completion of the sterilization process. A hood or canopy closed on each end should be installed over the sterilization door. A hood or canopy shall be connected to a dedicated exhaust ventilation system.

418.4 Gas Valves. Installation of gas line hand valves at the connection to the supply cylinders are required to minimize leakage during cylinder change.

418.5 Alarm Systems. An Audible and visual alarm system shall be installed to alert sterilizer operating personnel if the air flow falls below design cubic feet per minute (L/S).

62
TABLE 4-A
PRESSURE RELATIONSHIP AND VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS FOR GENERAL ACUTE CARE
HOSPITALS, SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES, INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES, CORRECTIONAL
TREATMENT CENTERS, OUTPATIENT FACILITIES, AND LICENSED CLINICS
ABCDEF
AREA DESIGNATIONAIR BALANCE RELATIONSHIP TO ADJACENT AREAS8MINIMUM AIR CHANGES IF 100% O.S.A.CONDITIONED AIR NOT 100% O.S.A.ALL AIR EXHAUSTED DIRECTLY TO OUTDOORS
MINIMUM AIR CHANGES OF OUTDOOR AIR PER HOURMINIMUM TOTAL AIR CHANGES PER HOUR
P = Positive NR = No requirement for continuous directional control N = Negative
1 The pressure relationship of the entire emergency department shall be negative to other adjacent areas.
2 Air may be recirculated if a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter with a minimum efficiency of 99.97 percent or a minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 17 is installed in the return air duct which serves the waiting area.
3 The term “trauma room” as used here is the operating room space in the emergency department or other trauma reception area that is used for emergency surgery. The first aid room and/pr “emergency room” used for initial treatment of accident victims may be ventilated as noted for the “treatment rooms.”
4 The anteroom shall have positive air pressure in relation to the airborne infection isolation room. A door louver, transfer grille, or other acceptable means shall be provided to allow for airflow from the anteroom to the airborne infection isolation room. The airborne infection isolation room shall have negative pressure in relation to the anteroom, and the adjoining toilet room shall have negative pressure in relation to the airborne infection isolation room, Negative pressure shall be achieved by balancing the exhaust cfm to no less than 75 cfm (35.4 L/s) greater than the supply cfm for each airborne infection isolation room the anteroom serves. The overall area consisting of the anteroom, airborne infection isolation room, and adjoining toilet room shall have an equal air balance in relation to the corridor.
Exception: For correctional treatment centers, the location and design of the air transfer device shall not compromise the safety, security and protection of staff, inmates, and property.
5 Positive-pressure shall be achieved by balancing the supply cfm to not less than 75 cfm (35.4 L/s) greater than the exhaust and return cfm for each protective environment room the anteroom serves.
6 The anteroom shall have negative air pressure in relation to the protective environment room. A door louver, transfer grille, or other acceptable means shall be provided to allow for airflow from the protective environment room to the anteroom. The protective environment room shall have positive-pressure in relation to the anteroom and adjoining toilet room. Positive pressure shall be achieved by balancing the supply cfm to not less than 75 cfm (35.4 L/s) greater than the exhaust and return cfm. The overall area consisting of the anteroom, protective environment room, and adjoining toilet room shall have an equal air balance in relation to the corridor.
Exception: For correctional treatment centers, the location and design of the air transfer device shall not compromise the safety, security, and protection of staff, inmates, and property.
7 Cystoscopy may have no requirement for continuous directional control when approved by Authority Having Jurisdiction.
8 For operating rooms, cardiac catheterization labs, angiography rooms, cystoscopy rooms, delivery rooms, cesarean operating rooms, newborn intensive care, intensive care units, and nurseries provide approximately 15% excess supply air to the room or a sufficient quantity of excess supply air to maintain an appropriate positive air balance based on the room tightness and number of doors. For all rooms not listed in this footnote or not listed in Table 315 requiring either a positive or negative air balance, provide approximately 10% differential cfm between supply and return/exhaust airflow but not less than 25 cfm differential shall be provided regardless of room size. Room function, size, and tightness may be considered when determining the differential airflow required. Where continuous directional control is not required, variations between supply cfm and return or exhaust cfm shall be minimized.
9 Intensive care patient rooms that contain a modular toilet/sink combination unit within the room shall be provided with a minimum of 75 cfm of exhaust directly over the modular toilet/sink combination unit.
Operating room, cardiac catheterization lab and cystoscopyP712520
Patient holding preparation1NR626
Delivery room, cesarean operating roomP12520
Newborn/well baby nurseryP626
Post anesthesia care unitNR626Yes
Intensive care service spaces, acute respiratory - care service spaces, burn service spaces, coronary - care service spaces, pediatric intensive - care service spaces9P626
Newborn intensive careP626
Emergency department1
Waiting areaN12212Yes2
Operating roomP12520
Treatment roomNR626
Trauma Room3P12520
TriageN12212Yes
Patient roomNR226
IV Prep. roomP626
Blood draw/phlebotomyNR626
Infusion roomP626
Blood bank/tissue storageNR626
AdministrativeNR424
Patient area corridorNR224
Labor/delivery/recovery room, Labor/delivery/recovery/postpartum roomNR226
Airborne infection isolation roomN412212Yes
Airborne infection isolation anteroomP410210Yes
Protective environment roomP515215
Protective environment anteroomN615215
Treatment and examination rooms, Bloodborne infection isolation roomNR626
Bronchoscopy and endoscopyN12212Yes
Special purpose room (SNF & ICF only)NR626Yes
Radiological/Imaging: Angiography roomP1251563
X-ray (diagnostic and treatment)NR626
CT ScanNR626
MRI roomNR626
Fluoroscopy roomN626Yes
Dark roomN12212Yes
Negative-pressure x-ray roomN12212Yes
Ultra sound roomNR626
Gamma cameraNR626
Waiting areaN12212Yes
Nuclear MedicineN626Yes
Bedpan roomN10Yes
BathroomN10Yes
Janitors' closet, housekeeping roomN10Yes
Sterilizer equipment roomN10Yes
Sub sterile roomNR10210Yes
Linen and trash chute roomsN10Yes
Food preparation centersNR10210Yes
Dining roomNR10210
Dishwashing roomN10Yes
Dietary day storageNR2
Laundry, general (clean and dirty)NR10210Yes
Soiled linen sorting and storageN10Yes
Clean linen storageP222
Anesthesia storageNR88Yes
Central medical and surgical supply:
Soiled or decontamination roomN424Yes
Clean workroomP424
Unsterile supplyNR222
Pharmacy/medicine roomP224
Laboratory
GeneralN626
BiochemistryP626
CytologyN626Yes
Glass washingN10210Yes
HistologyN626Yes
MicrobiologyN626Yes
PathologyN626Yes
SerologyP626
SterilizingN10210Yes
Media transferP424
Infectious disease and virusN626Yes
BacteriologyN626Yes
Negative-pressure treatment/exam roomN12212Yes
Physical therapy and hydrotherapyN62664
Soiled workroom (utility room)N4210Yes
Clean workroomP426
AutopsyN12212Yes
Toilet roomN10Yes
Shower roomN10Yes
Waiting area primary care clinicN10210Yes2
65
TABLE 4-B
FILTER EFFICIENCIES FOR CENTRAL VENTILATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL ACUTE
CARE HOSPITALS, ACUTE PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALS, OUTPATIENT FACILITIES, AND LICENSED CLINICS.1
AREA DESIGNATIONMINIMUM NUMBER OF FILTER BANKSFILTER EFFICIENCY % FILTER BANK
(MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REPORTING VALUE MERV)5
NO. 11NO. 21NO. 31
1 Based on ASHRAE Standard 52.1-1992 or ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999.
2 Based on DOP test in accordance with MIL-STD-282 or based on ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999.
3 HEPA filters at air outlet or other locations when approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
4 HEPA filter located in the supply duct which serves the positive-pressure isolation room or rooms may serve more than one supply outlet and more than one positive-pressure isolation room. HEPA filter or a filter with minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of 17 installation shall be designed and equipped to permit safe removal, disposal and replacement of filters.
5 The numbers in parentheses represent MERV rating based on ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999.
Orthopedic operating room, bone marrow transplant operating room, organ transplant operating room330%90%99.97%3
(8)(14)(17)
Protective environment rooms330%90%99.97%4
(8)(14)(17)
Angiography; cardiac catheterization labs; operating rooms; delivery rooms nurseries; patient care, treatment, cystoscopy, cesarean operating room, diagnostic, and related areas; airborne infection isolation rooms; areas providing direct patient service or clean supplies such as sterile and clean processes230%90%
(8)(14)
Laboratories230%80%
(8)(13)
Administrative, med staff support areas, bulk storage, soiled holding areas, food preparation areas, public cafeterias, and laundries130%
(8)
TABLE 4-C
FILTER EFFICIENCIES FOR CENTRAL VENTILATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEMS IN SKILLED
NURSING FACILITIES AND INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES AND CORRECTIONAL TREATMENT CENTERS.1
AREA DESIGNATIONMINIMUM NUMBER OF FILTER BANKSFILTER EFFICIENCY % FILTER BANK
(MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REPORTING VALUE MERV)3
NO. 11NO. 21
1 Based on ASHRAE Standard 52.1-1992 or ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999.
2 Filters are not required for evaporative coolers serving laundries and food preparation areas.
3 The numbers in parentheses represent MERV rating based on ASHRAE 52.2-1999.
All areas for inpatient care, treatment and/or diagnosis, and those areas providing direct service or cleaning supplies)230%80%
(8)(13)
Administrative, bulk storage, soiled holding, laundries and food prep areas130%2
(8)
66
TABLE 4-1
MINIMUM VENTILATION RATES IN BREATHING ZONE1,2
[ASHRAE 62.1: TABLE 6-1]
Note: Ventilation air supply requirements for occupancies regulated by the California Energy Commission are found in the California Energy Code.
OCCUPANCY CATEGORY4PEOPLE OUTDOOR AIR RATE Rp(cfm/person)AREA OUTDOOR AIR RATE RA(cfm/ft.2)DEFAULT OCCUPANT DENSITY3(people/1,000 ft.2)
Notes:
1 Smoking: This table applies to no-smoking areas. Rates for smoking-permitted spaces must be determined using other methods.
2 Air Density: Volumetric airflow rates are based on an air density of 1.2 kgda/m3 (0.075 1bda/ft3), which corresponds to dry air at a barometric pressure of 101.3 kPa (1 atm) and an air temperature of 21°C (70°F). Rates shall be permitted to be adjusted for actual density but such adjustment is not required for compliance with this chapter.
3 Default Occupant Density: The default occupant density shall be used when actual occupant density is not known.
4 Unlisted Occupancies: If the occupancy category for a proposed space or zone is not listed, the requirements for the listed occupancy category that is most similar in terms of occupant density, activities, and building construction shall be used.
1 ft. = 0.305 m
ITEM-SPECIFIC NOTES FOR TABLE 4-1
A For high school and college libraries, use values shown for Public Spaces – Library.
B Rate may not be sufficient when stored materials include those having potentially harmful emissions.
C Rate does not allow for humidity control. Additional ventilation or dehumidification may be required to remove moisture.
D Rate does not include special exhaust for stage effects, e.g., dry ice vapors, smoke.
E No class of air has been established for this occupancy category.
F Default occupancy for dwelling units shall be two persons for studio and one-bedroom units, with one additional person for each additional bedroom.
G Air from one residential dwelling shall not be recirculated or transferred to any other space outside of that dwelling.
CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES
Cell50.1225
Day room50.0630
Guard stations50.0615
Booking/waiting7.50.0650
EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES
Day care (through age 4)100.1825
Day care sickroom100.1825
Classrooms (ages 5-8)100.1225
Classrooms (age 9 plus)100.1235
Lecture classroom7.50.0665
Lecture hall (fixed seats)7.50.06150
Art classroom100.1820
Science laboratoriesE100.1825
University/college laboratories100.1825
Wood/metal shop100.1820
Computer lab100.1225
Media centerA100.1225
Music/theater/dance100.0635
Multi-use assembly7.50.06100
FOOD AND BEVERAGE SERVICE
Restaurant dining rooms7.50.1870
Cafeteria/fast food dining7.50.18100
Bars, cocktail lounges7.50.18100
GENERAL
Break rooms50.0625
Coffee stations50.0620
Conference/meeting50.0650
Corridors-0.06-
Storage roomsB-0.12-
HOTELS, MOTELS, RESORTS, DORMITORIES
Bedroom/living room50.0610
Barracks sleeping areas50.0620
Laundry rooms, central50.1210
Laundry rooms within dwelling units50.1210
Lobbies/pre-function7.50.0630
Multipurpose assembly50.06120
OFFICE BUILDINGS
Office space50.065
Reception areas50.0630
Telephone/data entry50.0660
Main entry lobbies50.0610
MISCELLANEOUS SPACES
Bank vaults/safe deposit50.065
Computer (not printing)50.064
Electrical equipment rooms-0.06->
Elevator machine rooms-0.12-
Pharmacy (prep. area)50.181067
Photo studios50.1210
Shipping/receivingB-0.12-
Transportation waiting7.50.06100
WarehousesB-0.06-
PUBLIC ASSEMBLY SPACES
Auditorium seating area50.06150
Places of religious worship50.06120
Courtrooms50.0670
Legislative chambers50.0650
Libraries50.1210
Lobbies50.06150
Museums (children's)7.50.1240
Museums/galleries7.50.0640
RESIDENTIAL
Dwelling UnitF, G50.06F
Common corridors-0.06-
RETAIL
Sales (except as below)7.50.1215
Mall common areas7.50.0640
Barber shop7.50.0625
Beauty and nail salons200.1225
Pet shops (animal areas)7.50.1810
Supermarket7.50.068
Coin-operated laundries7.50.0620
SPORTS AND ENTERTAINMENT
Sports arena (play area)-0.30-
Gym, stadium (play area) 0.3030
Spectator areas7.50.06150
Swimming (pool & deck)C-0.48-
Disco/dance floors200.06100
Health club/aerobics room200.0640
Health club/weight rooms200.0610
Bowling alley (seating)100.1240
Gambling casinos7.50.18120
Game arcades7.50.1820
Stages, studiosD100.0670
68
TABLE 4-2
ZONE AIR DISTRIBUTION EFFECTIVENESS
[ASHRAE 62.1: TABLE 6-2]
Air Distribution ConfigurationEz
Notes for Table 4-2
1. “Cool air” is air cooler than space temperature.
2. “Warm air” is air warmer than space temperature.
3. “Ceiling” includes any point above the breathing zone.
4. “Floor” includes any point below the breathing zone.
5. As an alternative to using the above values, determine Ez in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 129 for all air distribution configurations except unidirectional flow.
Ceiling supply of cool air1.0
Ceiling supply of warm air and floor return1.0
Ceiling supply of warm air at least 15°F (8°C) above space temperature and ceiling return.0.8
Ceiling supply of warm air less than 15°F (8°C) above space temperature and ceiling return provided that the 150 fpm (0.8 m/s) supply air jet reaches to within 4.5 ft. (1.4 m) of floor level.1.0
Floor supply of cool air and ceiling return provided that the 150 fpm (0.8 m/s) supply jet reaches at least 4.5 ft. (1.4 m) above the floor.1.0
Floor supply of cool air and ceiling return, provided low velocity displacement ventilation achieves unidirectional flow and thermal stratification.1.2
Floor supply of warm air and floor return1.0
Floor supply of warm air and ceiling return0.7
Makeup supply drawn in on the opposite side of the room from the exhaust or return.0.8
Makeup supply drawn in near to the exhaust or return location0.5
TABLE 4-3
SYSTEM VENTILATION EFFICIENCY
[ASHRAE 62.1: TABLE 6-3]
MAX (ZP)EV
Notes for Table 4-3.
1. “Max Zp” refers to the largest value of Zp, calculated using Equation 4-5, among all the zones served by the system.
2. Interpolating between table values is permitted.
< 0.151.0
< 0.250.9
< 0.350.8
< 0.450.7
< 0.550.6
> 0.55Use ASHRAE 62.1, Appendix A
69
TABLE 4-4
MINIMUM EXHAUST RATES
[ASHRAE 62.1: TABLE 6-4]
OCCUPANCY CATEGORY6EXHAUST RATE cfm/unitEXHAUST RATE cfm/ft2EXHAUST RATE L/s-unitEXHAUST RATE L/s-m10
Notes For Table 4-4
1 Stands where engines are run shall have exhaust systems that directly connect to the engine exhaust and prevent escape of fumes.
2 The rates do not include exhaust from vehicles or equipment with internal combustion engines.
3 Exhaust rate is not required for open parking garages as defined in accordance with the Building Code.
4 Rate is per water closet or urinal. Provide the higher rate where periods of heavy use are expected to occur, e.g., toilets in theatres, schools, and sports facilities.
5 Rate is for a toilet room intended to be occupied by one person at a time. For continuous system operation during normal hours of use, the lower rate may be used. Otherwise use the higher rate.
6 For unlisted occupancies for a proposed space not listed in the table, the requirements for the listed occupancy that is most similar in terms of occupant density and occupancy type shall be used.
7 Exhaust rate is not required for enclosed parking garages having a floor area of 1,000 square feet or less and used for the storage of 5 or less motorized vehicles.
Art classrooms-0.70-3.5
Auto repair rooms 1-1.50-7.5
Barber shop-0.50-2.5
Beauty and nail salons-0.60-3.0
Cell with toilet-1.00-5.0
Darkrooms-1.00-5.0
Arena 2-0.50-2.5
Kitchen – commercial-0.70-3.5
Kitchenettes-0.30-1.5
Locker rooms-0.50-2.5
Locker/dressing rooms-0.25-1.25
Parking garages3, 7-0.75-3.7
Janitor, trash, recycle-1.00-5.0
Pet shops (animal areas)-0.90-4.5
Copy, printing rooms-0.50-2.5
Science lab classrooms-1.00-5.0
Toilets – public 450⁄70-25⁄35-
Toilet – private 525⁄50-12.5⁄25-
Woodwork shop/classroom-0.50-2.5
70
CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE – MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE
CHAPTER 5 – EXHAUST SYSTEMS
AdoptingAgencyBSCSFMHCDDSAOSHPDCADPH
121⁄ACACSSSS⁄CC1234
Adopt Entire Chapter              
Adopt Entire Chapter as amended (amended sections listed below)XXXX  XXXXXX X
Adopt only those sections that are listed below            X 
Article/Section
504.1        XX X  
505.5            X 
505.5.1            X 
506.2XXXX  XXXXXX  
508.1.1        XX X  
509.2.4 X            
509.2.4.4             X
513.2.2 X            
513.3.2 X            
513.11.1 X            
513.11.2 X            
71 72

CHAPTER 5
EXHAUST SYSTEMS

501.0 Scope.

This chapter includes requirements for environmental air ducts, product-conveying systems, and commercial hoods and kitchen ventilation.

Part I – Environmental Air Ducts and Product-
Conveying Systems.

502.0 Definitions.

For the purposes of this chapter, the following definitions apply:

Access Panel. A closure device used to cover an opening into a duct, an enclosure, equipment, or an appurtenance. [NFPA 96:3.3.1]

Air Intakes. An opening in a building’s envelope whose purpose is to allow outside air to be drawn into the structure to replace inside air that is removed by exhaust systems or to improve the quality of the inside air by providing a source of air having a lower concentration of odors, suspended particles, or heating content. [NFPA 96:3.3.2]

Air Pollution Control Devices. Equipment and devices used for the purpose of cleaning air passing through them or by them in such a manner as to reduce or remove the impurities contained therein. [NFPA 96:3.3.3]

Appurtenance. An accessory or a subordinate part that enables the primary device to perform or improve its intended function. [NFPA 96:3.3.5]

Baffle Plate. An object placed in or near an appliance to change the direction or retard the flow of air, air-fuel mixtures, or flue gases. [NFPA 96:3.3.7]

Certified Person. A person trained and certified by the equipment manufacturer, or by a recognized organization through a formal certification program for the system to be serviced or cleaned, that is acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

Classified. See Listed.

Clean(ing). For kitchen exhaust systems and cooking equipment, the act of removing grease, oil deposits, and other residue. [NFPA 96:3.3.11]

Clearly Identified. Capable of being recognized by a person of normal vision without causing uncertainty and indecisiveness about the location or operating process of the identified item. [NFPA 96:3.3.12]

Closed Combustible Construction. Combustible building construction, including walls, structural framing, roofs, roof ceilings, floors, and floor-ceiling assemblies continuously enclosing a grease duct on four sides where one or more sides require protection per Section 507.2. [NFPA 96:3.3.13.1]

Combustible Material. Material subject to an increase in combustibility or flame-spread rating beyond the limits established in the definition of Limited-Combustible Material.

Commercial Food Heat-Processing Equipment. Equipment used in a food establishment for heat-processing food or utensils and that produces grease vapors, steam, fumes, smoke, or odors that are required to be removed through a local exhaust ventilation system.

Compensating Hood. A hood that has an outside-air supply with air delivered below or within the hood. When makeup air is diffused directly into the exhaust within the hood cavity, it becomes a short-circuit hood.

Concealed Spaces. That portion(s) of a building behind walls, over suspended ceilings, in pipe chases, attics, and else-where whose size might normally range from 1¾ inch (44.45 mm) stud spaces to eight (8) foot (2.44 m) interstitial truss spaces and that might contain combustible materials such as building structural members, thermal and/or electrical insulation, and ducting. Such spaces have sometimes been used as HVAC plenum chambers. [NFPA 96:3.3.45.1]

Continuous Enclosure. A recognized architectural or mechanical component of a building having a fire resistance rating as required for the structure and whose purpose is to enclose the vapor removal duct for its full length to its termination point outside the structure without any portion of the enclosure having a fire resistance rating less than the required value. [NFPA 96:3.3.22.1]

Continuous Weld. A metal-joining method that produces a product without visible interruption or variation in quality. For the purpose of the definition, it specifically includes the exhaust compartment of hoods and welded joints of exhaust ducts, yet specifically does not include filter support frames or appendages inside hoods. [NFPA 96:3.3.14]

Cooking Appliance Flue Outlet. The opening or openings in a cooking device where vapors, combustion gases, or both leave the cooking device. There might or might not be ductwork attached to this opening.

Damper. A valve or plate within a duct or its terminal components for controlling draft or the flow of gases, including air. [NFPA 96:3.3.15]

Detection Devices. Electrical, pneumatic, thermal, mechanical, or optical sensing instruments, or subcomponents of such instruments, whose purpose is to cause an automatic action upon the occurrence of some preselected event. In the context of this document, the event in question could be excessive temperature or flame, and the action could be the operation of a fire-extinguishing system.

Dips. Depression or cup like places in horizontal duct runs in which liquids could accumulate. [NFPA 96:3.3.17]

Discharge. The final portion of a duct or pipe where the product being conveyed is emptied or released from confinement; the termination point of the pipe or duct. [NFPA 96:3.3.18]

Easily Accessible. See Accessible, Readily in Section 203.0, Chapter 2.

73

Environmental Air Duct. Ducting used for conveying air at temperatures not exceeding 250°F (121°C) to or from occupied areas of any occupancy through other than heating or air-conditioning systems, such as ventilation for human usage, domestic kitchen range exhaust, bathroom exhaust ducts, and domestic-type clothes dryer exhaust ducts.

Factory-Built Grease Enclosures. A listed factory-built grease duct enclosure system evaluated for reduced clearances to combustibles, and as an alternative to a duct with its fire-rated enclosure. [NFPA 96:3.3.22.2.1]

Field-Applied Grease Duct Enclosures. A listed system evaluated for reduced clearances to combustibles, and as an alternative to a duct with its fire-rated enclosure. [NFPA 96:3.3.22.2.2]

Fire Barrier Wall. A wall assembly complying with the requirements of NFPA 221, Standard for Fire Walls and Fire Barrier Walls, having a fire resistance rating of four (4) hours.

Fire Partition. An interior wall or partition of a building that separates two areas and serves to restrict the spread of fire but does not qualify as a fire wall.

Fire Resistance Rating. A relative value in minutes or hours assigned to materials or assemblies that have withstood a fire exposure as established in accordance with NFPA 251, Standard Methods of Tests of Fire Endurance of Building Construction and Materials.

Flammable Vapor or Fumes. The concentration of flammable constituents in air that exceeds twenty-five percent (25%) of its Lower Flammability Limit (LFL).

Fume Incinerators. Devices utilizing intense heat or fire to break down and/or oxidize vapors and odors contained in gases or air being exhausted into the atmosphere. [NFPA 96:3.3.27]

Fusible Link. A form of fixed-temperature heat-detecting device sometimes employed to restrain the operation of an electrical or mechanical control until its designed temperature is reached. Such devices are to be replaced following each operation.

Grease. Rendered animal fat, vegetable shortening, and other such oily matter used for the purposes of and resulting from cooking and/or preparing foods. Grease might be liberated and entrained with exhaust air or might be visible as a liquid or solid.

Grease Ducts. A containment system for the transportation of air and grease vapors that is designed and installed to reduce the possibility of the accumulation of combustible condensation and the occurrence of damage if a fire occurs within the system. [NFPA 96:3.3.20.2]

Grease Filter. A removable component of the grease removal system designed to capture grease and direct it to a safe collection point before it enters a duct system. Filters are expected to minimize the projection of flames downstream when attacked by flame on the upstream side and are expected to maintain their strength, shape, and integrity when exposed to the anticipated rough handling, cleaning, and service found in the field.

Grease Filter, Mesh-Type. A general-purpose air filter designed to collect and retain lint and grease from the air passing through it. This type of filter is not tested, listed, or acceptable for commercial cooking operations due to the increased fire hazard.

Grease Removal Devices. A system of components designed for and intended to process vapors, gases, and/or air as it is drawn through such devices by collecting the airborne grease particles and concentrating them for further action at some future time, leaving the exiting air with a lower amount of combustible matter. [NFPA 96:3.3.30]

Grease-Tight. Constructed and performing in such a manner as not to permit the passage of any grease under normal cooking conditions. [NFPA 96:3.3.31]

High Broiler. See Upright Broiler. [NFPA 96:3.3.8.1]

High Limit Control. An operating device installed in and serving as an integral component of a deep-fat fryer. Its purpose is the secondary limitation of temperature allowed by the cooking operation and, if that temperature is exceeded, the automatic interruption of the thermal energy input. [NFPA 96:3.3.32]

Hood. An air-intake device connected to a mechanical exhaust system for collecting and removing grease, vapors, fumes, smoke, steam, heat, or odors from commercial food heat-processing equipment.

Fixed Baffle. A listed unitary exhaust hood design where the grease removal device is a nonremovable assembly that contains an integral fire-activated water-wash fire-extinguishing system listed for this purpose. [NFPA 96:3.3.33.1]

Type I. is a kitchen hood for collecting and removing grease and smoke.

Type II. is a general kitchen hood for collecting and removing steam, vapor, heat, or odors.

Interconnected. Mutually assembled to another component in such a manner that the operation of one directly affects the other or that the contents of one specific duct system are allowed to encounter or contact the products being moved by another duct system. [NFPA 96:3.3.34]

Limited-Combustible Material. A building construction material that does not comply with the definition of noncombustible material, that, in the form in which it is used, has a potential heat value not exceeding 3,500 Btu/1b. (8141 kJ/kg) (See NFPA 259, Standard Test Method for Potential Heat of Building Materials), and that complies with either of the following (A) or (B). Materials subject to an increase in combustibility or flame-spread rating beyond the limits herein established through the effects of age, moisture, or other atmospheric conditions shall be considered combustible.

  1. Materials having a structural base of noncombustible material, with a surfacing not exceeding a thickness of 1/8 inch (3.2 mm), and with a flame-spread rating not greater than fifty (50).
  2. Materials in the form and thickness used, other than as described in (A), having neither a flame-spread rating greater than twenty-five (25) nor evidence of continued progressive combustion and of such composition that surfaces that would be exposed by cutting through the material on any plane would have neither a flame-spread rating greater than twenty-five (25) nor evidence of continued progressive combustion.
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Liquid-Tight. Constructed and performing in such a manner as not to permit the passage of any liquid at any temperature. [NFPA 96:3.3.35]

Noncombustible Material. A material that, in the form in which it is used and under the conditions anticipated, will not ignite, burn, support combustion, or release flammable vapors when subjected to fire or heat. Materials that are reported as passing ASTM E 136, Standard Test Method for Behavior of Materials in a Vertical Tube Furnace at 750°C, shall be considered noncombustible materials. [NFPA 220:3.3.4]

Open Combustible Construction. Combustible building constructions including wall, structural framing, roof, roof ceiling, floor, and floor ceiling assemblies adjacent to a grease duct on three or fewer sides where one or more sides require protection per Section 507.2. [NFPA 96:3.3.13.2]

Pitched. To be fixed or set at a desired angle or inclination. [NFPA 96:3.3.37]

Product-Conveying Duct. Ducting used for conveying solid particulates, such as refuse, dust, fumes, and smoke; liquid particulate matter, such as spray residue, mists, and fogs; vapors, such as vapors from flammable or corrosive liquids; noxious and toxic gases; and air at temperatures exceeding 250°F (121°C).

Recirculating Systems. Systems for control of smoke or grease-laden vapors from commercial cooking equipment that do not exhaust to the outside. [NFPA 96:3.3.39]

Removable. Capable of being transferred to another location with a limited application of effort and tools. [NFPA 96:3.3.40]

Replacement Air. See Air, Makeup in Section 203.0, Chapter 2.

Salamander Broiler. See Upright Broiler. [NFPA 96:3.3.8.2]

Secondary Filtration. Fume incinerators, thermal recovery units, air pollution control devices or other filtration media installed in ducts or hoods located in the path of travel of exhaust products after the initial filtration.

Shall. Indicates a mandatory requirement.

Single Hazard Area. As considered in the applicable extinguishing system standard (See Section 513.2) or as determined by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

Solid Cooking Fuel. Any solid, organic, consumable fuel such as briquette, mesquite, hardwood, or charcoal. [NFPA 96:3.3.43]

Solid-Fuel Cooking Equipment. Cooking equipment that is fired with solid cooking fuel. This equipment includes ovens, tandoori charcoal pots, grills, broilers, rotisseries, barbecue pits, or any other type of cooking equipment that derives all or part of its heat source from the burning of solid cooking fuel.

Solvent. A substance (usually liquid) capable of dissolving or dispersing another substance; a chemical compound designed and used to convert solidified grease into a liquid or semi-liquid state in order to facilitate a cleaning operation. [NFPA 96:3.3.44]

Spark Arrester. A device or method that minimizes the passage of airborne sparks and embers into a plenum, duct, and flue. [NFPA 96:3.3.46]

Termination. The final or intended end portion of a duct system that is designed and functions to fulfill the obligations of the system in a satisfactory manner.

Thermal Recovery Unit. A device or series of devices whose purpose is to reclaim only the heat content of air, vapors, gases, or fluids that are being expelled through the exhaust system and to transfer the thermal energy so reclaimed to a location whereby a useful purpose can be served. [NFPA 96:3.3.47]

Trap. A cup like or U-shaped configuration located on the inside of a duct system component where liquids can accumulate. [NFPA 96:3.3.49]

Upright Broiler. An appliance used in the preparation of food whereby foods are exposed to intense radiant heat, and perhaps to convective heat, with the food and the radiant source not limited to a horizontal mode. [NFPA 96:3.3.8.3]

502.1 Product-Conveying Ducts – Classification.

Product-conveying ducts shall be classified according to their use, as follows:

Class 1. Ducts conveying nonabrasives, such as smoke, spray, mists, fogs, noncorrosive fumes and gases, light fine dusts, or powders.

Class 2. Ducts conveying moderately abrasive particulate in light concentrations, such as sawdust and grain dust, and buffing and polishing dust.

Class 3. Ducts conveying Class 2 materials in high concentrations and highly abrasive materials in low concentrations, such as manganese, steel chips, and coke.

Class 4. Ducts conveying highly abrasive material in high concentrations.

Class 5. Ducts conveying corrosives, such as acid vapors.

503.0 Motors, Fans, and Filters.

503.1 General. Motors and fans shall be sized to provide the required air movement. Motors in areas that contain flammable vapors or dusts shall be of a type approved for such environments. A manually operated remote control installed at an approved location shall be provided to shut off fans or blowers in flammable vapor or dust systems. Electrical equipment used in operations that generate explosive or flammable vapors, fumes, or dusts shall be interlocked with the ventilation system so that the equipment cannot be operated unless the ventilation fans are in operation. Motors for fans used to convey flammable vapors or dusts shall be located outside the duct or shall be protected with approved shields and dustproofing. Motors and fans shall be accessible for servicing and maintenance.

503.2 Fans. Parts of fans in contact with explosive or flammable vapors, fumes, or dusts shall be of nonferrous or nonsparking materials or their casing shall be lined or constructed of such material. When the size and hardness of materials passing through a fan could produce a spark, both the fan and the casing shall be of nonsparking materials. When fans are required to be spark-resistant, their bearings shall not be within the airstream, and all parts of the fan shall be grounded. Fans in systems handling materials that are likely to clog the blades, and fans in buffing or woodworking exhaust systems, shall be of the radial-blade or tube-axial type.

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Equipment used to exhaust explosive or flammable vapors, fumes, or dusts shall bear an identification plate stating the ventilation rate for which the system was designed.

Fans located in systems conveying corrosives shall be of materials that are resistant to the corrosive or shall be coated with corrosion-resistant materials.

503.3 Air filters shall be listed units. Liquid adhesive coatings used on filters shall have a flash point of 350°F (177°C) or higher, as determined by the Fire Code standards.

504.0 Environmental Air Ducts.

504.1 Makeup and Exhaust-Air Ducts. Environmental air ducts not regulated by other provisions of this code shall comply with this section. Ducts shall be substantially airtight and shall comply with the provisions of Chapter 6. Exhaust ducts under positive pressure shall not extend into or through ducts or plenums. Exhaust ducts shall terminate outside the building and shall be equipped with back-draft dampers. [OSHPD 1, 2 & 4] Exception: Back-draft dampers are not required when the exhaust fan must operate continuously. Environmental air ducts that have an alternate function as a part of an approved smoke-control system do not require design as Class 1 product-conveying ducts.

504.2 Domestic Range Vents. Ducts used for domestic kitchen range ventilation shall be of metal and shall have smooth interior surfaces. Ducts for domestic range hoods shall only serve cooking appliances.

Exception: Ducts for domestic kitchen downdraft grill-range ventilation installed under a concrete slab floor may be of approved Schedule 40 PVC provided:

  1. The under-floor trench in which the duct is installed shall be completely backfilled with sand or gravel.
  2. Not more than one (1) inch (25 mm) of six (6) inch diameter (152 mm) PVC coupling may protrude above the concrete floor surface.
  3. PVC pipe joints shall be solvent cemented to provided an air and grease-tight duct.
  4. The duct shall terminate above grade outside the building and shall be equipped with a back-draft damper.

504.3 Clothes Dryers.

504.3.1 Moisture Exhaust Ducts. Moisture exhaust ducts shall terminate on the outside of the building and shall be equipped with a back-draft damper. Screens shall not be installed at the duct termination. Ducts for exhausting clothes dryers shall not be connected or installed with sheet metal screws or other fasteners that will obstruct the flow. Clothes dryer moisture exhaust ducts shall not be connected to a gas vent connector, gas vent, or chimney, and shall only serve clothes dryers. Clothes dryer moisture exhaust ducts under positive pressure shall not extend into or through ducts or plenums.

504.3.2 Domestic Clothes Dryers. When a compartment or space for a domestic clothes dryer is provided, a minimum four (4) inch diameter (102 mm) moisture exhaust duct of approved material shall be installed in accordance with this section and Section 504.0.

When a closet is designed for the installation of a clothes dryer, a minimum opening of 100 square inches (64,516 mm2) for makeup air shall be provided in the door or by other approved means.

504.3.2.1 Domestic Dryer Vents. Domestic clothes dryer moisture exhaust ducts shall be of metal and shall have smooth interior surfaces.

Exception: Listed clothes dryer transition ducts not more than six (6) feet (1,829 mm) in length may be used in connection with domestic dryer exhausts.

Flexible clothes dryer transition ducts shall not be concealed within construction.

504.3.2.2 Length Limitation. Unless otherwise permitted or required by the dryer manufacturer's installation instructions and approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, domestic dryer moisture exhaust ducts shall not exceed a total combined horizontal and vertical length of fourteen (14) feet (4,263 mm), including two (2) 90 degree (1.57 rad) elbows. Two (2) feet (610 mm) shall be deducted for each 90 degree (1.57 rad) elbow in excess of two.

504.3.3 Commercial Clothes Dryers. Commercial dryer exhaust ducts shall be installed in accordance with their listings. The installation of commercial clothes dryer exhaust ducts shall comply with the appliance manufacturer's installation instructions.

504.4 Heat (Energy) Recovery Ventilators.

504.4.1 Heat (energy) recovery ventilators shall be installed in accordance with their listings and comply with the appliance manufacturer's installation instructions. Heat (energy) recovery ventilator ducts shall comply with the provisions of Chapter 6.

504.5 Termination of Environmental Air Ducts. Environmental air duct exhaust shall terminate a minimum of three (3) feet (914 mm) from property line and three (3) feet (914 mm) from openings into the building.

504.6 Gypsum Wallboard Ducts. Bathroom and laundry room exhaust ducts may be of gypsum wallboard subject to the limitations of Section 602.1.

505.0 Design of Product-Conveying Ventilation Systems.

505.1 General. A mechanical ventilation or exhaust system shall be installed to control, capture, and remove emissions generated from product use or handling when required by the Building Code or Fire Code and when such emissions result in a hazard to life or property. The design of the system shall be such that the emissions are confined to the area in which they are generated by air currents, hoods, or enclosures and shall be exhausted by a duct system to a safe location or treated by removing contaminant's. Ducts conveying explosives or flammable vapors, fumes, or dusts shall extend directly to the exterior of the building without entering other spaces and shall not extend into or through ducts and plenums.

Exception: Ducts conveying vapor or fumes having flammable constituents less than 25 percent of their Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) may pass through other spaces.

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505.1.1 Incompatible materials shall not be conveyed in the same system.

505.1.2 In systems conveying flammable vapors, gases, or mists, the concentration shall not exceed 25 percent of the lower flammability limit (LFL).

Exception: Higher concentrations shall be permitted if the exhaust system is designed and protected in accordance with the Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems in Chapter 17, using one or more of the following techniques:

  1. Combustible concentration reduction
  2. Oxidant concentration reduction
  3. Deflagration suppression
  4. Deflagration pressure containment

Separate and distinct systems shall be provided for incompatible materials.

Contaminated air shall not be recirculated to occupied areas unless contaminant’s have been removed. Air contaminated with explosive or flammable vapors, fumes, or dusts; flammable or toxic gases; or radioactive material shall not be recirculated.

505.2 Minimum Velocities and Circulation. The velocity and circulation of air in work areas shall be such that contaminant’s are captured by an airstream at the area where the emissions are generated and conveyed into a product-conveying duct system. Mixtures within work areas where contaminant’s are generated shall be diluted below twenty–five (25) percent of their lower explosive limit or lower flammability limit with air that does not contain other contaminant’s. The velocity of air within the duct shall be not less than set forth in Table 5-1.

TABLE 5-1
MINIMUM CONVEYING VELOCITIES
 FEET PER MINUTE(M/S)
Note:
1The velocity for aluminum and magnesium powder shall be not less than 4,000 feet per minute (20.3 m/s).
Vapors, gases, smoke, fumesAnyAny
Fine light dusts, such as cotton, lint, and wood flour (100 mesh and under)2,000(10.2)
Dry dusts; powders, such as fine rubber molding power, soap dust2,5001(12.7)1
Industrial dusts  
Average dusts, such as sawdust, grinding dust, coal dust(3,500)(17.8)
Heavy dusts, such as metal turnings, lead dusts4,000(20.3)
Moist dusts and chips, such as lead dust with chips, sticky buffing lint, quick-lime dust.4,500(22.9)

Systems for removal of vapors, gases, and smoke shall be designed by the constant velocity or equal friction methods. Systems conveying explosive or radioactive materials shall be prebalanced through duct sizing. Other systems may be designed with balancing devices such as dampers. Dampers provided to balance airflow shall be provided with securely fixed minimum-position blocking devices to prevent restricting flow below the required volume or velocity.

505.3 Makeup Air. Makeup air shall be provided to replenish air exhausted by the ventilation system. Makeup–air intakes shall be located so as to avoid recirculation of contaminated air within enclosures.

505.4 Hoods and Enclosures. Hoods and enclosures shall be used when contaminant’s originate in a concentrated area. The design of the hood or enclosure shall be such that air currents created by the exhaust systems will capture the contaminant’s and transport them directly to the exhaust duct. The volume of air shall be sufficient to dilute explosive or flammable vapors, fumes, or dusts as set forth in Section 505.2. Hoods of steel shall have a base metal thickness not less than 0.027 inch (0.69 mm) (No. 22 gauge) for Class 1 and Class 5 metal duct systems; 0.033 inch (0.84 mm) (No. 20 gauge) for hoods serving a Class 2 duct system; 0.044 inch (1.12 mm) (No. 18 gauge) for hoods serving a Class 3 duct system; and 0.068 inch (1.73 mm) (No. 14 gauge) for hoods serving a Class 4 duct system.

Approved nonmetallic hoods and duct systems may be used for Class 5 corrosive systems when the corrosive mixture is nonflammable. Metal hoods used with Class 5 duct systems shall be protected with suitable corrosion–resistant material. Edges of hoods shall be rounded. The minimum clearance between hoods and combustible construction shall be the clearance required by the duct system.

505.5 Pharmacies – Compounding Area of Parenteral Solutions. [CA – Board of Pharmacy] The pharmacy shall have a designated area for the preparation of sterile products for dispensing which shall be ventilated in a manner not interfering with laminar air flow.

Note: For additional pharmacy building standard requirements, see Chapter 12, California Building Code.

505.5.1 Pharmacies – laminar flow biological safety cabinet. [CA – Board of Pharmacy] In all pharmacies preparing parenteral cytotoxic agents, all compounding shall be conducted within a certified Class II Type A or Class II Type B vertical laminar airflow hood with bag in–bag out design. The pharmacy must ensure that contaminated air plenums that are under positive air pressure are leak tight.

Note: For additional pharmacy building standard requirements, see Chapter 12, California Building Code.

506.0 Product-Conveying Ducts.

506.1 Materials. Materials used in product – conveying duct systems shall be suitable for the intended use and shall be of metal.

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Exceptions:

  1. Asbestos-cement, concrete, clay, or ceramic materials may be used when it is shown that these materials will be equivalent to metal ducts installed in accordance with this chapter.
  2. Ducts serving a Class 5 system may be constructed of approved nonmetallic material when the corrosive characteristics of the material being conveyed make a metal system unsuitable and when the mixture being conveyed is nonflammable.
    Approved nonmetallic material shall be either a listed product having a flame- spread index of twenty-five (25) or less and a smoke-developed rating of fifty (50) or less on both inside and outside surfaces without evidence of continued progressive combustion, or shall have a flame-spread index of twenty-five (25) or less and shall be installed with an automatic fire-sprinkler protection system inside the duct.
  3. Ducts used in central vacuum cleaning systems within a dwelling unit shall be constructed of materials in compliance with the applicable standards referenced in Chapter 17. Penetrations of fire walls or floor-ceiling or roof-ceiling assemblies shall comply with the Building Code.
    Copper or ferrous pipes or conduits extending from within the separation between a garage and dwelling unit to the central vacuuming unit may be used.

Aluminum ducts shall not be used in systems conveying flammable vapors, fumes, or explosive dusts, nor in Class 2, 3, or 4 systems. Galvanized steel and aluminum ducts shall not be used when the temperature of the material being conveyed exceeds 400°F (205°C).

Metal ducts used in Class 5 systems that are not resistant of the corrosiveness of the product shall be protected with appropriate corrosion-resistant material.

506.2 Construction. Ducts used for conveying products shall be of substantial airtight construction and shall not have openings other than those required for operation and maintenance of the system. Ducts constructed of steel shall comply with Table 5-5 or 5-6.

Exceptions:

  1. Class 1 product-conveying ducts that operate at less than four (4) inches (102 mm) water column (995.6 pa) negative pressure and convey noncorrosive, nonflammable, and nonexplosive materials at temperatures not exceeding 250°F (121°C) may be constructed in accordance with ANSI/SMACNA 006-2006 HVAC Duct Construction Standards-Metal and Flexible or another approved duct construction standard.
  2. Ducts used in central vacuuming systems within a dwelling unit shall be constructed of materials in compliance with the applicable standards referenced in Chapter 17. Penetrations of fire-resistive walls, or floor-ceiling or roof-ceiling assemblies shall comply with the Building Code. Copper or ferrous pipes or conduit extending from within the separation between a garage and dwelling unit to the central vacuum unit may be used.

The use of rectangular ducts conveying particulates shall be subject to approval of the building official. The design of rectangular ducts shall consider the adhesiveness and buildup of products being conveyed within the duct.

Aluminum construction may be used in Class 1 duct systems only. The thickness of aluminum ducts shall be at least two Brown and Sharpe gauges thicker than the gauges required for steel ducts set forth in Tables 5-5 and 5-6.

506.3 Fittings. Fittings in Class 2, 3 and 4 systems shall be not less than two gauges thicker than the thickness required for straight runs. Flexible metallic duct may be used for connecting ductwork to vibrating equipment. Duct systems subject to wide temperature fluctuations shall be provided with expansion joints.

Branches shall connect to main ducts at the large end of transitions at an angle not exceeding forty-five (45) degrees (0.79 rad).

Except for ducts used to convey noncorrosive vapors with no particulate, accessible cleanouts shall be provided at ten (10) foot (3,048 mm) intervals and at changes in direction. Access openings shall also be provided for access to sprinklers and other equipment within the duct that require servicing.

506.4 Explosion Venting. Ducts conveying explosive dusts shall have explosion vents, openings protected by antiflash-back swing valves, or rupture diaphragms. Openings to relieve explosive forces shall be located outside the building. When relief devices cannot provide sufficient pressure relief, ductwork shall be designed to withstand an internal pressure of not less than 100 pounds per square inch (689 kPa).

If a room or building contains a dust explosion hazard that is external to protected equipment, as defined in 2.2.3.1 of NFPA 654, such areas shall be provided with deflagration venting to a safe outside location.

506.5 Supports. Spacing of supports for ducts shall not exceed twelve (12) feet (3,658 mm) for eight (8) inch (203 mm) ducts not twenty (20) feet (6,096 mm) for larger ducts, unless justified by the design.

506.5.1 Duct supports shall be designed to carry the weight of the duct half filled with material. Where sprinkler protection is provided in the duct, the hanger’s design shall include the weight of the duct half filled with water or with the material being conveyed, whichever has the higher density. Loads shall not be placed on connecting equipment.

Exception: Where adequate drainage is provided, the weight of the water shall not require consideration.

506.5.2 Hangers and supports exposed to corrosive atmospheres shall be Type 316 SS or equivalent.

506.5.3 To avoid vibration and stress on the duct, hangers and supports shall be securely fastened to the building or structure.

506.5.4 Hangers and supports shall be designed to allow for expansion and contraction. [NFPA 91:4.5.6]

506.6 Fire Protection. Sprinklers or other fire-protection devices shall be installed within ducts having a cross-sectional dimension exceeding ten (10) inches (254 mm) when the duct

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TABLE 5-2
REDUCTION OF DUCT CLEARANCE WITH SPECIFIED FORMS OF PROTECTION
CLEARANCE REDUCTION APPLIED TO AND COVERING ALL COMBUSTIBLE SURFACES WITH THE DISTANCE SPECIFIED AS REQUIRED CLEARANCE WITH NO PROTECTION IN 506.7.2MINIMUM ALLOWABLE REDUCTION IN CLEARANCE (%)
FORM OF PROTECTIONAS WALL PROTECTORAS CEILING PROTECTOR
(a) 3½ in. (90 mm) thick masonry wall without ventilated airspace33
(b) ½ in. (13 mm) thick noncombustible insulation board over 1 in. (25.4 mm) glass fiber or mineral wool batts without ventilated airspace5033
(c) 0.024 in. (0.61 mm) (No. 24 gauge) sheet metal over 1 in. (25.4 mm) glass fiber or mineral wool batts reinforced with wire, or equivalent, on rear face with at least a 1 in. (25.4 mm) air gap6666
(d) 3½ in (90 mm) thick masonry wall with at least a 1 in (25.4 mm) air gap66
(e) 0.024 in. (0.61 mm) (No. 24 gauge) sheet metal with at least a 1 in. (25.4 mm) air gap6650
(f) ½ in. (13 mm) thick noncombustible insulation board with at least a 1 in. (25.4 mm) air gap6650
(g) 0.024 in. (0.61 mm) (No. 24 gauge) sheet metal with ventilated airspace over 0.024 in. (0.61 mm) (No. 24 gauge) sheet metal with at least a 1 in. (25.4 mm) air gap6650
(h) 1 in. (25.4 mm) glass fiber or mineral wool batts sandwiched between two sheets 0.024 in. (0.61 mm) (No. 24 gauge) sheet metal with at least a 1 in. (25.4 mm) air gap6650

EXTENT OF PROTECTION REQUIRED TO REDUCE CLEARANCES FROM DUCTS.

EXTENT OF PROTECTION REQUIRED TO REDUCE CLEARANCES FROM DUCTS.

conveys flammable vapors or fumes. Sprinklers shall be installed at twelve (12) foot (3,658 mm) intervals in horizontal duets and at changes in direction. In vertical runs, sprinklers shall be installed at the top and at alternate floor levels.

506.7 Duct Clearances.

506.7.1 All ductwork and system components handling combustible material and operating at less than 140°F (60°C) shall have a clearance of not less than eighteen (18) inches (457 mm) from combustible construction or any combustible material.

Exceptions:

  1. When the ductwork system is equipped with an approved automatic extinguishing system designed for the specific hazard, the clearance shall be permitted to be reduced to six (6) inches (152 mm) from combustible materials and 1/2 inch (13 mm) from combustible construction.
  2. When the combustible material and construction is protected by the use of materials or products listed for protection purposes or in accordance with Table 5-2.

506.7.1.1 Spacers and ties for protection materials shall be of noncombustible material and shall not be used directly behind the duct.

506.7.1.2With all clearance reduction systems using a ventilated airspace, air circulation shall be provided as described in Table 5–2. There shall be at

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TABLE 5-3
REDUCTION OF CLEARANCES WITH SPECIFIED FORMS OF PROTECTION
[NFPA 54: TABLE 10.2.3(b)]
WHERE THE REQUIRED CLEARANCE WITH NO PROTECTION FROM APPLIANCE, VENT CONNECTOR, OR SINGLE-WALL METAL PIPE IS:
£36 in.18 in.12 in.9 in.6 in.
ALLOWABLE CLEARANCES WITH SPECIFIED PROTECTION (in.)
TYPE OF PROTECTION APPLIED TO AND COVERING SURFACES OF COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL WITHIN THE DISTANCE SPECIFIED AS THE REQUIRED CLEARANCE WITH NO PROTECTION [SEE FIGURES 5-4 THROUGH 5-6.]USE COL. 1 FOR CLEARANCES ABOVE APPLIANCE OR HORIZONTAL CONNECTOR. USE COL. 2 FOR CLEARANCES FROM APPLIANCES, VERTICAL CONNECTOR, AND SINGLE-WALL METAL PIPE.
ABOVE COL. 1SIDES AND REAR COL. 2ABOVE COL. 1SIDES AND REAR COL. 2ABOVE COL. 1SIDES AND REAR COL. 2ABOVE COL. 1SIDES AND REAR COL. 2ABOVE COL. 1SIDES AND REAR COL. 2
Notes:
1 Reduction of clearances from combustible materials shall not interfere with combustion air, draft hood clearance and relief, and accessibility of servicing.
2 Clearances shall be measured from the outer surface of the combustible material to the nearest point on the surface of the appliance, disregarding any intervening protection applied to the combustible material.
3 Spacers and ties shall be of noncombustible material. No spacer or tie shall be used directly opposite the appliance or connector.
4 Where clearance reduction systems use a ventilated air space, adequate provision for air circulation shall be provided as described. [See Figure 5-5 and Figure 5-6.]
5 There shall be not less than one (1) in. (25 mm) between clearance reduction systems and combustible walls and ceilings for reduction systems using a ventilated air space.
6 Where a wall protector is mounted on a single flat wall away from corners, it shall have a minimum one (1) inch (25 mm) air gap. To provide adequate air circulation, the bottom and top edges, or only the side and top edges, or edges shall be left open.
7 Mineral wool batts (blanket or board) shall have a minimum density of eight (8) lb/ft.3 (128 kg/m3) and a minimum melting point of 1,500°F (816°C).
8 Insulation material used as part of a clearance reduction system shall have a thermal conductivity of 1.0 But in./ft2/h-°F (0.144 W/m-K) or less.
9 There shall be not less than (1) inch (25 mm) between the appliance and the protector. In no case shall the clearance between the appliance and the combustible surface be reduced below that allowed in this table.
10 Clearances and thicknesses are minimum; larger clearances and thicknesses are acceptable.
11 Listed single-wall connectors shall be installed in accordance with the terms of their listing and the manufacturer’s instructions.
1 in. = 25.4 mm
(1) 3½ in. thick masonry wall without ventilated air space--24--12--9--6--5
(2) ½ in. insulation board over 1 in. glass fiber or mineral wool batts2418129966543
(3) 0.024 sheet metal over 1 in. glass fiber or mineral wool batts reinforced with wire on rear face with ventilated air space181296645333
(4) 3 ½ in. thick masonry wall with ventilated air space--12--6--6--6--6
(5) 0.024 sheet metal with ventilated air space181296645332
(6) ½ in. thick insulation board with ventilated air space181296645333
(7) 0.024 sheet metal with ventilated air space over 0.024 sheet metal with ventilated air space181296645333
(8) 1 in. glass fiber or mineral wool batts sandwiched between two sheets 0.024 sheet metal with ventilated air space181296645333
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least one (1) inch (25 mm) between the wall protector and combustible walls and ceilings for clearance, reduction systems using a ventilated space.

506.7.1.3 Mineral wool batts (blanket or board) shall have a minimum density of eight (8) 1b./ft.3 (3.6 kq/m3) and have a minimum melting point of 1,500°F (816°C).

506.7.1.4 Insulation board used as a part of a clearance-reduction system shall have a thermal conductivity of 1 Btu in./ft.2 hr°F (0.14 W/m2 hr°C) or less. Insulation board shall be formed of noncombustible material.

506.7.1.5 There shall be at least one (1) inch (25 mm) between the duct and the wall protector. In no case shall the clearance between the duct and the wall surface be reduced below that shown in Table 5-2.

506.7.2 Duct systems operating at elevated temperatures above 140°F (60°C) shall have clearances from combustible building construction or any combustible material of not less than eighteen (18) inch (457 mm).

506.7.3 Where clearance is reduced by using an airspace between the combustible wall and the wall protector, air circulation shall be provided by one of the following methods.

506.7.3.1 Air circulation shall be permitted to be provided by leaving all edges of the wall protector open with at least a one (1) inch (25 mm) airgap.

506.7.3.2 If the wall protector is mounted on a single flat wall away from corners, air circulation shall be permitted to be provided by one of the following:

  1. Leaving top and bottom edges open to circulation by maintaining the one (1) inch (25 mm) airgap.
  2. Leaving top and both side edges open to circulation by maintaining the (1) inch (25 mm) air gap.

506.7.3.3 Wall protectors that cover two walls in a corner shall be permitted to be open at the top and bottom edges with at least a one (1) inch (25 mm) air gap. [NFPA 91:4.6.3.3]

506.8 Protection form Physical Damage. Ducts installeds in locations where they are subject to physical damage shall be protected by suitable guards.

506.9 Exhaust Outlets. The termination point for exhaust ducts discharging to the atmosphere shall be not less than the following:

506.9.1 Ducts conveying explosive or flammable vapors, fumes, or dusts: thirty (30) feet (9, 144 mm) from property line; ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) from openings into the building, six (6) feet (1, 829 mm) from exterior walls or roofs; thirty (30) feet (9, 144 mm) from combustible walls or openings into the building that are in the direction of the exhaust discharge; ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) above adjoining grade.

506.9.2 Other product-conveying outlets: ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) from property line; three (3) feet (914 mm) from exterior wall or roof; ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) from openings into the building; ten (10) feet (3, 048 mm) above adjoining grade.

Part II – Commercial Hoods and Kitchen Ventilation.

507.0 General Requirements.

507.1 Cooking equipment used in processes producing smoke or grease-laden vapors shall be equipped with an exhaust system that complies with all the equipment and performance requirements of this standard, and all such equipment and performance shall be maintained per this standard during all periods of operation of the cooking equipment. Specifically, the following equipment shall be kept in good working condition:

  1. Cooking equipment
  2. Hoods
  3. Ducts (if applicable)
  4. Fans
  5. Fire suppression systems
  6. Special effluent or energy control equipment

All airflows shall be maintained. Maintenance and repairs shall be performed on all components at intervals necessary to maintain these conditions.

507.1.1 Cooking equipment that has been listed in accordance with UL 197 or an equivalent standard for reduced emissions shall not be required to be provided with an exhaust system. [NFPA 96:4.1.1.1*]

507.1.2 The listing evaluation of cooking equipment covered by Section 507.1.1 shall demonstrate that the grease discharge at the exhaust duct of a test hood placed over the appliance shall not exceed 5 mg/m3 when operated with a total airflow of 0.236 cubic meters per second (500 cfm). [NFPA 96:4.1.1.2]

507.1.3 The responsibility for inspection, maintenance, and cleanliness of the ventilation control and fire protection of the commercial cooking operations shall be the ultimate responsibility of the owner of the system provided that this responsibility has not been transferred in written form to a management company or other party. [NFPA 96:4.1.5]

507.1.4 All solid-fuel cooking equipment shall comply with the requirements of Section 517.0.

507.1.5 Multiple-tenancy applications shall require the concerted cooperation of design, installation, operation, and maintenance responsibilities by tenants and by the building owner.

507.1.6 All interior surfaces of the exhaust system shall be accessible for cleaning and inspection purposes.

507.1.7 Cooking equipment used in fixed, mobile, or temporary concessions, such as trucks, buses, trailers, pavilions, tents, or any form of roofed enclosure, shall comply with this standard unless all or part of the installation is exempted by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

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507.2 Clearance.

507.2.1 Where enclosures are not required, hoods, grease removal devices, exhaust fans, and ducts shall have a clearance of at least eighteen (18) inches (457 mm) to combustible material, three (3) inches (76 mm) to limited-combustible material, and zero (0) inches (0 mm) to noncombustible material. [NFPA 96:4.2.1]

507.2.2 Where a hood, duct, or grease removal device is listed for clearances less than those required in 507.2.1, the listing requirements shall be permitted. [NFPA 96:4.2.2]

507.2.3 Clearance Reduction.

507.2.3.1 Where a clearance reduction system consisting of 0.013 in. (0.33 mm) (28 gauge) sheet metal spaced out one (1) inch (25 mm) on noncombustible spacers is provided, there shall be a minimum of nine (9) inches (229 mm) clearance to combustible material. [NFPA 96:4.2.3.1]

507.2.3.2 Where a clearance reduction system consisting of 0.027 in. (0.69 mm) (22 gauge) sheet metal on one (1) inch (25 mm) mineral wool batts or ceramic fiber blanket reinforced with wire mesh or equivalent spaced out one (1) inch (25 mm) on noncombustible spacers is provided, there shall be a minimum of three (3) inches (76 mm) clearance to combustible material. [NFPA 96:4.2.3.2]

507.2.3.3 Zero clearance to limited-combustible materials shall be permitted where protected by metal lath and plaster, ceramic tile, quarry tile, other non-combustible materials or assembly of noncombustible materials, or materials and products that are listed for the purpose of reducing clearance. [NFPA 96:4.2.3.3]

507.2.4 Clearance Integrity.

507.2.4.1 In the event of damage, the material or product shall be repaired and restored to meet its intended listing or clearance requirements and shall be acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. [NFPA 96:4.2.4.1]

507.2.4.2 In the event of a fire within a kitchen exhaust system, the duct and its enclosure (rated shaft, factory-built grease duct enclosure, or field-applied grease duct enclosure) shall be inspected by qualified personnel to determine whether the duct and protection method are structurally sound, capable of maintaining their fire protection function, and in compliance with this standard for continued operation. [NFPA 96:4.2.4.2]

507.2.4.3 Protection shall be provided on the wall from the bottom of the hood to the floor, or to the top of the noncombustible material extending to the floor, to the same level as required in Section 507.2.1. [NFPA 96:4.2.4.3]

507.2.4.4 The protection methods for ducts to reduce clearance shall be applied to the combustible or limited-combustible construction, not to the duct itself. [NFPA 96:4.2.4.4]

507.2.5 Factory-built grease duct enclosures shall be protected with a through-penetration firestop system classified in accordance with ASTM E 814, Fire Tests of Through — Pentration Fire Stops, having an “F” and “T” rating equal to the fire resistance rating of the assembly being penetrated from the point at which the duct penetrates a ceiling, wall or floor to the outlet terminal, and the factory-built grease duct protection system shall be listed in accordance with UL 2221, Standard for Tests of Fire Resistive Grease Duct Enclosure Assemblies and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and the listing requirements. [NFPA 96:4.3.3, 4.3.3.1, 4.3.3.2]

507.2.6 Field-applied grease duct enclosures shall be protected with a through penetration firestop system classified in accordance with ASTM E 814, Fire Tests of Through — Pentration Fire Stops, having an "F" and "T" rating equal to the fire resistance rating of the assembly being penetrated. The surface of the field fabricated grease duct shall be continuously covered on all sides from the point at which the duct enclosure penetrates a ceiling, wall or floor to the outlet terminal, and listed in accordance with ASTM E 2336 Standard Test Methods for Fire resistive Grease Duct Enclosure Systems, and installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and the listing requirements. [NFPA 96:4.3.1, 4.3.1.1, 4.3.1.2]

507.2.7 Field-applied grease duct enclosures and factory-built grease duct enclosures shall demonstrate that they provide sufficient mechanical and structural integrity, resiliency, and stability when subjected to expected building environmental conditions, duct movement under general operating conditions, and duct movement due to fire conditions. [NFPA 96:4.3.4]

507.2.7.1 Measures shall be taken to prevent physical damage to any material or product used for the purpose of reducing clearances.

Exception: When the duct is protected with a field-applied grease duct enclosure or factory-built grease duct enclosure.

507.2.7.2The specifications of material, gauge, and construction of the duct used in the testing and listing of field-applied grease duct enclosures and factory-built grease duct enclosures shall be included as minimum requirements in their listing and installation documentation. [NFPA 96:4.3.5]

507.2.7.3 The following clearance options for which field-applied grease duct enclosures and factory-built grease duct enclosures have been successfully evaluated shall be clearly identified in their listing and installation documentation and on their label: [NFPA 96:4.3.6]

  1. Open combustible clearance at manufacturer's requested dimensions. [NFPA 96:4.3.6(1)]
  2. Closed combustible clearance at manufacturer's requested dimensions, with or without specified ventilation. [NFPA 96:4.3.6(2)]
  3. Rated shaft clearance at manufacturer's requested dimensions, with or without specified ventilation. [NFPA 96:4.3.6(3)]
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507.2.8 A duct shall be permitted to contact noncombustible floors, interior walls, and other noncombustible structures or supports, but it shall not be in contact for more than fifty (50) percent of its surface area per each lineal foot of contact length. [NFPA 96:4.4.1]

507.2.8.1 Where duct contact must exceed the requirements of 507.2.8, the duct shall be protected from corrosion. [NFPA 96:4.4.2]

507.2.8.2 Where the duct is listed for zero clearance to combustibles or otherwise protected with a material or product listed for the purpose of reducing clearance to zero, the duct shall be permitted to exceed the contact limits of 507.2.8 without additional corrosion protection. [NFPA 96:4.4.3]

507.2.9 Clearances between the duct and interior surfaces of enclosures shall meet the requirements of Section 507.2.

507.3 A drawing(s) of the exhaust system installation along with a copy of operating instructions for subassemblies and components used in the exhaust system, including electrical schematics, shall be available on the premises.

507.4 If required by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, notification in writing shall be given of any alteration, replacement, or relocation of any exhaust or extinguishing system or part thereof or cooking equipment. Satisfaction shall be provided to the Authority Having Jurisdiction that the complete exhaust system as addressed in this standard is installed and operable in accordance with the approved design and the manufacturer's instructions.

508.0 Hoods.

508.1 Where Required. Hoods shall be installed at or above all commercial-type deep fat fryers, broilers, fry grills, steam-jacketed kettles, hot-top ranges, ovens, barbecues, rotisseries, dishwashing machines, and similar equipment that produces comparable amounts of steam, smoke, grease, or heat in a food-processing establishment. For the purpose of this section, a food-processing establishment shall include any building or portion thereof used for the processing of food, but shall not include a dwelling unit.

508.1.1 Construction. The hood or that portion of a primary collection means designed for collecting cooking vapors and residues shall be constructed of and be supported by steel not less than 0.043 inch (1.09 mm) (No. 18 MSG) in thickness, stainless steel not less than 0.037 inch (0.94 mm) (No. 20 MSG) in thickness, or other approved material of equivalent strength and fire and corrosion resistance.

Exceptions:

  1. Listed exhaust hoods with or without exhaust dampers.
  2. Type II hoods shall be constructed of at least 0.024 inch (0.61 mm) (No. 24 gauge steel. Hoods constructed of copper shall be of copper sheets weighting at least twenty-four (24) ounces per square foot (7.32 kg/m2). Joints and seams shall be substantially tight. Solder shall not be used except for sealing a joint or seam.

All hoods shall be secured in place [OSHPD 1, 2 & 4] to resist the lateral loads given in the California Building Code, Title 24, Part 2 by noncombustible supports.

508.1.2 Wall mounted exhaust hood assemblies shall be tight fitting against the back wall as to not permit passage of grease vapor behind the hood, or between the back wall and the hood assembly. [NFPA 96:5.1.13]

508.2 All seams, joints, and penetrations of the hood enclosure that direct and capture grease-laden vapors and exhaust gases shall have a liquid-tight continuous external weld to the hood's lower outermost perimeter. [NFPA 96:5.1.2]

508.2.1 Seams, joints, and penetrations of the hood shall be permitted to be internally welded, provided that the weld is formed smooth or ground smooth, so as to not trap grease, and is cleanable. [NFPA 96:5.1.3]

508.2.2 Internal hood joints, seams, filter support frames, and appurtenances attached inside the hood shall be sealed or otherwise made grease-tight. [NFPA 96:5.1.4]

508.2.3 Penetrations shall be permitted to be sealed by devices that are listed for such use and whose presence does not detract from the hood's or duct's structural integrity. [NFPA 96:5.1.5]

508.2.4 Listed exhaust hoods with or without exhaust dampers shall be permitted to be constructed of materials required by the listing. [NFPA 96:5.1.6]

508.2.5 Listed exhaust hoods with or without exhaust dampers shall be permitted to be assembled in accordance with the listing requirements. [NFPA 96:5.1.7]

508.2.6 Eyebrow-type hoods over gas or electric ovens shall be permitted to have a duct constructed as required in Section 510.0 from the oven flue(s) connected to the hood canopy upstream of the exhaust plenum as shown in Figure 5-1. [NFPA 96:5.1.8.1]

 FIGURE 5-1 TYPICAL SECTION OF EYEBROW-TYPE HOOD. [NFPA 96:5.1.8.1]

FIGURE 5-1 TYPICAL SECTION OF EYEBROW-TYPE HOOD. [NFPA 96:5.1.8.1]

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508.2.7 The duct connecting the oven flue(s) to the hood canopy shall be connected with a continuous weld or have a duct-to-duct connection. [See Figure 5-6(a) through Figure 5-6(d)] [NFPA 96:5.1.8.2]

508.2.8 Insulation materials other than electrical insulation shall have a flame spread rating of 25 or less when tested in accordance with UL 723, Standard for Test for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, [NFPA 96:5.1.9]

508.2.9 Adhesives or cements used in the installation of insulating materials shall comply with the requirements of Section 508.2.8, when tested with the specific insulating material. [NFPA 96:5.1.10]

508.2.10 Penetrations shall be sealed with listed devices in accordance with the requirements of Section 508.2.11. [NFPA 96:5.1.11]

508.2.11Devices that require penetration of the hood, such as pipe and conduit penetration fittings and fasteners, shall be listed in accordance with UL 1978, Standard for Grease Ducts. [NFPA 96:5.1.12]

508.3 Insulation materials other than electrical insulation shall have a flame-spread rating of twenty-five (25) or less when tested in accordance with UL 723, Standard for Test for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials. Adhesives or cements used in the installation of insulating materials shall comply with the preceding requirements when tested with the specific insulating material.

508.4 Hood Size. Hoods shall be sized according to the following calculations and configured to provide for the capture and removal of grease-laden vapors (See Section 511.2.3)

508.4.1 Canopy Size and Location. For canopy-type commercial cooking hoods, the inside edge thereof shall overhang or extend a horizontal distance of not less than six (6) inches (152 mm) beyond the edge of the cooking surface on all open sides, and the vertical distance between the lip of the hood and the cooking surface shall not exceed four (4) feet (1,219 mm).

Exception: Listed exhaust hoods are to be installed in accordance with the terms of their listings and the manufacturer's installation instructions.

508.4.1.1 Capacity of Hoods. Canopy-type commercial cooking hoods shall exhaust through the hood a minimum quantity of air determined by application of the following formulas:
Where:
A = the horizontal surface area of the hood, in square feet (m2).
P = that part of the perimeter of the hood that is open, in feet (mm).
D = distance in feet (mm) between the lower lip of the hood and the cooking surface.
Q = quantity of air, in cubic feet per minute (L/s).

When cooking equipment is installed back to back and is covered by a common island-type hood, the airflow required may be calculated using the formula for three sides exposed. Type II hood airflow requirements shall be in accordance with the requirements for low-temperature appliance hoods.

508.4.1.2 The minimum airflow for solid-fuel cooking equipment, grease-burning charbroilers, and undefined equipment shall be:

Number of Exposed Sides Formula
4 (island or central hood)Q = 300A
3 or lessQ = 200A
Alternate formulaQ = 100PD

508.4.1.3 Type I hoods when the cooking equipment includes high-temperature appliances such as deepfat fryers:

Number of Exposed Sides Formula
4 (island or central hood)Q = 150A
3 or lessQ = 100A
Alternate formulaQ = 100PD

508.4.1.4 Type I hoods where the cooking equipment includes medium-temperature appliances such as rotisseries, grills, and ranges:

Number of Exposed Sides Formula
4 (island or central hood)Q = 100A
3 or lessQ = 75A
Alternate formulaQ = 50PD

508.4.1.5 Type I hoods where the cooking equipment includes low-temperature appliances such as medium-to-low-temperature ranges, roasters, roasting ovens, pastry ovens, and equipment approved for use under a Type II hood, such as pizza ovens:

Number of Exposed Sides Formula
4 (island or central hood)Q = 75A
3 or lessQ = 50A
Alternate formulaQ = 50PD

Exception: Listed exhaust hoods are to be installed in accordance with the terms of their listing and the manufacturer's installation instructions.

508.4.2 Capacity for Noncanopy Hoods. In addition to all other requirements for hoods specified in this section, the volume of air exhausting through a noncanopy-type hood to the duct system shall be not less than 300 cubic feet per minute per lineal foot (465 L/s per m) of cooking equipment. Listed noncanopy exhaust hoods and filters shall be sized and installed in accordance with the terms of their listing and the manufacturer's installation instructions.

Exception: Listed hood assemblies designed and installed specifically for the intended use.

508.5 Exhaust Hood Assemblies with Integrated Supply-Air Plenums.

508.5.1 The construction and size of exhaust hood assemblies with integrated supply air plenums shall comply with the requirements of Sections 508.1 and 508.4. [NFPA 96:5.3.1]

508.5.2 The construction of the outer shell or the inner exhaust shell shall comply with Section 508.1. [NFPA 96:5.3.2]

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508.5.3 Where the outer shell is welded, the inner shell shall be of grease-tight construction. [NFPA 96:5.3.3]

508.5.4 Fire Dampers.

508.5.4.1 A fire-actuated damper shall be installed in the supply air plenum at each point where a supply air duct inlet or a supply air outlet penetrates the continuously welded shell of the assembly. [NFPA 96:5.3.4.1]

508.5.4.2 The fire damper shall be listed for such use or be part of a listed exhaust hood with or without exhaust damper. [NFPA 96:5.3.4.2]

508.5.4.3 The actuation device shall have a maximum temperature rating of 141°C (286°F). [NFPA 96:5.3.4.3]

508.5.5 Supply air plenums that discharge air from the face rather than from the bottom or into the exhaust hood and that are isolated from the exhaust hood by the continuously welded shell extending to the lower outermost perimeter of the entire hood assembly shall not require a fire-actuated damper.[NFPA 96:5.3.4.4]

508.6 Listed Hood Assemblies. Listed hood assemblies shall be installed in accordance with the terms of their listing and the manufacturer's instructions. [NFPA 96:5.4.1] Listed hood assemblies shall be tested in accordance with UL 710, Exhaust Hoods for Commercial Cooking Equipment, or equivalent. [NFPA 96:5.4.2]

508.7 Solid-Fuel Hood Assemblies. Where solid-fuel cooking equipment is to be used, the solid-fuel hood assembly shall comply with Section 517.0.

508.8 Listed Ultra-Violet Hoods. Listed ultra-violet hoods shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the terms of their listing and the manufacturer's instructions. [NFPA 96:5.5]

508.9 Exhaust Outlets. An exhaust outlet within an unlisted hood shall be located so as to optimize the capture of particulate matter. Each outlet shall serve not more than a twelve (12) foot (3,658 mm) section of an unlisted hood.

509.0 Grease Removal Devices in Hoods.

509.1 Grease Removal Devices. Listed grease filters, baffles, or other approved grease removal devices for use with commercial cooking equipment shall be provided. Listed grease filters shall be tested in accordance with UL 1046, Grease Filters for Exhaust Ducts. Mesh filters shall not be used.

509.2 Installation.

509.2.1 The distance between the grease removal device and the cooking surface shall be as great as possible but not less than eighteen (18) inches (457 mm). [NFPA 96:6.2.1.1]

509.2.2 Where grease removal devices are used in conjunction with charcoal or charcoal-type broilers, including gas or electrically heated charbroilers, a minimum vertical distance of four (4) feet (1,219 mm) shall be maintained between the lower edge of the grease removal device and the cooking surface. [NFPA 96:6.2.1.2]

Exceptions:

  1. Grease removal devices supplied as part of listed hood assemblies shall be installed in accordance with the terms of the listing and the manufacturer's instructions. [NFPA 96:6.2.1.5]
  2. For cooking equipment without exposed flame and where flue gases bypass grease removal devices, the minimum vertical distance shall be permitted to be reduced to not less than six (6) inches (152 mm) [NFPA 96:6.2.1.4]
  3. Where a grease removal device is listed for separation distances less than those requirements in Sections 509.2.1 and 509.2.2, the listing requirements shall be permitted. [NFPA 96:6.2.1.4]

509.2.3 Grease Removal Device Protection. Grease removal devices shall be protected from combustion gas outlets and from direct flame impingement occurring during normal operation of cooking appliances producing high flue gas temperatures, such as deep-fat fryers or upright or high broilers (salamander broilers), where the distance between the grease removal device and the appliance flue outlet (heat source) is less than eighteen (18) inches (457 mm). [NFPA 96:6.2.2.1]

509.2.3.1 This protection shall be permitted to be accomplished by the installation of a steel or stainless steel baffle plate between the heat source and the grease removal device. [NFPA 96:6.2.2.2]

509.2.3.2 The baffle plate shall be sized and located so that flames or combustion gases shall travel a distance not less than eighteen (18) inches (457 mm) from the heat source to the grease removal device. [NFPA 96:6.2.2.3]

509.2.3.3 The baffle shall be located not less than six (6) inches (152 mm) from the grease removal devices. [NFPA 96:6.2.2.4]

509.2.4 Grease Filters. Grease filters shall be listed and constructed of steel or listed equivalent material and shall be of rigid construction that will not distort or crush under normal operation, handling, and cleaning conditions. [NFPA 96: 6.2.3.1 and 6.2.3.2] [SFM] For applications listed in Section 1.11.0 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, grease filters shall be Class I when tested in accordance with the test method in Title 24, Part 12, Chapter 12-71, SFM Standard 12-71-1.

509.2.4.1 Filters shall be tight fitting and firmly held in place and grease filters shall be arranged so that all exhaust air passes through the grease filters. [NFPA 96:6.2.3.3]

509.2.4.2 Filters shall be easily accessible and removable for cleaning. [NFPA 96:6.2.3.4]

509.2.4.3 Filters shall be installed at an angle not less than forty-five (45) degrees from the horizontal. [NFPA 96:6.2.3.5]

509.2.4.4 [DPH] Grease filters shall be Class I when tested in accordance with the test method in SFM 12-71-1.

509.2.5 Grease Drip Trays. Filters shall be equipped with a drip tray beneath their lower edges. [NFPA 96:6.2.4.1]

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509.2.5.1 The tray shall be kept to the minimum size needed to collect grease and shall be pitched to drain into an enclosed metal container having a capacity not exceeding one (1) gallon (3.785 L). [NFPA 96:6.2.4.2, and 6.2.4.3]

509.2.6 Grease Filter Orientation. Grease filters that require a specific orientation to drain grease shall be clearly so designated, or the hood shall be constructed so that filters cannot be installed in the wrong orientation. [NFPA 96:6.2.5]

509.3 Solid-Fuel Grease Removal Devices. Where solid-fuel cooking equipment is provided with grease removal devices, these devices shall comply with Section 517.0.

510.0 Exhaust Duct Systems.

510.1 General.

510.1.1 Ducts shall not pass through fire walls or fire partitions.

510.1.2 All ducts shall lead as directly as is practicable to the exterior of the building, so as not to unduly increase any fire hazard.

510.1.3 Duct systems shall not be interconnected with any other building ventilation or exhaust system.

510.1.4 All ducts shall be installed without forming dips or traps that might collect residues. In manifold (common duct) systems, the lowest end of the main duct shall be connected flush on the bottom with the branch duct. Duct systems serving a Type I hood shall be so constructed and installed that grease cannot become pocketed in any portion thereof, and the system shall slope not less than 1/4 inch per lineal foot (21 mm/m) toward the hood or toward an approved grease reservoir. Where horizontal ducts exceed seventy-five (75) feet (22,860 mm) in length, the slope shall be not less than one (1) inch per lineal foot (83 mm/m).

510.1.5 Openings required for accessibility shall comply with Section 510.3.

510.1.6 A sign shall be placed on all access panels stating the following:

ACCESS PANEL—DO NOT OBSTRUCT

510.1.7 Duct bracing and supports shall be of noncombustible material, securely attached to the structure and designed to carry gravity and lateral loads within the stress limitations of the Building Code. Bolts, screws, rivets, and other mechanical fasteners shall not penetrate duct walls.

510.1.8 Ducts, Non-Grease. Ducts and plenums serving Type II hoods shall be constructed of rigid metallic materials as set forth in Chapter 6. Duct bracing and supports shall comply with Chapter 6. Ducts subject to positive pressure shall be adequately sealed.

510.2 Clearance.

510.2.1 Clearance between ducts and combustible materials shall be provided in accordance with the requirements of Section 507.2.

510.2.2 Listed grease ducts shall be installed in accordance with the terms of their listings and manufacturer' instructions.

510.3 Openings.

510.3.1 Openings shall be provided at the sides or at the top of the duct, whichever is more accessible, and at changes of direction. Openings shall be protected by approved access panels that comply with Section 510.3.4.5.

Exception: Openings shall not be required in portions of the duct that are accessible from the duct entry or discharge.

510.3.2 For hoods with dampers in the exhaust or supply collar, an access panel for cleaning and inspection shall be provided in the duct or the hood collar. This access panel shall be as close to the hood as possible but shall not exceed eighteen (18) inches (457 mm).

Exception: Dampers that are accessible from under the hood.

510.3.3 Exhaust fans with ductwork connected to both sides shall have access for cleaning and inspection within three (3) feet (914 mm) of each side of the fan. [NFPA 96:7.3.7]

510.3.4 Openings in Ducts. Openings shall conform with Sections 510.3.4.1 through 510.3.4.5. [NFPA 96:7.3.7]

510.3.4.1 Horizontal Ducts. On horizontal ducts, at least one 20 inch by 20 inch (508 mm × 508 mm) opening shall be provided for personnel entry. [NFPA 96:7.4.1.1]

510.3.4.1.1 Horizontal ducting shall be secured sufficiently to allow for the weight of personnel entry into the duct. Where an opening of this size is not possible, openings large enough to permit thorough cleaning shall be provided at twelve (12) feet (3,658 mm) intervals. [NFPA 96:7.4.1.2]

510.3.4.1.2 Openings on horizontal grease duct systems shall be provided with safe access and a work platform when not easily accessible from a 10 feet (3 m) stepladder. [NFPA 96:7.4.1.3]

510.3.4.1.3 Support systems for horizontal grease duct systems twenty-four (24) inches (609 mm) and larger in any cross-sectional dimension shall be designed for the weight of the ductwork plus 363 kg (800 1b) at any point in the duct systems. [NFPA 96:7.4.1.4]

510.3.4.2 On nonlisted ductwork, the edge of the opening shall be not less than 1 1/2 inch (38.1 mm) from all outside edges of the duct or welded scams. [NFPA 96:7.4.1.5]

510.3.4.3 Vertical Ducts. On vertical ductwork where personnel entry is possible, access shall be provided at the top of the vertical riser to accommodate descent. [NFPA 96:7.4.2.1]

510.3.4.3.1 Where personnel entry is not possible, adequate access for cleaning shall be provided on each floor. [NFPA 96:7.4.2.2]

510.3.4.4 Access Panels. Access panels shall be of the same material and thickness as the duct (Section 510.5.1). Access panels shall have a gasket or scalant that is rated for 1,500°F (815.6°C) and shall be grease-tight. Fasteners, such as bolts, weld studs,

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latches, or wing nuts, used to secure the access panels shall be carbon steel or stainless steel and shall not penetrate duct walls.

Exception: Listed grease duct access door assemblies (access panels) shall be installed in accordance with their terms of the listings and the manufacturer's instructions.

510.3.4.5 Openings for installation, servicing, and inspection of listed fire protection system devices and for duct cleaning shall be provided in ducts and enclosures and shall conform to the requirements of Section 510.3. Enclosure openings required to reach access panels in the ductwork shall be large enough for the removal of the access panel.

510.4 Listed Grease Ducts. Listed grease ducts shall be installed in accordance with the terms of the listing and the manufacturer's instructions.

510.5 Other Grease Ducts. Other grease ducts shall comply with the requirements of this section.

510.5.1 Materials. Ducts shall be constructed of and supported by carbon steel not less than 0.054 inch (1.37 mm) (No. 16 MSG) in thickness or stainless steel not less than 0.043 inch (1.09 mm) (No. 18 MSG) in thickness.

510.5.2 Installation.

510.5.2.1 All seams, joints, penetrations, and duct-to-hood collar connections shall have a liquid-tight continuous external weld.

Exceptions:

  1. Duct-to-hood collar connections as shown in Figure 5-2 shall be permitted. FIGURE 5-2 PERMITTED DUCT-TO-HOOD COLLAR CONNECTION. [NFPA 96:7.5.2.2]
    FIGURE 5-2 PERMITTED DUCT-TO-HOOD COLLAR CONNECTION. [NFPA 96:7.5.2.2]
  2. Penetrations shall be permitted to be sealed by other listed devices that are tested to be greasetight and are evaluated under the same conditions of fire severity as the hood or enclosure of listed grease extractors and whose presence does not detract from the hood's or duct's structural integrity.
  3. Internal welding shall be permitted, provided the joint is formed or ground smooth and is readily accessible for inspection.

510.5.2.2 Overlapping duct connections of either the telescoping or the bell type shall be used for welded field joints, not butt-weld connections. The inside duct section shall always be uphill of the outside duct section. The difference between inside dimensions of overlapping sections shall not exceed 1/4 inch (6.4 mm). The overlap shall not exceed two (2) inches (50.8 mm) (See Figure 5-3).

FIGURE 5-3 TELESCOPING AND BELL-TYPE DUCT CONNECTIONS. [NFPA 96:7.5.5.1(A)(B)]

FIGURE 5-3 TELESCOPING AND BELL-TYPE DUCT CONNECTIONS. [NFPA 96:7.5.5.1(A)(B)]

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510.6 Exterior Installations.

510.6.1 The exterior portion of the ductwork shall be vertical wherever possible and shall be installed and adequately supported on the exterior of a building. Bolts, screws, rivets, and other mechanical fasteners shall not penetrate duct walls. Clearance of any ducts shall comply with Section 507.2.

510.6.2 All ducts shall be protected on the exterior by paint or other suitable weather-protective coating or shall be constructed of noncorrosive stainless steel. Ductwork subject to corrosion shall have minimal contact with the building surface.

510.7 Interior Installations.

510.7.1 In all buildings more than one story in height, and in one-story buildings where the roof-ceiling assembly is required to have a fire resistance rating, the ducts shall be enclosed in a continuous enclosure extending from the lowest fire-rated ceiling or floor above the hood, through any concealed spaces, to or through the roof so as to maintain the integrity of the fire separations required by the applicable building code provisions. The enclosure shall be sealed around the duct at the point of penetration of the lowest fire-rated ceiling or floor above the hood in order to maintain the fire resistance rating of the enclosure and shall be vented to the exterior of the building through weather-protected openings.

Exception: The continuous enclosure provisions shall not be required where a field-applied grease duct enclosure or a factory-built grease duct enclosure (See Section 510.7.2.3) is protected with a listed duct through-penetration protection system equivalent to the fire resistance rating of the assembly being penetrated, and the materials are installed in accordance with the conditions of the listing and the manufacturer's instructions and are acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

510.7.2 The enclosure required in Section 510.7.1 shall conform to Sections 510.7.2.1 through 510.7.2.3.

510.7.2.1 If the building is less than four stories in height, the enclosure wall shall have a fire resistance rating of not less than one (1) hour.

510.7.2.2 If the building is four stories or more in height, the enclosure wall shall have a fire resistance rating of not less than two (2) hours.

510.7.2.3 Clearance from the duct or the exhaust fan to the interior surface of enclosures of combustible construction shall be not less than eighteen (18) inches (457 mm), and clearance from the duct to the interior surface of enclosures of noncombustible or limited-combustible construction shall be not less than six (6) inches (152 mm). Provisions for reducing clearances as described in Section 507.2 are not applicable to enclosures.

Exception: Clearance from the outer surfaces of field-applied grease duct enclosures and factory-built grease duct enclosures to the interior surfaces of construction installed around them shall be permitted to be reduced where the field-applied grease duct enclosure materials and the factory-built grease duct enclosures are installed in accordance with the conditions of their listings and the manufacturers' instructions and are acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

510.7.3 For field-applied grease duct enclosures and factory-built grease duct enclosures, the materials and products shall conform to Sections 510.7.3.1 through 510.7.3.3.

510.7.3.1 Field-applied grease duct enclosures and factory-built grease duct enclosures shall demonstrate that they provide sufficient mechanical and structural integrity, resiliency, and stability when subjected to expected building environmental conditions, duct movement under general operating conditions, and duct movement due to interior and exterior fire conditions.

510.7.3.2 Measures shall be taken to prevent physical damage to any covering or enclosure material. Any damage to the covering or enclosure shall be repaired and the covering or enclosure restored to meet its intended listing and fire-resistive rating and to be acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

510.7.3.3 In the event of a fire within a kitchen exhaust system, the duct, the enclosure, or the covering directly applied to the duct shall be inspected by qualified personnel to determine whether the duct, the enclosure, and the covering directly applied to the duct are structurally sound, capable of maintaining their fire protection functions, suitable for continued operation, and acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

510.7.4 For listed grease ducts, see Section 510.4.

510.7.5 If openings in the enclosure walls are provided, they shall be protected by approved self-closing fire doors of proper rating. Fire doors shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 80, Standard for Fire Doors and Fire Windows. Openings on other listed materials or products shall be clearly identified and labeled according to the terms of the listing and the manufacturer's instructions and shall be acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction. The panels shall be readily accessible.

510.7.6 Each duct system shall constitute an individual system serving only exhaust hoods in one fire zone on one floor. Multiple ducts shall not be permitted in a single enclosure unless acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

510.8 Termination of Exhaust System.

510.8.1 The exhaust system shall terminate as follows:

  1. Outside the building with a fan or duct.
  2. Through the roof, or to the roof from outside, as in Section 510.8.2, or through a wall, as in Section 510.8.3.
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510.8.2 Rooftop Terminations.

510.8.2.1 Rooftop terminations shall be arranged with or provided with the following:

  1. A minimum of ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) of clearance from the outlet to adjacent buildings, property lines, and air intakes. Where space limitations absolutely prevent a ten (10) foot (3,048 mm) horizontal separation from an air intake, a vertical separation shall be permitted, with the exhaust outlet being a minimum of three (3) feet (914 mm) above any air intake located within ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) horizontally.
  2. The exhaust flow directed up and away from the surface of the roof and a minimum of forty (40) inches (1,016 mm) above the roof surface.
  3. The ability to drain grease out of any traps or low points formed in the fan or duct near the termination of the system into a collection container that is noncombustible, closed, rainproof, structurally sound for the service to which it is applied, and will not sustain combustion. A grease collection device that is applied to exhaust systems shall not inhibit the performance of any fan.
    Exception: Grease containers that are evaluated for equivalency with the preceding requirements and listed as such.
  4. A listed grease duct complying with Section 510.4, or with ductwork complying with Section 510.5.
  5. A hinged upblast fan supplied with flexible weatherproof electrical cable and service holdopen retainer to permit proper inspection and cleaning that is listed for commercial cooking equipment, provided the ductwork extends a minimum of eighteen (18) inches (457 mm) above the roof surface and the fan discharges a minimum of forty (40) inches (1,016 mm) above the roof surface (See Section 511.1.1.).
  6. Other approved fan, provided (1) it meets the requirements of Sections 510.8.2(C) and 511.1.3, and (2) its discharge or its extended duct discharge meets the requirements of Section 510.8.2(B).

510.8.2.2 Listed flexible connectors may be used on exterior roof locations when required for proper equipment vibration isolation.

510.8.2.3 Fans shall be provided with safe access and a work surface for inspection and cleaning. [NFPA 96:7.8.2.2]

510.8.3 Wall Terminations.

510.8.3.1 Wall terminations shall be arranged with or provided with the following properties:

  1. Through a noncombustible wall with a minimum of ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) of clearance from the outlet to adjacent buildings, property lines, grade level, combustible construction, or electrical equipment or lines, and the closest point of any air intake or operable door or window at or below the plane of the exhaust termination. The closest point of any air intake or operable door or window above the plane of the exhaust termination shall be a minimum of ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) distant, plus 0.25 feet (0.076m) for each one (1) degree from horizontal, the angle of degree being measured from the center of the air intake or operable door or window (See Figure 5-4).
    FIGURE 5-4 EXHAUST TERMINATION DISTANCE FROM FRESH AIR INTAKE (FAI) OR OPERABLE DOOR OR WINDOW. [NFPA 96:7.8.3]
    FIGURE 5-4 EXHAUST TERMINATION DISTANCE FROM FRESH AIR INTAKE (FAI) OR OPERABLE DOOR OR WINDOW. [NFPA 96:7.8.3]
    Exception: A wall termination in a secured area can be at a lower height above grade if acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
  2. The exhaust flow directed perpendicularly outward from the wall face or upward.
  3. All the ductwork pitched to drain the grease back into the hood(s), or with a drain provided to bring the grease back into a container within the building or into a remote grease trap. 89
  4. A listed grease duct complying with Section 510.4, or other ducts complying with Section 510.5.
  5. An approved fan, provided it meets the requirements of Sections 510.8.3.1(C) and 511.1.1 or 511.1.3.

510.9 Solid-Fuel Duct Systems. Where solid-fuel cooking equipment is to be vented, the duct system shall comply with Section 517.0.

511.0 Air Movement.

511.1 Exhaust Fans for Commercial Cooking Equipment. Where solid-fuel cooking equipment is to be vented, the duct system shall comply with Section 517.0.

511.1.1 Approved upblast fans with motors surrounded by the airstream shall be hinged, supplied with flexible weatherproof electrical cable and service hold-open retainers, and listed for this use (See Figure 5-5). Installation shall conform to the requirements of Section 510.8.

FIGURE 5-5 UPBLAST FAN CLEARANCES. [NFPA 96:7.8.2.1]

FIGURE 5-5 UPBLAST FAN CLEARANCES. [NFPA 96:7.8.2.1]

511.1.2 In-Line Exhaust Fans.

511.1.2.1 In-line fans shall be of the type with the motor located outside the airstream and with belts and pulleys protected from the airstream by a grease-tight housing. They shall be connected to the exhaust duct by flanges securely bolted as shown in Figures 5-6(a) – 5-6(d), or by a system specifically listed for such use. Flexible connectors shall not be used. [NFPA 96:8.1.2.1 – 8.1.2.3]

511.1.2.2 If the design or positioning of the fan allows grease to be trapped, a drain directed to a readily accessible and visible grease receptacle, not exceeding one (1) gallon (3.8 L), shall be provided. In-line exhaust fans shall be located in an easily accessible area of adequate size to allow for service or removal. If the duct system connected to the fan is in an enclosure, the space or room in which the exhaust fan is located shall have the same fire resistance rating as the enclosure. [NFPA 96:8.1.2.4 – 8.1.2.6]

511.1.3 Utility set exhaust fans, if installed at the rooftop termination point, shall meet the requirements of Sections 510.8.2.1(A) and Section 510.8.2.3. If the fan is installed within the building, it shall be located in an easily accessible area of adequate size to allow for service or removal. If the duct system connected to the fan is in an enclosure, the space or room in which the exhaust fan is located shall have the same fire resistance rating as the enclosure. The fan shall be connected to the exhaust duct by flanges securely bolted as shown in Figures 5-6(a) through 5-6(d) or by a system specifically listed for such use. Flexible connectors shall not be used. Exhaust fans shall have a drain directed to a readily accessible and visible grease receptacle not to exceed one (1) gallon (3.8 L). [NFPA 96:8.1.3.1 - 8.1.3.6]

511.1.4 Exhaust fan housings shall be constructed of carbon steel not less than 0.054 inch (1.37 mm) (No. 16 MSG) in thickness or stainless steel not less than 0.043 inch (1.09 mm) (No. 18 MSG) in thickness or, if listed, constructed in accordance with the terms of the listing. [NFPA 96:8.1.4]

511.1.5 Openings for cleaning, servicing, and inspection shall conform to the requirements of Section 510.3.3. Clearances shall conform to the requirements of Sections 507.2, or 510.7.2.3 if installed within an enclosure.

511.1.6 All wiring and electrical equipment shall comply with California Electrical Code.

511.2 Airflow.

511.2.1 The air velocity through any duct shall be not less than 500 feet per minute (152.4 meters per minute) and not more than 2,500 feet per minute (457.2 m per minute). [NFPA 96:8.2.1.1]

Exception: Transition duct sections shall be permitted to be connected to hoods and exhaust fans that do not meet this velocity, provided that they do not exceed three (3) feet (914 mm) in length and do not contain traps for grease.

511.2.2 Transition duct sections that do not exceed three (3) feet (914 mm) in length and do not contain grease traps shall be permitted to be connected to hoods and exhaust fans that do not meet this velocity. [NFPA 96:8.2.1.2]

511.2.3 Exhaust-air volumes for hoods shall be of sufficient level to provide for capture and removal of greaseladen cooking vapors. Test data, performance acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction, or both, shall be provided, displayed, or both, upon request. [NFPA 96:8.2.2.1, 8.2.2.2]

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FIGURE 5-6(a)TYPICAL SECTION OF DUCT-TO-FAN CONNECTION–BUTT JOINT METHOD. [NFPA 96:8.1.2.2(a)]

FIGURE 5-6(a) TYPICAL SECTION OF DUCT-TO-FAN CONNECTION–BUTT JOINT METHOD. [NFPA 96:8.1.2.2(a)]

FIGURE 5-6(b)TYPICAL SECTION OF DUCT-TO-FAN CONNECTION–OVERLAPPING METHOD. [NFPA 96:8.1.2.2(b)]

FIGURE 5-6(b) TYPICAL SECTION OF DUCT-TO-FAN CONNECTION–OVERLAPPING METHOD. [NFPA 96:8.1.2.2(b)]

FIGURE 5-6(c) TYPICAL SECTION OF DUCT-TO-FAN CONNECTION– SEALANT METHOD. [NFPA 96:8.1.2.2(c)]

FIGURE 5-6(c) TYPICAL SECTION OF DUCT-TO-FAN CONNECTION– SEALANT METHOD. [NFPA 96:8.1.2.2(c)]

FIGURE 5-6(d) TYPICAL SECTION OF DUCT-TO-FAN CONNECTION–DIRECT TO FAN INLET CONE METHOD. [NFPA 96:8.1.2.2(d)]

FIGURE 5-6(d) TYPICAL SECTION OF DUCT-TO-FAN CONNECTION–DIRECT TO FAN INLET CONE METHOD. [NFPA 96:8.1.2.2(d)]

Exception: Lower exhaust-air volumes shall be permitted during no-load cooking conditions, provided they are sufficient to capture and remove flue gases and residual vapors from cooking equipment.

511.2.4 A hood exhaust fan(s) shall continue to operate after the extinguishing system has been activated, unless fan shutdown is required by a listed component of the ventilation system or by the design of the extinguishing system. It shall not be required to restart the hood exhaust fan when the extinguishing system is activated if the exhaust fan and all cooking equipment served by the fan had previously been shut down. The hood exhaust fan shall not be required to start upon activation of the extinguishing system if the exhaust fan and all cooking equipment served by the fan have previously been shut down. [NFPA 96:8.2.3.1 - 8.2.3.2]

511.3 Replacement Air. Replacement air quantity shall be adequate to prevent negative pressures in the commercial cooking area(s) from exceeding 0.02 inch water column (4.98 kPa). When its fire-extinguishing system discharges, makeup air supplied internally to a hood shall be shut off. [NFPA 96:8.3.1 - 8.3.2]

Exception: Compensating hoods shall meet the airflow requirements specified in Sections 508.4.1.3 through 508.4.1.5. Compensating hoods shall extract at least 20 percent of their required exhaust airflow from the kitchen area.

511.4 Common Duct (Manifold) Systems.

511.4.1 Master kitchen exhaust ducts that serve multiple tenants shall include provision to bleed air from outdoors or from adjacent spaces into the master exhaust duct where required to maintain the necessary minimum air velocity in the master exhaust duct. [NFPA 96:8.4.1]

511.4.2 The bleed-air ducts shall connect to the top or side of the master exhaust duct. [NFPA 96:8.4.2]

511.4.3 The bleed-air duct shall have a fire damper at least twelve (12) inches (305 mm) from the exhaust duct connection. [NFPA 96:8.4.3]

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511.4.4 The bleed-air duct shall have the same construction and clearance requirements as the main exhaust duct from the connection to the exhaust duct to at least twelve (12) inches (305 mm) on both sides of the fire damper. [NFPA 96:8.4.4]

511.4.5 Each bleed air duct shall have a means of adjusting (e.g., using volume dampers) the bleed-air quantity. [NFPA 96:8.4.5]

511.4.6 Such means to adjust the bleed air quality shall be installed in between the fire damper and the source of bleed air. [NFPA 96:8.4.6]

511.4.7 A bleed air duct shall not be used for the exhaust of grease-laden vapors and shall be so labeled. [NFPA 96:8.4.7]

511.4.8 Unused tenant exhaust connections to the master exhaust duct that are not used as bleed air connections shall be disconnected and sealed at the main duct. [NFPA 96:8.4.8]

511.5 Solid-Fuel Air Movement Requirements. Where solid-fuel cooking equipment is used, exhaust and replacement air also shall comply with Section 517.0.

512.0 Auxiliary Equipment.

512.1 Dampers. Dampers shall not be installed in exhaust ducts or exhaust duct systems. [NFPA 96:9.1.1]

512.1.1 Where specifically listed for such use or where required as part of a listed device or system, dampers in exhaust ducts or exhaust duct systems shall be permitted. [NFPA 96:9.1.2]

512.2 Electrical Equipment.

512.2.1 Wiring systems of any type shall not be installed in ducts. [NFPA 96:9.2.1]

512.2.2 Only where specifically listed for such use shall motors, lights, and other electrical devices be permitted to be installed in ducts or hoods or located in the path of travel of exhaust products. [NFPA 96:9.2.2]

512.2.3 Lighting units on hoods shall not be located in concealed spaces.

512.2.4 Lighting units shall be permitted in concealed spaces where such units are part of a listed exhaust hood. [NFPA 96:9.2.3.3]

512.2.5 Listed lighting units specifically listed for such use and installed in accordance with the terms of the listing shall be permitted to be installed in concealed spaces. [NFPA 96:9.2.3.4]

512.2.6 All electrical equipment shall be installed in accordance with California Electrical Code, with due regard to the effects of heat, vapor, and grease on the equipment.

512.3 Other Equipment.

512.3.1 Fume incinerators, thermal recovery units, air pollution control devices, or other devices shall be permitted to be installed in ducts or hoods or located in the path of travel of exhaust products where specifically approved for such use. Downgrading other parts of the exhaust system due to the installation of these approved devices, whether listed or not, shall not be allowed. [NFPA 96:9.3.1 - 9.3.2]

512.3.2 Any equipment, listed or otherwise, that provides secondary filtration or air pollution control and that is installed in the path of travel of exhaust products shall be provided with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system for the protection of the component sections of the equipment and shall include protection of the ductwork downstream of the equipment, whether or not the equipment is provided with a damper. Filter media used in secondary filtration or air pollution control units and not complying with Section 509.2.4 shall have fire protection that is adequate for the filter media being used in accordance with the fire-extinguishing system manufacturer’s instructions. If the equipment can be a source of ignition, it shall be provided with appropriate detection to operate the fire-extinguishing system. [NFPA 96:9.3.3, 9.3.3.1, 9.3.4]

512.3.3 Where a cooking exhaust system employs an air pollution control device that recirculates air into the building, the provisions of Section 516.0 shall apply. [NFPA 96:9.3.5]

512.4 Solid-Fuel Auxiliary Equipment. Where solid fuel cooking comprises any part of a cooking operation, additional provisions and equipment as described in Section 517.0 shall be used where required.

513.0 Fire-Extinguishing Equipment.

513.1 General Requirements.

513.1.1 Fire-extinguishing equipment for the protection of grease removal devices, hood exhaust plenums, and exhaust duct systems shall be provided. [NFPA 96:10.1.1]

513.1.2 Cooking equipment that produces grease-laden vapors (such as, but not limited to, deep-fat fryers, ranges, griddles, broilers, woks, tilting skillets, and braising pans) shall be protected by fire-extinguishing equipment. [NFPA 96:10.1.2]

513.2 Types of Equipment.

513.2.1 Fire-extinguishing equipment shall include both automatic fire-extinguishing systems as primary protection and portable fire extinguishers as secondary backup. [NFPA 96:10.2.1]

513.2.1.1 A placard identifying the use of the extinguisher as secondary backup means to the automatic fire suppression system shall be conspicuously placed near each portable fire extinguisher in the cooking area. [NFPA 96:10.2.2]

513.2.2 Commercial cooking equipment that produce grease laden vapors shall be provided with a Type I Hood, in accordance with this Code, and an automatic fire extinguishing system that is listed and labeled for its intended use as follows:

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  1. Wet chemical extinguishing system (NFPA 17A, Standard for Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems), complying with UL 300, Fire Testing of Fire Extinguishing Systems for Protection of Restaurant Cooking Equipment. All existing dry chemical and wet chemical extinguishing systems shall comply with UL 300, Fire Testing of Fire Extinguishing Systems for Protection of Restaurant Cooking Equipment.
  2. Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems (NFPA 12, Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems).
  3. Automatic fire sprinkler systems (NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems).

All existing dry chemical and wet chemical extinguishing systems shall comply with UL 300, no later than the second required servicing of the system following the effective date of this section.

Exceptions:

  1. Automatic fire-extinguishing equipment provided as part of listed recirculating systems complying with standard UL 710B, Outline of Investigation for Recirculating Exhaust System.
  2. Public schools kitchens, without deep-fat fryers, shall be upgraded to a UL 300, Fire Testing of Fire Extinguishing Systems for Protection of Restaurant Cooking Equipment, compliant system during state funded modernization projects that are under the jurisdiction of the Division of the State Architect

513.2.3 In existing systems, when changes in the cooking media, positioning, or replacement of cooking equipment occur, the fire-extinguishing system shall be made to comply with Section 513.2.2 [NFPA 96:10.2.3.1]

513.2.4 Modification of Existing Hood Systems.

513.2.4.1 Any abandoned pipe or conduit from a previous installation shall be removed from within the hood, plenum, and exhaust duct. [NFPA 96:10.2.7.1]

513.2.4.2 Penetrations and holes resulting from the removal of conduit or piping shall be sealed with listed or equivalent liquid tight sealing devices.[NFPA 96:10.2.7.2]

513.2.4.3 The addition of obstructions to spray patterns from the cooking appliance nozzle(s) such as baffle plates, shelves, or any modification shall not be permitted. [NFPA 96:10.2.7.3]

513.2.4.4 Changes or modifications to the hazard after installation of the fire extinguishing systems shall result in reevaluation of the system design by a properly trained, qualified, and certified person(s). [NFPA 96:10.2.7.4]

513.2.5 Fixed Baffle Hoods with Water Wash. Grease removal devices, hood exhaust plenums, and exhaust ducts requiring protection in accordance with Section 513.1.1 shall be permitted to be protected by a listed fixed baffle hood containing a constant or fire-actuated water wash system that is listed and in compliance with UL 300, Fire Testing of Fire Extinguishing Systems for Protection of Restaurant Cooking Equipment, or other equivalent standards and shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of their listing. [NFPA 96:10.2.8.1]

513.2.5.1 The water for listed, fixed baffle hood assemblies shall be permitted to be supplied from the domestic water supply when the minimum water pressure and flow are provided in accordance with the terms of the listing. [NFPA 96:10.2.8.3]

513.2.5.2 The water supply shall be controlled by a supervised water supply control valve. [NFPA 96:10.2.8.4]

513.2.5.3 The water wash in the fixed baffle hood shall be activated by the cooking equipment extinguishing system. [NFPA 96:10.2.8.5]

513.2.5.4 A water-wash system approved to be used for protection of the grease removal device(s), hood exhaust plenum(s), exhaust duct(s), or combination thereof shall include instruction and appropriate electrical interface for simultaneous activation of the water-wash system from an automatic fire-extinguishing system, where the automatic fire-extinguishing system is used for cooking equipment protection only. [NFPA 96:10.2.8.6]

513.2.5.5 Where the fire-extinguishing system provides protection for the cooking equipment, hood, and duct, activation of the water wash shall not be required. [NFPA 96:10.2.8.7]

513.2.5.6 The water required for listed automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be permitted to be supplied from the domestic water supply where the minimum water pressure and flow are provided in accordance with the terms of the listing. The water supply shall be controlled by a supervised water supply control valve. [NFPA 96:10.2.9]

513.2.6 Water Valve Supervision. Valves controlling the water supply to listed fixed baffle hood assemblies, automatic fire-extinguishing systems, or both shall be listed indicating type of valve and shall be supervised open by one of the following methods:

  1. Central station, proprietary, or remote station alarm service.
  2. Local alarm service that will cause the sounding of an audible signal at a constantly attended point.
  3. Locking valves open.
  4. Sealing of valves and approved weekly recorded inspection. [NFPA 96:10.2.10]

513.3 Simultaneous Operation. Fixed-pipe extinguishing systems in a single hazard area shall be arranged for simultaneous automatic operation upon actuation of anyone of the systems. [NFPA 96:10.3.1]

513.3.1 Simultaneous Operation shall not be required where the fixed pipe extinguishing system is an automatic sprinkler system. [NFPA 96:10.3.2]

513.3.2 Simultaneous operation shall not be required where dry or wet chemical system be permitted to be used to protect common exhaust ductwork by the methods specified in NFPA 17A, Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems.

513.4 Fuel Shutoff.

513.4.1 Upon activation of any fire-extinguishing system for a cooking operation, all sources of fuel and electric power that produce heat to all equipment requiring protection by that system shall automatically shut off. [NFPA 96:10.4.1]

Exception: Solid-fuel cooking operations.

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513.4.2 Steam supplied from an external source shall not be required to automatically shut off. [NFPA 96:10.4.2]

513.4.3 Any gas appliance not requiring protection, but located under the same ventilating equipment, shall also automatically shut off upon activation of any extinguishing system. [NFPA 96:10.4.3]

513.4.4 Shutoff devices shall require manual reset. [NFPA 96:10.4.4]

513.5 Manual Activation.

513.5.1 A readily accessible means for manual activation shall be located between forty-two (42) inches and fortyeight (48) inches (1,067 mm and 1,219 mm) above the floor, located in a path of exit or egress, and clearly identify the hazard protected. A manual actuation device shall be located a minimum of ten (10) feet (3 m) when possible and a maximum of twenty (20) feet (6 m) from the protected kitchen appliance(s) within the path of egress. Manual actuation using a cable-operated pull station shall not require more than forty (40) pounds (178 N) of force, with a pull movement not to exceed fourteen (14) inches (356 mm) to actuate the fire suppression system. The automatic and manual means of system activation external to the control head or releasing device shall be separate and independent of each other so that failure of one will not impair the operation of the other. [NFPA 96:10.5.1 – 10.5.2]

513.5.2 The manual means of system activation shall be permitted to be common with the automatic means if the manual activation device is located between the control head or releasing device and the first fusible link. [NFPA 96:10.5.3]

513.5.3 An automatic sprinkler system shall not require a manual means of system activation. [NFPA 96:10.5.4]

513.5.4 The means for manual actuator(s) shall be mechanical or rely on electrical power for actuation. [NFPA 96:10.5.5]

513.5.5 Electrical power shall be permitted to be used for manual activation if a standby power supply is provided or if supervision is provided in accordance with Section 513.7. [NFPA 96:10.5.6]

513.6 System Annunciation.

513.6.1 Upon activation of an automatic fire extinguishing system, an audible alarm or visual indicator shall be provided to show that the system has activated. [NFPA 96:10.6.1]

513.6.2 Where a fire alarm signaling system is serving the occupancy where the extinguishing system is located, the activation of the automatic fire-extinguishing system shall activate the fire alarm signaling system. [NFPA 96:10.6.2]

513.7 System Supervision.

513.7.1 Where electrical power is required to operate the automatic fire-extinguishing system, it shall be monitored by a supervisory alarm, with a standby power supply provided. [NFPA 96:10.7.1]

513.7.2 System supervision shall not be required where an automatic fire-extinguishing system(s) includes automatic mechanical detection and actuation as a backup detection system. [NFPA 96:10.7.2]

513.7.3 System supervision shall not be required where a fire-extinguishing system(s) is interconnected or interlocked with the cooking equipment power source(s) so that if the fire extinguishing system becomes inoperable due to power failure, all sources of fuel or electric power that produce heat to all cooking equipment serviced by that hood shall automatically shut off. [NFPA 96:10.7.3]

513.7.4 System supervision shall not be required where an automatic fire-extinguishing system, including automatic mechanical detection and actuation, is electrically connected to a listed fire-actuated water-wash system for simultaneous operation of both systems. [NFPA 96:10.7.4]

513.8 Special Design and Application.

513.8.1 Hoods containing automatic fire extinguishing systems are protected areas; therefore, these hoods are not considered obstructions to overhead sprinkler systems and shall not require floor coverage underneath. [NFPA 96:10.8.1]

513.8.2 A single listed detection device, listed with the extinguishing system, shall be permitted for more than one (1) appliance when installed in accordance with the terms of the listing. [NFPA 96:10.8.2]

513.9 Review and Certification.

513.9.1 Where required, complete drawings of the system installation, including the hood(s), exhaust duct(s), and appliances, along with the interface of the fire-extinguishing system detectors, piping, nozzles, fuel shutoff devices, agent storage container(s), and manual actuation device(s), shall be submitted to the Authority Having Jurisdiction. [NFPA 96:10.9.1]

513.10 Installation Requirements.

513.10.1 Installation of systems shall be performed only by persons properly trained and qualified to install the specific system being provided. The installer shall provide certification that the installation is in agreement with the terms of the listing and the manufacturer’s instructions and/or approved design. [NFPA 96:10.9.2]

513.11 Portable Fire Extinguishers.

513.11.1 Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in kitchen cooking areas in accordance with Chapter 3, Title 19 California Code of Regulations. Such extinguishers shall use agents that specify upon contact with hot grease, such as sodium bicarbonate and potassium bicarbonate dry chemical and potassium carbonate solutions. Class B gas-type portables such as CO2 and halon shall not be permitted in kitchen cooking areas. Manufacturer’s recommendations shall be followed.

513.11.1.1 Portable fire extinguishers listed specifically for use in the kitchen cooking areas shall also be permitted.

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513.11.2 Other fire extinguishers in the kitchen area shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 3. Title 19 California Code of Regulations.

513.12 Solid-Fuel Fire-Extinguishing Equipment. Where solid-fuel cooking equipment is served by fire extinguishing equipment, the provisions of Section 517.0 shall apply.

514.0 Procedures for the Use and Maintenance of Equipment.

514.1 Operating Procedures.

514.1.1 Exhaust systems shall be operated whenever cooking equipment is turned on. [NFPA 96:11.1.1]

514.1.2 Filter-equipped exhaust systems shall not be operated with filters removed. [NFPA 96:11.1.2]

514.1.3 Openings provided for replacing air exhausted through ventilating equipment shall not be restricted by covers, dampers, or any other means that would reduce the operating efficiency of the exhaust system. [NFPA 96:11.1.3]

514.1.4 Instructions for manually operating the fire-extinguishing system shall be posted conspicuously in the kitchen and shall be reviewed periodically with employees by the management. [NFPA 96:11.1.4]

514.1.5 Listed exhaust hoods shall be operated in accordance with the terms of their listings and the manufacturer’s instructions. [NFPA 96:11.1.5]

514.1.6 Cooking equipment shall not be operated while its fire-extinguishing system or exhaust system is nonoperational or otherwise impaired. [NFPA 96:11.1.6]

514.1.7 Secondary filtration and pollution control equipment shall be operated in accordance with the terms of its listing and the manufacturer’s recommendations. [NFPA 96:11.1.7]

514.1.8 Inspection and maintenance of equipment allowed in Section 512.3.1 shall be conducted by properly trained and qualified persons at a frequency determined by the manufacturer’s instructions or equipment listing. [NFPA 96:11.1.8]

514.2 Inspection. Maintenance of the fire-extinguishing systems and listed exhaust hoods containing a constant or fire-activated water system that is listed to extinguish a fire in the grease removal devices, hood exhaust plenums, and exhaust ducts shall be made by properly trained, qualified, and certified person(s) or company acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction at least every six (6) months. [NFPA 96:11.2.1]

514.2.1 All actuation components, including remote manual pull stations, mechanical or electrical devices, detectors, actuators, and fire-actuated dampers, shall be checked for proper operation during the inspection in accordance with the manufacturer’s listed procedures. In addition to these requirements, the specific inspection requirements of the applicable NFPA standard shall also be followed. [NFPA 96-04:11.2.2 - 11.2.3]

514.2.2 Fusible links (including fusible links on fire damper assemblies) and automatic sprinkler heads shall be replaced at least semiannually, or more frequently if necessary where required by the manufacturer. [NFPA 96-04:11.2.4]

514.2.3 The year of manufacture and the date of installation of the fusible links shall be marked on the system inspection tag. The tag shall be signed or initialed by the installer. [NFPA 96:11.2.5]

Other detection devices not including fusible links and automatic sprinklers shall be serviced or replaced in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. [NFPA 96-04:11.2.6]

514.2.4 Where automatic bulb-type sprinklers or spray nozzles are used and annual examination shows no buildup of grease or other material on the sprinkler or spray nozzles, annual replacement shall not be required. [NFPA 96:11.2.7]

514.2.5 If required, certificates of inspection and maintenance shall be forwarded to the Authority Having Jurisdiction. [NFPA 96:11.2.8]

514.3 Inspection for Grease Buildup.

514.3.1 The entire exhaust system shall be inspected for grease buildup by a properly trained, qualified, and certified company or person(s) acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction in accordance with Table 5-4.

TABLE 5-4
EXHAUST SYSTEM INSPECTION SCHEDULE
[NFPA 96: TABLE 11.4]
TYPE OR VOLUME OF COOKING FREQUENCYFREQUENCY
Systems serving solid-fuel cooking operationsMonthly
Systems serving high-volume cooking operations such as 24-hour cooking, charbroiling, or wok cookingQuarterly
Systems serving moderate-volume cooking operationsSemiannually
Systems serving low-volume cooking operations, such as churches, day camps, seasonal businesses, or senior centers.Annually

514.4 Cleaning of Exhaust Systems.

514.4.1 Upon inspection, if the exhaust system is found to be contaminated with deposits from grease-laden vapors, the contaminated portions of the exhaust system shall be cleaned by a properly trained, qualified, and certified company or person(s) acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction. [NFPA 96:11.6.1]

514.4.2 Hoods, grease removal devices, fans, ducts, and other appurtenances shall be cleaned to remove combustible contaminant’s prior to surfaces becoming heavily contaminated with grease or oily sludge. [NFPA 96:11.6.2]

514.4.3 At the start of the cleaning process, electrical switches that could be activated accidentally shall be locked out. [NFPA 96:11.6.3]

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514.4.4 Components of the fire suppression system shall not be rendered inoperable during the cleaning process. [NFPA 96:11.6.4]

514.4.5 Fire-extinguishing systems shall be permitted to be rendered inoperable during the cleaning process where serviced by properly trained and qualified persons. [NFPA 96:11.6.5]

514.4.6 Flammable solvents or other flammable cleaning aids shall not be used. [NFPA 96:11.6.6]

514.4.7 Cleaning chemicals shall not be applied on fusible links or other detection devices of the automatic extinguishing system. [NFPA 96:11.6.7]

514.4.8 After the exhaust system is cleaned, it shall not be coated with powder or other substance. [NFPA 96:11.6.8]

514.4.9 When cleaning procedures are completed, all access panels (doors) and cover plates shall be restored to their normal operational condition. [NFPA 96:11.6.9]

514.4.10 When an access panel is removed, a service company label or tag preprinted with the name of the company and giving the date of inspection or cleaning shall be affixed near the affected access panels. [NFPA 96:11.6.10]

514.4.11 Dampers and diffusers shall be positioned for proper airflow. [NFPA 96:11.6.11]

514.4.12 When cleaning procedures are completed, all electrical switches and system components shall be returned to an operable state. [NFPA 96:11.6.12]

514.4.13 When an exhaust cleaning service is used, a certificate showing the name of the servicing company, the name of the person performing the work, and the date of inspection or cleaning shall be maintained on the premises. [NFPA 96:11.6.13]

514.4.14 After cleaning or inspection is completed, the exhaust cleaning company and the person performing the work at the location shall provide the owner of the system with a written report that also specifies areas that were inaccessible or not cleaned. [NFPA 96:11.6.14]

514.4.15 Where required, certificates of inspection and cleaning and reports of areas not cleaned shall be submitted to the Authority Having Jurisdiction. [NFPA 96:11.6.15]

515.0 Minimum Safety Requirements for Cooking Equipment.

515.1 Cooking Equipment.

515.1.1 Cooking equipment shall be approved based on one of the following criteria:

  1. Listings by a testing laboratory.
  2. Test data acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction. [NFPA 96:12.1.1]

515.1.2 Installation.

515.1.2.1 All listed appliances shall be installed in accordance with the terms of their listings and the manufacturer’s instructions. [NFPA 96:12.1.2.1]

515.1.2.2 Cooking appliances requiring protection shall not be moved, modified, or rearranged without prior reevaluation of the fire-extinguishing system by the system installer or servicing agent, unless otherwise allowed by the design of the fire-extinguishing system. [NFPA 96:12.1.2.2]

515.1.2.3 The fire-extinguishing system shall not require re-evaluation where the cooking appliances are moved to perform maintenance and cleaning provided the appliances are returned to approved design location prior to cooking operations, and any disconnected fire-extinguishing system nozzles attached to the appliances are reconnected in accordance with the manufacturer’s listed design manual. [NFPA 96:12.1.2.3]

515.1.2.4 All deep-fat fryers shall be installed with at least a sixteen (16) inch (406 mm) space between the fryer and surface flames from adjacent cooking equipment. [NFPA 96:12.1.2.4]

515.1.2.5 Where a steel or tempered glass baffle plate is installed at a minimum eight (8) inches (203 mm) in height between the fryer and surface flames of the adjacent appliance, the requirement for a sixteen (16) inch (406 mm) space shall not apply. [NFPA 96:12.1.2.5]

515.1.2.6 If the fryer and the surface flames are at different horizontal planes, the minimum height of eight (8) inches (203 mm) shall be measured from the higher of the two. [NFPA 96:12.1.2.5.1]

515.2 Operating Controls. Deep-fat fryers shall be equipped with a separate high-limit control in addition to the adjustable operating control (thermostat) to shut off fuel or energy when the fat temperature reaches 475°F (246°C) at one (1) inch (25 mm) below the surface. [NFPA 96:12.2]

515.3 Cooking Equipment Maintenance.

515.3.1 An inspection and servicing of the cooking equipment shall be made at least annually by properly trained and qualified persons. [NFPA 96:11.5.1]

515.3.2 Cooking equipment that collects grease below the surface, behind the equipment, or in cooking equipment flue gas exhaust, such as griddles or charbroilers, shall be inspected and, if found with grease accumulation, cleaned by a properly trained, qualified, and certified person acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction. [NFPA 96:11.5.2]

516.0 Recirculating Systems.

516.1 General Requirements. Recirculating systems containing or for use with appliances used in processes producing smoke or grease-laden vapors shall be equipped with components complying with the following:

  1. The clearance requirements of Section 507.2.
  2. A hood complying with the requirements of Section 508.0. 96
  3. Grease removal devices complying with Section 509.0.
  4. The air movement requirements of Sections 511.2.1 and 511.2.2.
  5. Auxiliary equipment (such as particulate and odor removal devices) complying with Section 512.0.
  6. Fire-extinguishing equipment complying with the requirements of Section 513.0.
    Exception: References to ducts in Sections 513.1.1 and 513.5.1.
  7. The use and maintenance requirements of Section 514.0.
  8. The minimum safety requirements of Section 515.0.
  9. All the requirements of this chapter. [NFPA 96:13.1]

516.2 Design Restrictions. All recirculating systems shall comply with Section 516.2. [NFPA 96:13.2]

516.2.1 Only gas- or electrically fueled cooking appliances shall be used. Gas-fueled appliances shall not have the combustion flue outlet(s) directly connected to the recirculating system. Gas-fueled appliances shall have a minimum eighteen (18) inch (457 mm) clearance from the flue outlet to the filter inlet in accordance with Section 509.2.3 and shall meet the installation requirements of NFPA 54, National Fuel Gas Code, or NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code. [NFPA 96:13.2.1 – 13.2.3]

516.2.2 Recirculating systems shall be listed with a testing laboratory. The recirculating system listing shall include integral fire protection for recirculating hoods, including canopy type [NFPA 96:13.2.4.1]

516.2.3 Cooking appliances that require protection and that are under a recirculating hood shall be protected by either the integral fire protection system for the hood or a system in accordance with Section 513.0. [NFPA 96:13.2.4.2]

516.2.4 A recirculating system shall not use cooking equipment that exceeds that recirculating system's labeled maximum limits for that type of equipment, stated in maximum energy input, maximum cooking temperature, and maximum square area of cooking surface or cubic volume of cooking cavity. [NFPA 96:13.2.6]

516.2.5 The listing label shall show the type(s) of cooking equipment tested and the maximum limits specified in Section 516.2.4. [NFPA 96:13.2.7]

516.2.6 A fire-actuated damper shall be installed at the exhaust outlet of the system. The actuation device shall have a maximum temperature rating of 375°F (190°C). [NFPA 96:13.2.8, 13.2.10]

516.2.7 No electrical wiring shall be installed in the interior sections of the hood plenum that might become exposed to grease.

Exception: As permitted by the California Electrical Code.

516.2.8 The power supply of any electrostatic precipitator (ESP) shall be of the “cold spark,” ferro-resonant type in that the voltage falls off as the current draw of a short increases. [NFPA 96:13.2.11]

516.2.9 Listing evaluation shall include the following:

  1. Capture and containment of vapors at published and labeled airflows.
  2. Grease discharge at the exhaust outlet of the system not to exceed an average of 5 mg/m3 of exhausted air sampled from that equipment at maximum amount of product that is capable of being processed over a continuous 8-hour test per EPA Test Method 202, Determination of Condensable Particulate Emissions for Stationary Sources, with the system operating at its minimum listed airflow.
  3. Listing and labeling of clearance to combustibles from all sides, top, and bottom.
  4. Electrical connection in the field in accordance with the California Electrical Code.
  5. Interlocks on all removable components that lie in the path of airflow within the unit to ensure that they are in place during operation of the cooking appliance.

516.3 Interlocks. The recirculating system shall be provided with interlocks of all critical components and operations as indicated in Sections 516.3.1 through 516.3.4 such that, if any of these interlocks are interrupted, the cooking appliance shall not be able to operate. [NFPA 96:13.3.1]

516.3.1 All closure panels encompassing airflow sections shall have interlocks to ensure the panels are in place and fully sealed.[NFPA 96:13.3.2]

516.3.2 Each filter component (grease and odor) shall have an interlock to prove the component is in place. [NFPA 96:13.3.3]

516.3.3 ESP Interlocks.

516.3.3.1 Each ESP shall have a sensor to prove its performance is as designed, with no interruption of the power to exceed two (2) minutes. [NFPA 96:13.3.4.1]

516.3.3.2 The sensor shall be a manual reset device or circuit. [NFPA 96:13.3.4.2]

516.3.4 An airflow switch or transducer shall be provided after the last filter component to ensure that a minimum airflow is maintained. This device opens the interlock circuit when the airflow falls twenty-five (25) percent below the system's normal operating flow or ten (10) percent below its listed minimum rating, whichever is lower. This switch or transducer shall be a manual reset device or circuit. [NFPA 96:13.3.5]

516.4 Location and Application Restrictions. The location of recirculating systems shall be approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Items to be reviewed in the fire risk assessment shall include, but not be limited to, life safety, combustibility of surroundings, proximity to air vents, and total fuel load. [NFPA 96:13.4]

516.5 Additional Fire Safety Requirements.

516.5.1 In addition to the appliance nozzle(s), a recirculating system shall be listed with the appropriate fire

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protection for grease filters, grease filtration, odor filtration units, and ductwork where applicable. [NFPA 96:13.5.1]

516.5.2 In addition to any other fire-extinguishing system actuation device, there shall be a fire-extinguishing system actuation device installed downstream of any ESP.[NFPA 96:13.5.2]

516.5.3 The requirements of Section 513.6 shall also apply to recirculating system locations. [NFPA 96:13.5.3]

516.6 Use and Maintenance.

516.6.1 Automatic or manual covers on cooking appliances, especially fryers, shall not interfere with the application of the fire suppression system.[NFPA 96:13.6.1]

516.6.2 All filters shall be cleaned or replaced in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. [NFPA 96:13.6.2]

516.6.3 All ESPs shall be cleaned a minimum of once per week following manufacturer's cleaning instructions.[NFPA 96:13.6.3]

516.6.4 The entire hood plenum and the blower section shall be cleaned a minimum of once every three (3) months. [NFPA 96:13.6.4]

516.6.5 Inspection and testing of the total operation and all safety interlocks in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions shall be performed by qualified service personnel a minimum of once every six (6) months, or more frequently if required. [NFPA 96:13.6.5]

516.6.6 Fire-extinguishing equipment shall be inspected in accordance with Section 514.2.[NFPA 96:13.6.6]

516.6.7 A signed and dated log of maintenance as performed in accordance with Sections 516.6.4 and 516.6.5 shall be available on the premises for use by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. [NFPA 96:13.6.7]

517.0 Solid-Fuel Cooking Operations.

517.1 Venting Application. Venting requirements of solidfuel cooking operations shall be determined in accordance with Sections 517.1.1 through 517.1.6.

517.1.1 Where solid-fuel cooking equipment is required by the manufacturer to have a natural draft, the vent shall comply with Section 517.4.

517.1.2 Where the solid-fuel cooking equipment has a self-contained top, is the only appliance to be vented in an isolated space (except for a single water heater with its own separate vent), has a separate makeup-air system, and is provided with supply and return air (not supplied or returned from other spaces), the system shall comply with Sections 517.4 and 517.6.

517.1.3 Where the solid-fuel cooking equipment is located in a space with other vented equipment, all vented equipment shall have an exhaust system interlocked with a makeup-air system for the space as per Section 517.6.

517.1.4 Natural draft ventilation systems and power-exhausted ventilation systems shall comply with Sections 517.3, 517.4, and 517.6.

517.1.5 Where a solid-fuel cooking appliance allows effluent to escape from the appliance opening, this opening shall be covered by a hood and an exhaust system that meets the requirements of Sections 517.3, 517.4, and 517.6.

517.1.6 Solid-fuel cooking operations shall have spark arresters to minimize the passage of airborne sparks and embers into plenums and ducts. Where the solid-fuel cooking operation is not located under a hood, a spark arrester shall be provided to minimize the passage of sparks and embers into flues and chimneys.

517.2 Location of Appliances.

517.2.1 Every appliance shall be located with respect to building construction and other equipment so as to permit access to the appliance.

517.2.2 Solid-fuel cooking appliances shall not be installed in confined spaces.

Exception: Solid-fuel cooking appliances listed for installation in confined spaces shall be installed in accordance with the terms of the listing and the manufacturer's instructions.

517.2.3 Solid-fuel cooking appliances shall not be installed in any location where gasoline or any other flammable vapors or gases are likely to be present.

517.3 Hoods for Solid-Fuel Cooking.

517.3.1 Hoods shall be sized and located in a manner capable of capturing and containing all of the effluent discharging from the appliances. The hood and its exhaust system shall comply with the provisions of the code.

517.3.2 All solid-fuel cooking equipment served by hood and duct systems shall be separate from all other exhaust systems.

Exception: Cooking equipment not requiring automatic fire-extinguishing equipment (as per the provisions of Section 510.0) shall be permitted to be installed under a common hood with solid-fuel cooking equipment that is served by a duct system separate from all other exhaust systems.

517.4 Exhaust Systems for Solid-Fuel Cooking. Where a hood is not required, in buildings where the duct system is three (3) stories or less in height, a duct complying with Section 510.0 shall be provided.

517.4.1 If a hood is used, the duct system shall conform with the Section 510.0.

517.4.2 A listed or approved grease duct system shall be provided for solid-fuel cooking exhaust systems that are four (4) stories in height or greater.

517.4.3 Where a hood is used, the duct system shall conform with the requirements of Section 510.0.

517.4.4 Wall terminations of solid-fuel exhaust systems shall be prohibited.

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517.5 Grease Removal Devices for Solid-Fuel Cooking. Grease removal devices shall be constructed of steel or stainless steel or be approved for solid-fuel cooking.

517.5.1 If airborne sparks and embers can be generated by the solid-fuel cooking operation, spark arrester devices shall be used prior to the grease removal device to minimize the entrance of these sparks and embers into the grease removal device and into the hood and duct system.

517.5.2 Filters shall be a minimum of four (4) feet (1.2 m) above the appliance cooking surface.

517.6 Air Movement for Solid-Fuel Cooking. Exhaust system requirements shall comply with the provisions of the code for hooded operation or shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendation for unhooded applications.

517.6.1 A replacement or makeup-air system shall be provided to ensure a positive supply of replacement air at all times during cooking operations.

517.6.2 Makeup-air systems serving solid-fuel cooking operations shall be interlocked with the exhaust-air system and powered, if necessary, to prevent the space from attaining a negative pressure while the solid-fuel appliance is in operation.

517.7 Fire-Extinguishing Equipment for Solid-Fuel Cooking.

517.7.1 Approved fire-extinguishing equipment shall be provided to protect all solid-fuel-burning cooking appliances that might be a source of ignition of grease in the hood, grease removal device, or duct.

Exception: If acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction, solid-fuel-burning cooking appliances constructed of solid masonry or reinforced portland or refractory cement concrete and vented in accordance with NFPA 211, Standard for Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid Fuel–Burning Appliances, Chapters 3 and 4, shall not require fixed automatic fire-extinguishing equipment.

517.7.2 Approved fire-extinguishing equipment shall be provided for the protection of grease removal devices, hoods, and duct systems.

Exception: If acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdiction, solid-fuel-burning cooking appliances constructed of solid masonry or reinforced portland or refractory cement concrete and vented in accordance with NFPA 211, Standard for Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid Fuel–Burning Appliances, Chapters 3 and 4, shall not require automatic fire-extinguishing equipment.

517.7.3 Approved fire-extinguishing equipment for solid-fuel-burning cooking appliances, where required, shall comply with NFPA 211 and shall be comprised of water-based agents.

517.7.4 Fire-extinguishing equipment shall be rated and designed to extinguish solid-fuel cooking fires, in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. The fire-extinguishing equipment shall be of sufficient size to totally extinguish fire in the entire hazard area and prevent reignition of the fuel.

517.7.5 All solid-fuel appliances (whether or not under a hood) with fireboxes of five (5) ft.3 (0.14 m3) volume or less shall at least have a listed 2-A rated water-type fire extinguisher or a 1.6 gal (6 L) wet chemical fire extinguisher listed for Class K fires in accordance with NFPA 10, Portable Fire Extinguishers, in the immediate vicinity of the appliance. [NFPA 96:14.7.8]

517.7.6 Solid-fuel appliances with fireboxes exceeding five (5) ft.3 (0.14 m3) shall be provided with a fixed-water-pipe system with a hose in the immediate vicinity of the appliance. The hose shall be equipped with an adjustable nozzle capable of producing a fine to medium spray or mist. The nozzle shall be of the type that cannot produce a straight stream. The system shall have a minimum operating pressure of forty (40) psi (275.8 kPa) and shall provide a minimum of five (5) gpm. [NFPA 96:14.7.9.1 – 14.7.9.2]

517.7.7 Fire suppression for fuel storage areas shall comply with Section 517.8.

517.7.8 In addition to the requirements of Section 517.7.5 or 517.7.6, where any solid-fuel cooking appliance is also provided with auxiliary electric, gas, oil, or other fuel for ignition or supplemental heat and the appliance is also served by any portion of a fire-extinguishing system complying with Section 513.0, such auxiliary fuel shall be shut off upon actuation of the fire-extinguishing system.

517.8 Other Safety Requirements.

517.8.1 Metal-fabricated solid-fuel cooking appliances shall be listed for the application where produced in practical quantities or shall be approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. When listed, they shall be installed in accordance with the terms of their listings and with the applicable requirements of this standard.

517.8.2 Site-built solid-fuel cooking appliances shall be submitted for approval to the Authority Having Jurisdiction before being considered for installation. All units shall be installed, operated, and maintained in accordance with the approved terms of the manufacturer's instructions and any additional requirements set forth by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

517.8.3 Except for the spark arrester required in Section 517.1.6, there shall be no additional devices of any type in any portion of the appliance, flue pipe, and chimney of a natural draft solid-fuel operation.

517.8.4 No solid-fuel cooking device of any type shall be permitted for deep-fat frying involving more than one (1) quart of liquid shortening, nor shall any solid-fuel cooking device be permitted within three (3) feet (0.92 m) of any deep-fat frying unit.

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TABLE 5-5
MINIMUM SHEET METAL THICKNESS FOR ROUND DUCTS FOR PRODUCT-CONVEYING SYSTEM DUCTS
NEGATIVE PRESSUREREINF. SPACING (Inches)CLASS 1
Up to 7″8″ to 11″12″ to 15″16″ to 19″20″ to 23″24″ to 35″36″ to 47″48″ to 59″60″
Note: 1 in. = 25.4 mm
To 7″0.021 (24 ga.).021 (24 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).127 (10 ga.)  
 96.021 (24 ga.).021 (24 ga.).021 (24 ga.).027 (22 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.)
 48.021 (24 ga.).021 (24 ga.).021 (24 ga.).021 (24 ga.).021 (24 ga.).027 (22 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.)
 24.021 (24 ga.).021 (24 ga.).021 (24 ga.).021 (24 ga.).021 (24 ga.).021 (24 ga.).027 (22 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.)
8″ to 11″0.021 (24 ga.).027 (22 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.)   
 96.021 (24 ga.).027 (22 ga.).027 (22 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.)
 48.021 (24 ga.).021 (24 ga.).021 (24 ga.).027 (22 ga.).033 (20 ga.).033 (20 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.)
 24.021 (24 ga.).021 (24 ga.).021 (24 ga.).021 (24 ga.).027 (22 ga.).027 (22 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.)
12″ to 15″0.021 (24 ga.).033 (20 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.)   
 96.021 (24 ga.).027 (22 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).097 (12 ga.).112 (11 ga.).112 (11 ga.)
 48.021 (24 ga.).027 (22 ga.).027 (22 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.)
 24.021 (24 ga.).021 (24 ga.).021 (24 ga.).027 (22 ga.).027 (22 ga.).027 (22 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.)
16″ to 20″0.021 (24 ga.).044 (18 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).112 (11 ga.)    
 96.021 (24 ga.).033 (20 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).112 (11 ga.).112 (11 ga.).112 (11 ga.)
 48.021 (24 ga.).027 (22 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).112 (11 ga.)
 24.021 (24 ga.).021 (24 ga.).027 (22 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.)
To 7″0CLASS 2
.027 (22 ga.).027 (22 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).127 (10 ga.)  
 96.027 (22 ga.).027 (22 ga.).033 (20 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.)
 48.027 (22 ga.).027 (22 ga.).033 (20 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.)
 24.027 (22 ga.).027 (22 ga.).033 (20 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.)
8″ to 11″0.027 (22 ga.).027 (22 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.)   
 96.027 (22 ga.).027 (22 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.)
 48.027 (22 ga.).027 (22 ga.).033 (20 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.)
 24.027 (22 ga.).027 (22 ga.).033 (20 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.)
12″ to 15″0.027 (22 ga.).033 (20 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.)   
 96.027 (22 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).097 (12 ga.).112 (11 ga.).112 (11 ga.)
 48.027 (22 ga.).027 (22 ga.).033 (20 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.)
 24.027 (22 ga.).027 (22 ga.).033 (20 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.)
16″ to 20″0.027 (22 ga.).044 (18 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).112 (11 ga.)    
 96.027 (22 ga.).033 (20 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).112 (11 ga.).112 (11 ga.).112 (11 ga.)
 48.027 (22 ga.).033 (20 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.)
 24.027 (22 ga.).033 (20 ga.).033 (20 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.)
To 7″0CLASS 3
.033 (20 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).127 (10 ga.)  
 96.033 (20 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.)
 48.033 (20 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.)
 24.033 (20 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.)
8″ to 11″0.033 (20 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.)   
 96.033 (20 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.)
 48.033 (20 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.)
 24.033 (20 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.) 100
12" to 15"0.033 (20 ga.).033 (20 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.)   
 96.033 (20 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).097 (12 ga.).112 (11 ga.).112 (11 ga.)
 48.033 (20 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.)
 24.033 (20 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.)
16" to 20"0.033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).112 (11 ga.)    
 96.033 (20 ga.).033 (20 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).112 (11 ga.).112 (11 ga.).112 (11 ga.)
 48.033 (20 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.)
 24.033 (20 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.)
  CLASS 4
To 7"0.055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.)  
96.055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.)
48.055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.)
24.055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.)
8" to 11"0.055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.)   
 96.055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.)
 48.055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.)
 24.055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.)
12" to 15"0.055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.)   
 96.055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).112 (11 ga.).112 (11 ga.)
 48.055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.)
 24.055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.)
16" to 20"0.055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).112 (11 ga.)    
 96.055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).112 (11 ga.).112 (11 ga.).112 (11 ga.)
 48.055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.)
 24.055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.)
101
TABLE 5–6
MINIMUM SHEET METAL THICKNESS FOR RECTANGULAR DUCTS
NEGATIVE PRESSUREREINF. SPACINGLONGEST SIDE OF DUCT
CLASS 1CLASS 2
Up to 12”13” to 24”25” to 36”37” to 48”49” to 60”Up to 12”13” to 24”25” to 36”37” to 48”49” to 60”
Note: 1 in. = 25.4 mm
To 7”48.021 (24 ga.).033 (20 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.) .033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.) 
To 7”24.021 (24 ga.).027 (22 ga.).033 (20 ga.).033 (20 ga.).033 (20 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.)
To 7”12.021 (24 ga.).021 (24 ga.).021 (24 ga.).021 (24 ga.).021 (24 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.)
8” to 11”48.027 (22 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.) .033 (20 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.) 
8” to 11”24.027 (22 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).033 (20 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.)
8” to 11”12.021 (24 ga.).027 (22 ga.).027 (22 ga.).027 (22 ga.).027 (22 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.)
12” to 15”48.044 (18 ga.).097 (12 ga.)   .044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.)   
12” to 15”24.044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.)
12” to 15”12.027 (22 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).044 (18 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.).055 (16 ga.)
16” to 20”48.068 (14 ga.).112 (11 ga.)   .068 (14 ga.).112 (11 ga.)   
16” to 20”24.068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).112 (11 ga.).112 (11 ga.).112 (11 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).112 (11 ga.).112 (11 ga.).112 (11 ga.)
16” to 20”12.033 (20 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).033 (20 ga.).044 (18 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.)
   CLASS 3    CLASS 4   
To 7”48.044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.) .055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.) 
To 7”24.044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.)
To 7”12.044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.)
8” to 11”48.044 (18 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.) .055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.) 
8” to 11”24.044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.)
8” to 11”12.044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.)
12” to 15”48.044 (18 ga.).097 (12 ga.)   .055 (16 ga.).097 (12 ga.)   
12” to 24”24.044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.) 
12” to 15”12.044 (18 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.)
16” to 20”48.068 (14 ga.).112 (11 ga.)   .055 (16 ga.).112 (11 ga.)   
16” to 20”24.068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).112 (11 ga.).112 (11 ga.).112 (11 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).112 (11 ga.).112 (11 ga.).112 (11 ga.)
16” to 20”12.044 (18 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).068 (14 ga.).055 (16 ga.).068 (14 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.).097 (12 ga.)

102
CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE – MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE
CHAPTER 6 – DUCT SYSTEMS
Adopting AgencyBSCSFMHCDDSAOSHPDCADPH
121/ACACSSSS/CC1234
Adopt Entire Chapter              
Adopt Entire Chapter as amended (amended sections listed below)XXXX  XXXXXX  
Adopt only those sections that are listed below££££££££££££££
Article/Section
601.2, Exception  XX          
601.3XXXX  XXXXXX  
602.1XXXX  XXXXXX  
602.1, Exception        XXXX  
602.3XXXX  XXXXXX  
602.3.1        XXXX  
602.4XXXX  XXXXXX  
602.5XXXX  XXXXXX  
602.6XXXX  XXXXXX  
603.0XXXX  XXXXXX  
604.2XXXX  XXXXXX  
604.5XXXX  XXXXXX  
605.0XXXX  XXXXXX  
605.1        XXXX  
605.2        XX X  
606.8 X            
607.1.1        XXXX  
609.0 X            
103 104

CHAPTER 6
DUCT SYSTEMS

601.0 Scope.

601.1 Ducts and plenums that are portions of a heating, cooling, absorption or evaporative cooling, or productconveying system shall comply with the requirements of this chapter.

601.2 Sizing Requirements. Duct systems used with blower-type equipment that are portions of a heating, cooling, absorption, evaporative cooling, or outdoor-air ventilation system shall be sized in accordance with Chapter 17, or by other approved methods.

Exception: [HCD 1 & HCD 2] Duct sizing calculations are not required for existing duct systems.

601.3 The performance criteria and requirements herein contemplate a duct that is a structural assembly having the capacity to support occupant health and safety while minimizing its own contribution to property damage under emergency conditions. Ducts can supply fresh or treated air in support of life and health, can convey products of combustion away from a fire zone, can maintain a pressure differential that facilitates evacuation and reduces the spread of fire and smoke, and can facilitate firefighter access to a fire source.

602.0 Material.

602.1 General. Supply air, return air, and outside air for heating, cooling, or evaporative cooling systems shall be conducted through duct systems constructed of metal as set forth in the ANSI/SMACNA 006–2006 HVAC Duct Construction Standards - Metal and Flexible, or another approved duct construction standard. Rectangular ducts in excess of two (2) inches w.g. shall comply with the ANSI/SMACNA 006–2006 HVAC Duct Construction Standards - Metal and Flexible, or another approved duct construction standard. Ducts, plenums, and fittings may be constructed of concrete, clay, or ceramics when installed in the ground or in a concrete slab, provided the joints are tightly sealed.

In other than Group A, E, H, I, L, and R occupancies, high-rise buildings, and other applications listed in Section 1.11.0 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, corridors shall not be used to convey air to or from rooms if the corridor is required be of fire-resistive construction per the Building Code. In Group A, E, H, I, L, and R occupancies, high-rise buildings, and other applications listed in Section 1.11.0 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, corridors shall not be used to convey air to or from rooms except where permitted in accordance with Section 1018.5 of the California Building Code.

Exception: [OSHPD 1, 2, 3, & 4] (See Section 407.4.1.3).

Not permitted for [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] Concealed building spaces or independent construction within buildings may be used as ducts or plenums.

When gypsum products are exposed in ducts or plenums, the air temperature shall be restricted to a range from 50°F (10°C) to 125°F (52°C), and moisture content shall be controlled so that the material is not adversely affected. For the purpose of this section, gypsum products shall not be exposed in ducts serving as supply from evaporative coolers, and in other air-handling systems regulated by this chapter when the temperature of the gypsum product will be below the dew point temperature.

See Chapter 8 for limitations on combustion products venting systems extending into or through ducts or plenums.

See Chapter 5 for limitations on environmental air systems exhaust ducts extending into or through ducts or plenums.

Exhaust ducts under positive pressure and venting systems shall not extend into or pass through ducts or plenums. For appliance vents and chimneys, see Chapter 8.

602.2 Combustibles Within Ducts or Plenums. Materials exposed within ducts or plenums shall be noncombustible or shall have a flame spread index not greater than twenty-five (25) and a smoke developed index not greater than fifty (50), when tested as a composite product in accordance with one of the following test methods: NFPA 255, Method of Test of Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, ASTM E 84, Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, or UL 723, Test for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, except as indicated below.

Exceptions:

  1. Return-air and outside-air ducts, plenums, or concealed spaces that serve a dwelling unit shall be permitted to be of combustible construction.
  2. Air filters meeting the requirements of Sections 311.2 and 503.3.
  3. Water evaporation media in an evaporative cooler.
  4. Charcoal filters when protected with an approved fire suppression system.
  5. Electrical wiring in plenums shall comply with NFPA 70, National Electrical Code. Electrical wires and cables and optical fiber cables shall be listed and labeled as suitable for use in plenums and shall have a flame spread distance not greater than five (5) feet (1,524 mm), an average optical density not greater than 0.15, and a peak optical density not greater than 0.5, when tested in accordance with NFPA 262, Flame Travel and Smoke of Wires and Cables for Use in Air-Handling Spaces.
  6. Nonmetallic fire sprinkler piping in plenums shall be listed and labeled as suitable for use in plenums and shall have a flame spread distance not greater than five (5) feet (1,524 mm), an average optical density not greater than 0.15 and, a peak optical density not greater than 0.5, when tested in accordance with UL 1887, Fire Test of Plastic Sprinkler Pipe for Visible Flame and Smoke Characteristics. 105
  7. Nonmetallic pneumatic tubing in plenums shall be listed and labeled as suitable for use in plenums and shall have a flame spread distance not greater than five (5) feet (1,524 mm), an average optical density not greater than 0.15, and a peak optical density not greater than 0.5, when tested in accordance with UL 1820, Fire Test of Pneumatic Tubing for Flame and Smoke Characteristics.
  8. Loudspeakers and recessed lighting fixtures, including their assemblies and accessories, in plenums shall be listed and labeled as suitable for use in plenums and shall have a peak rate of heat release not greater than 100 kilowatts, an average optical density not greater than 0.15, and a peak optical density not greater than 0.5, when tested in accordance with UL 2043, Fire Test for Heat and Visible Smoke Release for Discrete Products and their Accessories Installed in Air-Handling Spaces.
  9. Smoke detectors.
  10. Duct insulation, coverings, and linings and other supplementary materials complying with Section 605.0.
  11. Materials in a Group H, Division 6, fabrication area including the areas above and below the fabrication area sharing a common air recirculation path with the fabrication area.

602.3 Factory-Made Air Ducts. Factory-made air ducts shall be approved for the use intended or shall conform to the requirements of the referenced standard for air ducts in Chapter 17. Each portion of a factory-made air duct system shall be identified by the manufacturer with a label or other suitable identification indicating compliance with the referenced standard for air ducts in Chapter 17 and its class designation. These ducts shall be listed and shall be installed in accordance with the terms of their listing. Flexible air connectors are not permitted.

602.3.1 Flexible Ducts. [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] In hospital building projects and all other health-care facilities, including clinics and correctional treatment centers, flexible ducts of not more than 10 feet (3048 mm) in length may be used to connect supply, return or exhaust-air terminal devices to rigid duct systems. Where constant volume, variable volume or mixing boxes are utilized, flexible duct of not more than 10 feet (3048 mm), may be used on the inlet side for alignment. An internal impervious liner shall be provided to isolate insulation material from conditioned air.

602.4 Joints and Seams of Ducts. Joints of duct systems shall be made substantially air-tight by means of tapes, mastics, gasketing, or other means.

Crimp joints for round ducts shall have a contact lap of at least 1½ inch (38 mm) and shall be mechanically fastened by means of at least three (3) sheet-metal screws equally spaced around the joint, or an equivalent fastening method.

Joints and seams for 0.016 inch (0.41 mm) (No. 28 gauge) and 0.013 inch (0.33 mm) (No. 30 gauge) residential rectangular ducts shall be as specified in the ANSI/SMACNA 006–2006 HVAC Duct Construction Standards - Metal and Flexible or another approved duct construction standard for 0.019 inch (0.48 mm) (No. 26 gauge) material.

Joints and seams for rectangular duct systems shall be as specified in the ANSI/SMACNA 006–2006 HVAC Duct Construction Standards - Metal and Flexible or another approved duct construction standard.

Joints and seams for flat oval ducts and round ducts in other than single-dwelling units shall be as specified in the ANSI/SMACNA 006–2006 HVAC Duct Construction Standards - Metal and Flexible or another approved duct construction standard.

Joints and seams and all reinforcements for factory-made air ducts and plenums shall meet with the conditions of prior approval in accordance with the installation instructions that shall accompany the product. Closure systems for rigid air ducts and plenums shall be listed in accordance with UL 181A, Standard for Closure Systems for Use with Rigid Air Ducts and Air Connectors. Closure systems for flexible air ducts shall be listed in accordance with UL 181B, Standard for Closure Systems for Use with Flexible Air Ducts and Air Connectors.

602.5 Metal. Every duct, plenum, or fitting of metal shall comply with the ANSI/SMACNA 006–2006 HVAC Duct Construction Standards - Metal and Flexible or duct systems complying with UL 181 for Factory Made Air Ducts and Air Connectors.

602.6 Tin. Existing tin ducts may be used when cooling coils are added to a heating system, provided the first ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) of the duct or plenum measured from the cooling coil discharge are constructed of metal of the gauge thickness set forth in the ANSI/SMACNA 006–2006 HVAC Duct Construction Standards - Metal and Flexible or another approved duct construction standard or are of approved material and construction. Tin ducts completely enclosed in inaccessible concealed areas need not be replaced. All accessible ducts shall be insulated to comply with the ANSI/SMACNA 006–2006 HVAC Duct Construction Standards - Metal and Flexible or another approved duct construction standard. For the purpose of this subsection, ducts shall be considered accessible where the access space is thirty (30) inches (762 mm) or greater in height.

602.7 Vibration Isolators. Vibration isolators installed between mechanical equipment and metal ducts (or casings) shall be made of an approved material and shall not exceed ten (10) inches (254 mm) in length.

603.0 Quality of Material. Galvanized steel shall be of lock-forming quality with a minimum coating of 1.25 ounces of zinc per square foot (0.04 kg/m3) conforming to the requirements of ASTM A653/A653M–07 Standard Specification for Steel Sheet, Zinc-Coat (Galvanized) or Zinc-Iron Alloy-Coat (Galvannealed) by the Hot Dip Process.

604.0 Installation of Ducts.

604.1 General Ducts Under Floor or Crawl Space. Air ducts installed under a floor in a crawl space shall be installed as follows:

106
  1. Shall not prevent access to any area of the crawl space.
  2. Where it is required to move under ducts for access to areas of the crawl space a minimum vertical clearance of eighteen (18) inches (457 mm) shall be provided.

604.2 Metal Ducts. Ducts shall be securely fastened in place at each change of direction and as set forth in the ANSI/SMACNA 006-2006 HVAC Duct Construction Standards - Metal and Flexible or another approved duct construction standard. Vertical rectangular ducts and vertical round ducts shall be supported as set forth in the ANSI/SMACNA 006-2006 HVAC Duct Construction Standards - Metal and Flexible or another approved duct construction standard. Riser ducts shall be held in place by means of metal straps or angles and channels to secure the riser to the structure.

Metal ducts shall be installed with at least four (4) inches (102 mm) separation from earth. Metal ducts when installed in or under a concrete slab shall be encased in at least two (2) inches (51 mm) of concrete.

Ducts shall be installed in a building with adequate clearance so as to permit retaining the full thickness of fireproofing on structural members.

Supports for rectangular ducts as set forth in the ANSI/SMACNA 006-2006 HVAC Duct Construction Standards - Metal and Flexible or another approved duct construction standard, when suspended from above, shall be installed on two opposite sides of each duct and shall be riveted, bolted, or metal screwed to each side of the duct at not more than the intervals specified.

Horizontal round ducts forty (40) inches (1,016 mm) or less in diameter, when suspended from above shall be supported at intervals not more than as set forth in the ANSI/SMACNA 006-2006 HVAC Duct Construction Standards - Metal and Flexible or another approved duct construction standard with one hanger installed to comply with the requirements listed below:

604.2.1 Ducts shall be equipped with tight-fitting circular bands extending around the entire perimeter of the duct at each specified support interval.

604.2.2 Circular bands shall be not less than one (1) inch (25 mm) wide nor less than equivalent to the gauge of the duct material it supports.

Exception: Ducts ten (10) inches (254 mm) and less in diameter may be supported by No. 18 gauge galvanized steel wire.

604.2.3 Each circular band shall be provided with a suitable means of connecting to the suspending support.

604.2.4 Ducts shall be braced and guyed to prevent lateral or horizontal swing.

604.3 Factory-Made Air Ducts. Listed Class 0 or Class 1 factory-made air ducts may be installed in any occupancy covered by this code.

Factory-made air ducts shall not be used for vertical risers in air-duct systems serving more than two stories. Such ducts shall not penetrate construction where fire dampers are required.

Factory-made air ducts shall be installed with at least four (4) inches (102 mm) of separation from earth, except when installed as a liner inside of concrete, tile, or metal pipe; they shall be protected from physical damage.

The temperature of the air to be conveyed in any of these classes of ducts shall not exceed 250°F (122°C).

604.4 Protection of Ducts. Ducts installed in locations where they are exposed to mechanical damage by vehicles or from other causes shall be protected by approved barriers.

604.5 Support of Ducts. Installers shall provide the manufacturer's field fabrication and installation instructions.

In the absence of specific supporting materials and spacing, approved factory-made air ducts may be installed as set forth in the ANSI/SMACNA 006-2006 HVAC Duct Construction Standards - Metal and Flexible or another approved duct construction standard.

604.6 Protection Against Flood Damage. In flood hazard areas, ducts shall be located above the design flood elevation or shall be designed and constructed to prevent water from entering or accumulating within the ducts during floods up to the design flood elevation. If the ducts are located below the design flood elevation, the ducts shall be capable of resisting hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and stresses, including the effects of buoyancy, during the occurrence of flooding to the design flood elevation.

605.0 Insulation of Ducts.

Supply-, return-air ducts and plenums of a heating or cooling system shall be insulated to achieve the minimum thermal (R) value as set forth in the ANSI/SMACNA 006-2006 HVAC Duct Construction Standards - Metal and Flexible or another approved duct construction standard. [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] Cold air ducts shall be insulated wherever necessary or to prevent condensation problems.

Exceptions:

  1. Factory-installed plenums, casings, or ductwork furnished as a part of HVAC equipment tested and rated in accordance with approved energy efficiency standards.
  2. Ducts or plenums located in conditioned spaces.
  3. For runouts less than ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) in length to air terminals or air outlets, the rated R value of insulation need not exceed R-3.5 (R-0.6).
  4. Backs of air outlets and outlet plenums exposed to unconditioned or indirectly conditioned spaces with face areas exceeding five (5) square feet (0.5 m) need not exceed R-2 (R-0.4); those five (5) square feet (0.5 m2) or smaller need not be insulated.
  5. Ducts and plenums used exclusively for evaporative cooling systems.

Approved materials shall be installed within ducts and plenums for insulating, sound deadening, or other purposes. Materials shall have a mold, humidity, and erosion-resistant surface that meets the requirements of the referenced standard for air ducts in Chapter 17. Duct liners in systems operating with air velocities exceeding 2,000 feet per minute (10.16 m/s) shall be fastened with both adhesive and mechanical fasteners, and exposed edges shall have adequate treatment to withstand the operating velocity.

107

Insulation applied to the surface of ducts, including duct coverings, linings, tapes, and adhesives, located in buildings shall have a flame-spread index not greater than twenty-five (25) and a smoke developed index not greater than fifty (50), when tested in accordance with NFPA 255, Method of Test of Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, or in accordance with ASTM E 84, Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials, or in accordance with the provisions of UL 723, Test for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials. The specimen preparation and mounting procedures of ASTM E 2231, Specimen Preparation and Mounting of Pipe and Duct Insulation Materials to Assess Surface Burning Characteristics, shall be used. Air duct coverings and linings shall not flame, glow, smolder, or smoke when tested in accordance with ASTM C 411, Hot-Surface Performance of High-Temperature Thermal Insulation, at the temperature to which they are exposed in service. In no case shall the test temperature be below 250°F (121°C).

Factory-made air ducts and faced insulations intended for installation on the exterior of ducts shall be legibly printed with the name of the manufacturer, the thermal resistance (R) value at installed thickness, and the flame-spread index and smoke developed index of the composite material.

605.1 [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 (surgical clinics) & 4] Thermal acoustical lining materials shall not be installed within ducts, terminal boxes, sound traps, and other in-duct systems serving areas such as operating, cesarean operating rooms, delivery rooms, post anesthesia care units, cystoscopy, cardiac cath labs, nurseries, intensive care units, newborn intensive care units, and airborne infection Isolation rooms unless terminal filters with 90 percent average efficiency based on ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1992 or minimum efficiency rating value (MERV) of 14 are installed downstream of the duct lining.

605.2 [OSHPD 1, 2 & 4] Thermal or acoustical lining materials shall not be installed within ducts which are downstream of the 99.97 percent high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter or with minimum efficiency rating value (MERV) of 17 required in Section 408.2.1 for protective environment rooms.

606.0 Smoke Dampers, Fire Dampers, and Ceiling Dampers.

606.1 Smoke Dampers. Smoke dampers shall comply with the standards for leakage-rated dampers referenced in Chapter 17, and shall be installed in accordance with approved manufacturer's installation instructions when required by the Building Code. Smoke dampers shall be labeled by an approved agency.

606.2 Fire Dampers. Fire dampers shall comply with the standard for fire dampers referenced in Chapter 17, and shall be installed in accordance with the approved manufacturer's installation instructions when required by the Building Code. Fire dampers shall have been tested for closure under airflow conditions and shall be labeled for both maximum airflow permitted and direction of flow. When more than one damper is installed at a point in a single air path, the entire airflow shall be assumed to be passing through the smallest damper area. Fire dampers shall be labeled by an approved agency.

Ductwork shall be connected to damper sleeves or assemblies in accordance with the fire damper manufacturer's installation instructions.

606.3 Ceiling Radiation Dampers. Ceiling radiation dampers shall comply with the standard for ceiling radiation dampers referenced in Chapter 17, and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's approved installation instructions in the fire-resistive ceiling element of floor-ceiling and roof-ceiling assemblies when required by the Building Code. Fire dampers not meeting the temperature limitation of ceiling radiation dampers shall not be used as a substitute. Ceiling radiation dampers shall be labeled by an approved agency.

606.4 Multiple Arrangements. When size requires the use of multiple dampers, the installation shall be framed in an approved manner to ensure that the dampers remain in place.

606.5 Access and Identification. Dampers shall be provided with an approved means of access large enough to permit inspection and maintenance of the damper and its operating parts. The access shall not impair fire-resistive construction. Access shall not require the use of tools, keys, or special knowledge. Access points shall be permanently identified on the exterior by a label with letters not less than ½ inch (12.7 mm) in height reading: SMOKE DAMPER or FIRE DAMPER. Access doors in ducts shall be tight fitting and suitable for the required duct construction.

606.6 Freedom from Interference. Dampers shall be installed in a manner to ensure positive closing or opening as required by function. Interior liners or insulation shall be held back from portions of a damper, its sleeve, or adjoining duct that would interfere with the damper's proper operation. Exterior materials shall be installed so as to avoid interference with the operation or maintenance of external operating devices needed for proper function.

606.7 Temperature Classification of Operating Elements. Fusible links, thermal sensors, and pneumatic or electric operators shall have a temperature rating or classification as required by the Building Code.

606.8 When the automatic activation of a smoke damper or a combination smoke-fire damper occurs, the HVAC system serving such dampers shall immediately shut down.

Exceptions:

  1. HVAC systems that are part of an engineered smoke evacuation system.
  2. Where the automatic activation causes all the smoke dampers and combination smoke-fire dampers to close in the enclosed space having a common atmosphere where openings are required to be protected.
  3. Where analysis demonstrates shutoff would create a greater hazard.

The HVAC system shall not be restarted again until all the dampers are reset and fully opened.

607.0 Ventilating Ceilings.

607.1 General. Perforated ceilings may be used for air supply within the limitations of this section. Exit corridors, when required to be of fire-resistive construction by the Building Code, shall not have ventilating ceilings.

108

607.1.1 [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4] Ventilating ceilings are not permitted in health facilities.

607.2 Requirements. Ventilating ceilings shall comply with the following provisions:

607.2.1 Suspended ventilating ceiling material shall have a Class I flame-spread classification on both sides, determined in accordance with the Building Code. Suspended ventilating ceiling supports shall be of noncombustible materials.

607.2.2 Lighting fixtures recessed into ventilating ceilings shall be of a type approved for that purpose.

608.0 Use of Under-Floor Space as Supply Plenum for Dwelling Units.

An under-floor space may be used as a supply plenum, provided:

608.1 The use of under-floor space shall be limited to dwelling units not more than two stories in height. Except for the floor immediately above the under-floor plenum, supply ducts shall be provided extending from the plenum to registers on other floor levels.

Exception: In flood hazard areas, under-floor spaces shall not be used as supply plenums unless the flood opening requirements in the Building Code are satisfied.

608.2 Such spaces shall be cleaned of all loose combustible scrap material and shall be tightly and substantially enclosed.

608.3 The enclosing material of the under-floor space, including the sidewall insulation, shall be not more flammable than one (1) inch (25 mm) (nominal) wood boards (flame-spread index of 200). Installation of foam plastics is regulated by the Building Code.

608.4 Access shall be through an opening in the floor and shall be not less than twenty-four (24) inches by twenty-four (24) inches (610 mm × 610 mm).

608.5 A furnace supplying warm air to under-floor space shall be equipped with an automatic control that will start the air-circulating fan when the air in the furnace bonnet reaches a temperature not higher than 150°F (66°C). Such control shall be one that cannot be set higher than 150°F (66°C).

608.6 A furnace supplying warm air to such space shall be equipped with an approved temperature limit control that will limit outlet air temperature to 200°F (93°C).

608.7 A noncombustible receptacle shall be placed below each floor opening into the air chamber, and such receptacle shall conform to the following:

608.7.1 The receptacle shall be securely suspended from the floor members and shall be not more than eighteen (18) inches (457 mm) below the floor opening.

608.7.2 The area of the receptacle shall extend three (3) inches (76 mm) beyond the opening on all sides.

608.7.3 The perimeter of the receptacle shall have a vertical lip at least one (1) inch (25.4 mm) high at the open sides if it is at the level of the bottom of the joists, or three (3) inches (76 mm) high if the receptacle is suspended.

608.8 Floor registers shall be designed for easy removal in order to give access for cleaning the receptacles.

608.9 Exterior walls and interior stud partitions shall be fire-stopped at the floor.

608.10 Each wall register shall be connected to the air chamber by a register box or boot.

608.11 A duct conforming with Section 602.0 shall extend from the furnace supply outlet at least six (6) inches (152 mm) below combustible framing.

608.12 The entire ground surface of the under-floor space shall be covered with a vapor barrier having a minimum thickness of four (4) mils (0.1016 mm) and a flame-spread index of 200 or less.

608.13 Fuel-gas lines and plumbing waste cleanouts are not located within the space.

609.0 Automatic Shutoffs.

Air-moving systems supplying air in excess of 2000 cubic feet per minute (944 L/s) to enclosed spaces within buildings shall be equipped with an automatic shutoff. Automatic shutoff shall be accomplished by interrupting the power source of the air-moving equipment upon detection of smoke in the main supply-air duct served by such equipment. Smoke detectors shall be labeled by an approved agency, approved and listed by California State Fire Marshal for air duct installation and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's approved installation instructions. Such devices shall be compatible, with the operating velocities, pressures, temperatures, and humidities of the system. Where fire detection or alarm systems are provided for the building, the smoke detectors required by this section shall be supervised by such systems, and installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and the California Building and Fire Codes.

Exceptions:

  1. When the space supplied by the air-moving equipment is served by a total coverage smoke-detection system complying with the California Fire Code, interconnection to such system may be used to accomplish the required shutoff.
  2. Automatic shutoff is not required when all occupied rooms served by the air-handling equipment have direct exit to the exterior and the travel distance does not exceed 100 feet (30,480 mm).
  3. Automatic shutoff is not required for Group R, Division 3 and Group U Occupancies.
  4. Automatic shutoff is not required for approved smoke-control systems or where analysis demonstrates shutoff would create a greater hazard such as may be encountered in air-moving equipment supplying specialized portions of Group H Occupancies. Such equipment shall be required to have smoke detection with remote indication and manual shutoff capability at an approved location.
  5. Smoke detectors that are factory installed in listed air-moving equipment may be used in lieu of smoke detectors installed in the main supply-air duct served by such equipment.

109 110
CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE – MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE
CHAPTER 7 – COMBUSTION AIR
Adopting AgencyBSCSFMHCDDSAOSHPDCADPH
121/ACACSSSS/CC1234
Adopt Entire ChapterXXXX  XXXXXX X
Adopt Entire Chapter as amended (amended sections listed below)              
Adopt only those sections that are listed below              
Article/Section              
111 112

CHAPTER 7
COMBUSTION AIR

701.0 Air for Combustion and Ventilation.

701.1 General.

701.1.1 Air for combustion, ventilation, and dilution of flue gases for gas utilization equipment installed in buildings shall be obtained by application of one of the methods covered in Sections 701.2 through 701.8.3. Gas utilization equipment of other than natural draft and Category I vented appliances shall be provided with combustion, ventilation, and dilution air in accordance with the equipment manufacturer's instructions. Where infiltration does not provide the necessary air, outdoor air shall be introduced in accordance with methods covered in Sections 701.4 through 701.8.3.

Exceptions:

  1. This provision shall not apply to direct-vent appliances.
  2. Type 1 clothes dryers that are provided with makeup air in accordance with Section 504.3.2.

701.1.2 Gas appliances of other than natural draft design and other than Category I vented appliances shall be provided with combustion, ventilation, and dilution air in accordance with the appliance manufacturer's instructions. [NFPA 54:9.3.1.2]

701.1.3 Where used, a draft hood or a barometric draft regulator shall be installed in the same room or enclosure as the equipment served so as to prevent any difference in pressure between the hood or regulator and the combustion-air supply. [NFPA 54:9.3.1.4]

701.1.4 Where exhaust fans, clothes dryers, and kitchen ventilation systems interfere with the operation of appliances, makeup air shall be provided. [NFPA 54-09:9.3.1.5]

701.2 Indoor Combustion Air. The required volume of indoor air shall be determined in accordance with the method in Section 701.2.1 or 701.2.2, except that where the air infiltration rate is known to be less than 0.40 ACH, the method in Section 701.2.2 shall be used. The total required volume shall be the sum of the required volume calculated for all appliances located within the space. Rooms communicating directly with the space in which the appliances are installed through openings not furnished with doors, and through combustion air openings sized and located in accordance with Section 701.3.1, are considered a part of the required volume. [NFPA 54:9.3.2]

701.2.1 Standard Method. The minimum required volume shall be fifty (50) cubic feet per 1,000 Btu/hour (4.8 m3/kW) [NFPA 54:9.3.2.1].

701.2.1.1 Known Air Infiltration Rate Method Equations.

(Equation 701.2.1.1(a))

Required Volume other ≥ (21 ft.3/ACH) × (Iother/1,000 Btu/h)

(Equation 701.2.1.1(b))

Required Volumefan≥ (15 ft.3/ACH) × (Ifan/1,000 Btu/h)

Where:

Iother = all appliances other than fan-assisted input in Btu per hour

Ifan = fan-assisted appliance input in Btu per hour

ACH = air change per hour (percent of volume of space exchanged per hour, expressed as a decimal)

701.2.2 Known Air Infiltration Rate Method. Where the air infiltration rate of a structure is known, the minimum required volume shall be determined as follows [NFPA 54:9.3.2.2]:

  1. For appliances having other than fan-assisted combustion systems: calculate using equation 701.2.1.1(a) but no smaller than thirty-five (35) cubic feet per 1,000 Btu/hour (3.4 m3/kW). [NFPA 54:9.3.2.2(1)]
  2. For fan-assisted combustion system appliances: calculate using equation 701.2.1.1(b) but no smaller than twenty-five (25) cubic feet per 1,000 Btu/hour (2.4 m3/kW). [NFPA 54:9.3.2.2(2)]
  3. For purposes of this calculation, an infiltration rate greater than 0.60 ACH shall not be used in the equations. [NFPA 54:9.3.2.2(3)]

701.3 Indoor Opening Size and Location.

701.3.1 Openings used to connect indoor spaces shall be sized and located in accordance with the following [NFPA 54:9.3.2.3]:

  1. Combining spaces on the same story. Each opening shall have a minimum free area of 1 in.2/1,000 Btu/h. (220 mm3/kW) of the total input rating of all gas utilization equipment in the space, but not less than 100 in.2 (0.06 m2). One opening shall commence within twelve (12) inches (300 mm) of the top, and one opening shall commence within twelve (12) in. (300 mm) of the bottom, of the enclosure (See Figure 7-1). The minimum dimension of air openings shall be not less than three (3) inches (80 mm). [NFPA 54:9.3.2.3(1)]
  2. Combining spaces in different stories. The volumes of spaces in different stories shall be considered as communicating spaces where such spaces are connected by one or more openings in doors or floors having a total minimum free area of 2 in.2/1,000 Btu/h (4,400 mm2/kW) of total input rating of all gas utilization equipment. [NFPA 54:9.3.2.3(2)]
113

701.4 Outdoor Combustion Air. Outdoor combustion air shall be provided through opening(s) to the outdoors in accordance with the methods in Section 701.4.1 or 701.4.2. The minimum dimension of air openings shall not be less than three (3) inches (80 mm). [NFPA 54:9.3.3]

701.4.1 Two Permanent Openings Method. Two permanent openings, one commencing within twelve (12) inches (300 mm) of the top and one commencing within twelve (12) inches (300 mm) of the bottom of the enclosure, shall be provided. The openings shall communicate directly, or by ducts, with the outdoors or spaces that freely communicate with the outdoors, as follows [NFPA 54:9.3.3.1]:

  1. Where directly communicating with the outdoors or where communicating to the outdoors through vertical ducts, each opening shall have a minimum free area of 1 in.2/4,000 Btu/h (550 mm2/kW) of total input rating of all appliances in the enclosure (See Figures 7-2 and 7-3). [NFPA 54:9.3.3.1(1)]
  2. Where communicating with the outdoors through horizontal ducts, each opening shall have a minimum free area of 1 in.2/2,000 Btu/h (1,100 mm2/kW) of total input rating of all appliances in the enclosure (See Figure 7-4). [NFPA 54:9.3.3.1(2)]

701.4.2 One Permanent Opening Method. One permanent opening, commencing within twelve (12) inches (300 mm) of the top of the enclosure, shall be provided. The equipment shall have clearances of at least one (1) inch (25 mm) from the sides and back and six (6) inches (160 mm) from the front of the appliance. The opening shall directly communicate with the outdoors or shall communicate through a vertical or horizontal duct to the outdoors or spaces that freely communicate with the outdoors (See Figure 7-5) and shall have a minimum free area of [NFPA 54:9.3.3.2]:

  1. lin.2/3,000 Btu/h (700 mm2/kW) of the total input rating of all equipment located in the enclosure, and [NFPA 54:9.3.3.2(1)]
  2. Not less than the sum of the areas of all vent connectors in the space. [NFPA 54:9.3.3.2 (2)]

701.5 Combination Indoor and Outdoor Combustion Air. The use of a combination of indoor and outdoor combustion air shall be in accordance with Sections 701.5.1 through 701.5.3. [NFPA 54:9.3.4]

701.5.1 Indoor Openings. Where used, openings connecting the interior spaces shall comply with Section 701.3.1. [NFPA 54:9.3.4(1)]

701.5.2 Outdoor opening(s) shall be located in accordance with Section 701.4. [NFPA 54:9.3.4(2)]

701.5.3 Outdoor Opening(s) Size. The outdoor opening(s) size shall be calculated in accordance with the following [NFPA 54:9.3.4(3)]:

  1. The ratio of interior spaces shall be the available volume of all communicating spaces divided by the required volume. [NFPA 54:9.3.4(3)(a)]
  2. The outdoor size reduction factor shall be one (1) minus the ratio of interior spaces. [NFPA 54:9.3.4(3)(b)]
  3. The minimum size of outdoor opening(s) shall be the full size of outdoor opening(s) calculated in accordance with Section 701.4, multiplied by the reduction factor. The minimum dimension of air openings shall not be less than three (3) inches (80 mm). [NFPA 54:9.3.4(3)(c)]

701.6 Engineered Installations. Engineered combustion air installations shall provide adequate supply of combustion, ventilation, and dilution air and shall be approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. [NFPA 54:9.3.5]

701.7 Mechanical Combustion Air Supply. Where all combustion air is provided by a mechanical air supply system, the combustion air shall be supplied from outdoors at the minimum rate of 0.35 feet3/min per 1,000 Btu/h (0.034 m3/min per kW) for all appliances located within the space. [NFPA 54:9.3.6]

701.8 Mechanical Combustion Air Requirements.

701.8.1 Where exhaust fans are installed, additional air shall be provided to replace the exhausted air. [NFPA 54:9.3.6.1]

701.8.2 Each of the appliances served shall be interlocked to the mechanical air supply system to prevent main burner operation where the mechanical air supply system is not in operation. [NFPA 54:9.3.6.2]

701.8.3 Where combustion air is provided by the building's mechanical ventilation system, the system shall provide the specified combustion air rate in addition to the required ventilation air. [NFPA 54:9.3.6.3]

701.9 Louvers, Grilles, and Screens.

  1. Louvers and Grilles. The required size of openings for combustion, ventilation, and dilution air shall be based on the net free area of each opening. Where the free area through a design of louver, grille or screen is known, it shall be used in calculating the size opening required to provide the free area specified. Where the louver and grille design and free area are not known, it shall be assumed that wood louvers will have a 25 percent free area and metal louvers and grilles will have a 75 percent free area. Nonmotorized louvers and grilles shall be fixed in the open position. [NFPA 54:9.3.7.1]
  2. Minimum Screen Mesh Size. Screens shall not be smaller than ¼ inch (6.4 mm) mesh. [NFPA 54:9.3.7.2]
  3. Motorized Louvers. Motorized louvers shall be interlocked with the equipment so they are proven in the full open position prior to main burner ignition and during main burner operation. Means shall be provided to prevent the main burner from igniting should the louver fail to open during burner startup and to shut down the main burner if the louvers close during burner operation. [NFPA 54:9.3.7.3]

701.10 Combustion-Air Ducts. Combustion-air ducts shall comply with the following: [NFPA 54:9.3.8]

114
  1. Ducts shall be of galvanized steel or a material having equivalent corrosion resistance, strength, and rigidity.

    Exception: Within dwellings units, unobstructed stud and joist spaces shall not be prohibited from conveying combustion air, provided that not more than one fireblock is removed. [NFPA 54:9.3.8.1]

  2. Ducts shall terminate in an unobstructed space, allowing free movement of combustion air to the appliances. [NFPA 54:9.3.8.2]
  3. Ducts shall serve a single space. [NFPA 54:9.3.8.3]
  4. Ducts shall not service both upper and lower combustion air openings where both such openings are used.

    The separation between ducts serving upper and lower combustion-air openings shall be maintained to the source of combustion air. [NFPA 54:9.3.8.4]

  5. Ducts terminating in attics shall not be screened. [NFPA 54:9.3.8.5]
  6. Intakes for combustion-air ducts located exterior to the building shall have the lowest side of the combustion air intake openings located at least 12 inches vertically from the adjoining grade level. [NFPA 54:9.3.8.8]
  7. Horizontal upper combustion-air ducts shall not slope downward toward the source of combustion air. [NFPA 54:9.3.8.6]
  8. The remaining space surrounding a chimney liner, gas vent, special gas vent, or plastic piping installed within a masonry, metal, or factory-built chimney shall not be used to supply combustion air, unless it is listed and shown in the manufacturer's installation instructions. [NFPA 54:9.3.8.7]

701.11 Dampers Prohibited. Combustion-air ducts or plenums shall not be installed so as to require openings in or penetrations through construction where fire dampers are required. Manually operated dampers shall not be installed in combustion-air openings. With prior approval, power-actuated movable louvers admitting combustion air may be used and, if installed, shall be electrically interlocked with the main burner fuel-supply valve so as to prevent fuel delivery unless the louvers are in the fully open position.

FIGURE 7-1 ALL COMBUSTION AIR FROM ADJACENT INDOOR SPACES THROUGH INDOOR COMBUSTION AIR OPENINGS. [NFPA 54: A.9.3.2.3(1)]

FIGURE 7-1 ALL COMBUSTION AIR FROM ADJACENT INDOOR SPACES THROUGH INDOOR COMBUSTION AIR OPENINGS. [NFPA 54: A.9.3.2.3(1)]

FIGURE 7-2 ALL COMBUSTION AIR FROM OUTDOORS—INLET AIR FROM VENTILATED CRAWL SPACE AND OUTLET AIR TO VENTILATED ATTIC. [NFPA 54: A.9.3.3.1(1)(A)]

FIGURE 7-2 ALL COMBUSTION AIR FROM OUTDOORS—INLET AIR FROM VENTILATED CRAWL SPACE AND OUTLET AIR TO VENTILATED ATTIC. [NFPA 54: A.9.3.3.1(1)(A)]

115

FIGURE 7-3 ALL COMBUSTION AIR FROM OUTDOORS THROUGH VENTILATED ATTIC. [NFPA 54: A.9.3.3.1(1)(B)]

FIGURE 7-3 ALL COMBUSTION AIR FROM OUTDOORS THROUGH VENTILATED ATTIC. [NFPA 54: A.9.3.3.1(1)(B)]

FIGURE 7-4 ALL COMBUSTION AIR FROM OUTDOORS THROUGH HORIZONTAL DUCTS. [NFPA 54: A.9.3.3.1(2)]

FIGURE 7-4 ALL COMBUSTION AIR FROM OUTDOORS THROUGH HORIZONTAL DUCTS. [NFPA 54: A.9.3.3.1(2)]

FIGURE 7-5 ALL COMBUSTION AIR FROM OUTDOORS THROUGH SINGLE COMBUSTION AIR OPENING. [NFPA 54:A.9.3.3.2]

FIGURE 7-5 ALL COMBUSTION AIR FROM OUTDOORS THROUGH SINGLE COMBUSTION AIR OPENING. [NFPA 54:A.9.3.3.2]

116
CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL CODE – MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE
CHAPTER 8 – CHIMNEY AND VENTS
Adopting AgencyBSCSFMHCDDSAOSHPDCADPH
121/ACACSSSS/CC1234
Adopt Entire ChapterXXXX  XXXXXX  
Adopt Entire Chapter as amended (amended sections listed below)              
Adopt only those sections that are listed below              
Article/Section              
117 118

CHAPTER 8
CHIMNEY AND VENTS

801.0 Scope.

The requirements of this chapter shall govern the venting of fuel-burning appliances.

801.1 Venting of Gas Appliances. Low-heat gas appliances shall be vented in accordance with this chapter. Other gas appliances shall be vented in accordance with NFPA 211, Standard for chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid-Fuel-Burning Appliances, or other applicable standards.

801.2 Appliances Fueled by Other Fuels. Appliances fueled by fuels other than gas shall be vented in accordance with NFPA 211, Standard for Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid-Fuel-Burning Appliances, and the appliance manufacturer's instructions.

802.0 Venting of Appliances.

802.1 General. This section recognizes that the choice of venting materials and the methods of installation of venting systems are dependent on the operating characteristics of the appliance.

802.1.1 Categories. The operating characteristics of vented appliances can be categorized with respect to positive or negative pressure within the venting system and whether or not the appliance generates flue or vent gases that can condense in the venting system. See Section 224.0 for the definition of these vented appliance categories. [NFPA 54:12.2.2]

802.1.2 Installation. Listed vents shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 8 and the manufacturer's installation instructions. [NFPA 54:12.2.3]

802.1.3 Appliance vents shall not discharge into any space enclosed by screens having openings smaller than one-quarter (¼) inch (6.4 mm) mesh.

802.2 Specification for Venting.

802.2.1 Connection to Venting Systems. Except as permitted in Sections 802.2.2 through 802.2.6, all appliances shall be connected to venting systems. [NFPA 54:12.3.1]

802.2.2 Appliances Not Required to Be Vented. The following appliances shall not be required to be vented [NFPA 54:12.3.2]:

802.2.2.1 Listed ranges. [NFPA 54:12.3.2(1)]

802.2.2.2 Built-in domestic cooking units listed and marked for optional venting. [NFPA 54:12.3.2(2)]

802.2.2.3 Listed hot plates and listed laundry stoves. [NFPA 54:12.3.2(3)]

802.2.2.4 Listed Type 1 clothes dryers exhausted in accordance with Section 504.3.2. [NFPA 54:12.3.2(4)]

802.2.2.5 A single listed booster-type (automatic instantaneous) water heater, when designed and used solely for the sanitizing rinse requirements of a dishwashing machine, provided that the appliance is installed with the draft hood in place and unaltered, if a draft hood is required, in a commercial kitchen having a mechanical exhaust system; where installed in this manner, the draft hood outlet shall not be less than thirty-six (36) inches (910 mm) vertically and six (6) inches (150 mm) horizontally from any surface other than the appliance. [NFPA 54:12.3.2(5)]

802.2.2.6 Listed refrigerators. [NFPA 54:12.3.2(6)]

802.2.2.7 Counter appliances. [NFPA 54:12.3.2(7)]

802.2.2.8 Room heaters listed for unvented use (See Sections 924.1 and 924.2). [NFPA 54:12.3.2(8)]

802.2.2.9 Direct gas-fired makeup air heaters. [NFPA 54:12.3.2(9)]

802.2.2.10 Other appliances listed for unvented use and not provided with flue collars. [NFPA 54:12.3.2(10)]

802.2.2.11 Specialized appliances of limited input such as laboratory burners or gas lights. [NFPA 54:12.3.2(11)]

Where any or all of the appliances in Sections 802.2.2.5 through 802.2.2.11 are installed so the aggregate input rating exceeds twenty (20) Btu/h/ft.3 (207 W/m3) of room or space in which it is installed, one or more shall be provided with venting systems or other approved means for removing the vent gases to the outside atmosphere so the aggregate input rating of the remaining unvented appliances do not exceed twenty (20) Btu/h/ft.3 (207 W/m3). Where the calculation includes the volume of an adjacent room or space, the room or space in which the appliance is installed shall be directly connected to the adjacent room or space by a doorway, archway, or other opening of comparable size that cannot be closed. [NFPA 54:12.3.2]

802.2.3 Ventilating Hoods. Ventilating hoods and exhaust systems shall be permitted to be used to vent appliances installed in commercial applications (See Section 802.3.5) and to vent industrial appliance, particularly where the process itself requires fume disposal. [NFPA 54:12.3.3]

802.2.4 Well-Ventilated Spaces. The operation of industrial appliances such that its flue gases are discharged directly into a large and well-ventilated space shall be permitted. [NFPA 54:12.3.4]

802.2.5 Direct-Vent Appliance. Listed direct-vent appliances shall be considered properly vented where installed in accordance with the terms of its listing, the manufacturer's instructions, and Section 802.8.3. [NFPA 54:12.3.5]

802.2.6 Appliances with Integral Vents. Appliances incorporating integral venting means shall be considered

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properly vented where installed in accordance with its listing, the manufacturer's instructions, and Sections 802.8.1 and 802.8.2. [NFPA 54:12.3.6]

802.3 Design and Construction.

802.3.1 Minimum Safe Performance. A venting system shall be designed and constructed so as to develop a positive flow adequate to remove flue or vent gases to the outside atmosphere. [NFPA 54:12.1]

802.3.2 Appliance Draft Requirements. A venting system shall satisfy the draft requirements of the appliance in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. [NFPA 54:12.4.1]

802.3.3 Design and Construction. Appliances required to be vented shall be connected to a venting system designed and installed in accordance with the provisions of Sections 802.4 through 802.15. [NFPA 54:12.4.2]

802.3.4 Mechanical Draft Systems.

802.3.4.1 Mechanical draft systems shall be listed and shall be installed in accordance with the terms of their listing and both the appliance and the mechanical draft system manufacturer's instructions. [NFPA 54:12.4.3.1]

802.3.4.2 Appliances requiring venting shall be permitted to be vented by means of mechanical draft systems of either forced or induced draft design. [NFPA 54:12.4.3.2]

Exception: Incinerators.

802.3.4.3 Forced draft systems and all portions of induced draft systems under positive pressure during operation shall be designed and installed so as to prevent leakage of flue or vent gases into a building. [NFPA 54:12.4.3.3]

802.3.4.4 Vent connectors serving appliances vented by natural draft shall not be connected into any portion of mechanical draft systems operating under positive pressure. [NFPA 54:12.4.3.4]

802.3.4.5 Where a mechanical draft system is employed, provision shall be made to prevent the flow of gas to the main burners when the draft system is not performing so as to satisfy the operating requirements of the appliance for safe performance. [NFPA 54:12.4.3.5]

802.3.4.6 The exit terminals of mechanical draft systems shall be not less than seven (7) feet (2, 134 mm) above grade where located adjacent to public walkways and shall be located as specified in Sections 802.8.1 and 802.8.2. [NFPA 54:12.4.3.6]

802.3.5 Ventilating Hoods and Exhaust Systems.

802.3.5.1 Ventilating hoods and exhaust systems shall be permitted to be used to vent appliances installed in commercial applications. [NFPA 54:12.4.4.1]

802.3.5.2 Where automatically operated appliances are vented through a ventilating hood or exhaust system equipped with a damper or with a power means of exhaust, provisions shall be made to allow the flow of gas to the main burners only when the damper is open to a position to properly vent the appliance and when the power means of exhaust is in operation. [NFPA 54:12.4.4.2]

802.3.6 Circulating Air Ducts and Furnace Plenums. No portion of a venting system shall extend into or pass through any circulating air duct or furnace plenum. [NFPA 54:12.4.5.1]

802.4 Type of Venting System to Be Used.

802.4.1 The type of venting system to be used shall be in accordance with Table 8-1. [NFPA 54:12.5.1]

802.4.2 Plastic Piping. Plastic piping used for venting appliances listed for use with such venting materials shall be approved. [NFPA 54:12.5.2]

802.4.3 Plastic Vent Joints. Plastic pipe and fittings used to vent appliances shall be installed in accordance with the appliance manufacturer's installation instructions. Where primer is required, it shall be of a contrasting color. [NFPA 54-09:12.5.3]

802.4.4 Special Gas Vent. A special gas vent shall be listed and installed in accordance with the terms of the special gas vent listing and the manufacturer's instructions. [NFPA 54:12.5.3]

802.5 Masonry, Metal, and Factory-Built Chimneys.

802.5.1 Listing or Construction.

802.5.1.1 Factory-built chimneys shall be installed in accordance with their listing and the manufacturer's instructions. Factory-built chimneys used to vent appliances that operate at positive vent pressure shall be listed for such application. [NFPA 54:12.6.1.1]

802.5.1.2 Metal chimneys shall be built and installed in accordance with NFPA 211, Standard for Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid-Fuel-Burning Appliances. [NFPA 54:12.6.1.2]

802.5.1.3 Masonry chimneys shall be built and installed in accordance with NFPA 211, Standard for Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid Fuel-Burning Appliances, and lined with an approved clay flue lining, a listed chimney lining system, or other approved material that will resist corrosion, erosion, softening, or cracking from vent gases at temperatures up to 1,800°F (982°C).

Exception: Masonry chimney flues lined with a chimney lining system specifically listed for use with listed gas appliances with draft hoods, Category I appliances, and other gas appliances listed for use with Type B vents shall be permitted. The liner shall be installed in accordance with the liner manufacturer's instructions and the terms of the listing. A permanent identifying label shall be attached at the point where the connection is to be made to the liner. The label shall read: “This chimney liner is for appliances that burn gas only. Do not connect to solid or liquid fuel-burning appliances or incinerators.” [NFPA 54:12.6.1.3]

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802.5.2 Termination.

802.5.2.1 A chimney for residential-type or low-heat appliances shall extend at least three (3) feet (914 mm) above the highest point where it passes through a roof of a building and at least two (2) feet (610 mm) higher than any portion of a building within a horizontal distance of ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) (See Figure 8-1). [NFPA 54:12.6.2.1]

802.5.2.2 A chimney for medium-heat appliances shall extend at least ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) higher than any portion of any building within twenty-five (25) feet (7,620 mm). [NFPA 54:12.6.2.2]

802.5.2.3 A chimney shall extend at least five (5) feet (1,524 mm) above the highest connected appliance draft hood outlet or flue collar. [NFPA 54:12.6.2.3]

802.5.2.4 Decorative shrouds shall not be installed at the termination of factory-built chimneys except where such shrouds are listed and labeled for use with the specific factory-built chimney system and are installed in accordance with manufacturer's installation instructions. [NFPA 54:12.6.2.4]

802.5.3 Size of Chimneys. The effective area of a chimney venting system serving listed gas appliances with draft hoods, Category I appliances, and other appliances listed for use with Type B vents shall be in accordance with one of the following methods [NFPA 54:12.6.3.1]:

  1. Section 803.0. [NFPA 54:12.6.3.1(1)]
  2. For sizing an individual chimney venting system for a single appliance with a draft hood, the effective areas of the vent connector and chimney flue shall be not less than the area of the appliance flue collar or draft hood outlet or greater than seven times the draft hood outlet area. [NFPA 54:12.6.3.1(2)]
  3. For sizing a chimney venting system connected to two (2) appliances with draft hoods, the effective area of the chimney flue shall be not less than the area of the larger draft hood outlet plus 50 percent of the area of the smaller draft hood outlet, or greater than seven (7) times the smallest draft hood outlet area. [NFPA 54:12.6.3.1(3)]
  4. Other approved engineering methods. [NFPA 54:12.6.3.1(5)]
  5. Chimney venting systems using mechanical draft shall be sized in accordance with approved engineering methods. [NFPA 54:12.6.3.1(4)]

802.5.4 Inspection of Chimneys.

802.5.4.1 Before replacing an existing appliance or connecting a vent connector to a chimney, the chimney passageway shall be examined to ascertain that it is clear and free of obstructions and shall be cleaned if previously used for venting solid or liquid fuel-burning appliances or fireplaces. [NFPA 54:12.6.4.1]

TABLE 8-1
TYPE OF VENTING SYSTEM TO BE USED
[NFPA 54: TABLE 12.5.1]
APPLIANCETYPE OF VENTING SYSTEM
Listed Category 1 appliance
Listed appliance equipped with draft hood
Appliance listed for use with Type B gas vent
Type B gas vent (802.6)
Chimney (802.5)

Single-wall metal pipe (802.7)
Listed chimney lining system for gas venting (802.5.1.3)
Special gas vent listed for this appliance (802.4.4)
Listed vented wall furnacesType B-W gas vent (802.6, 928.0)
Category II appliance
Category III appliance
Category IV appliance
As specified or furnished by manufacturers of listed appliance (802.4.2, 802.4.4)
Incinerators, outdoors
Incinerators, indoors
Appliance that can be converted to use of solid fuel
Single-wall metal pipe (802.7, 802.7.3.3)
Chimney (802.5)
Type L vent (802.6) or chimney (802.5)
Unlisted combination gas-and oil-burning appliance
Combination gas-and solid-fuel-burning appliance
Appliance listed for use with chimneys only
Unlisted appliance
Listed combination gas- and oil-burning appliance
___
Decorative appliance in vented fireplaceChimney [907.2]
Gas-fired toiletsSingle-wall metal pipe (802.7, 926.3)
Direct-vent applianceSee 802.2.5
Appliance with integral ventSee 802.2.6

802.5.4.2 Chimneys shall be lined in accordance with NFPA 211, Standard for Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid Fuel-Burning Appliances. [NFPA 54:12.6.4.2]

Exception: Existing chimneys shall be permitted to have their use continued when an appliance is replaced by an appliance or similar type, input rating, and efficiency, where the chimney complies with Section 802.5.4, and the sizing of the chimney is in accordance with Section 802.5.3.

802.5.4.3 Cleanouts shall be examined to determine that they will remain tightly closed when not in use. [NFPA 54:12.6.4.3]

802.5.4.4 When inspection reveals that an existing chimney is not safe for the intended application, it shall be repaired, rebuilt, lined, relined, or replaced with a vent or chimney to conform to NFPA 211,

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FIGURE 8-1 TYPICAL TERMINATION LOCATIONS FOR CHIMNEYS AND SINGLE-WALL METAL PIPES SERVING RESIDENTIAL-TYPE AND LOW-HEAT APPLIANCE. [NFPA 54: FIGURE 12.6.2.1]

FIGURE 8-1 TYPICAL TERMINATION LOCATIONS FOR CHIMNEYS AND SINGLE-WALL METAL PIPES SERVING RESIDENTIAL-TYPE AND LOW-HEAT APPLIANCE. [NFPA 54: FIGURE 12.6.2.1]

Standard for Chimneys, Fireplaces, Vents, and Solid-Fuel-Burning Appliances, and shall be suitable for the appliance to be attached. [NFPA 54:12.6.4.4]

802.5.5 Chimney Serving Appliances Burning Other Fuels.

802.5.5.1 Appliances shall not be connected to a chimney flue serving a separate appliance designed to burn solid fuel. [NFPA 54:12.6.5.1]

802.5.5.2 Where one (1) chimney serves gas appliances and an appliance burning liquid fuel, the appliances shall be connected through separate openings or shall be connected through a single opening where joined by a suitable fitting located as close as practical to the chimney. Where two (2) or more openings are provided into one (1) chimney flue, they shall be at different levels. Where the appliance is automatically controlled, it shall be equipped with a safety shutoff device. [NFPA 54:12.6.5.2]

802.5.5.3 A listed combination gas and solid fuel-burning appliance connected to a single chimney flue shall be equipped with a manual reset device to shut off gas to the main burner in the event of sustained backdraft or flue gas spillage. The chimney flue shall be sized to properly vent the appliance. [NFPA 54:12.6.5.3]

802.5.5.4 A single chimney flue serving a listed combination gas-and oil-burning appliance shall be sized to properly vent the appliance. [NFPA 54:12.6.5.4]

802.5.6 Support of Chimneys. All portions of chimneys shall be supported for the design and weight of the materials employed. Listed factory-built chimneys shall be supported and spaced in accordance with their listings and the manufacturers' instructions. [NFPA 54:12.6.6]

802.5.7 Cleanouts. Where a chimney that formerly carried flue products from liquid or solid fuel-burning appliances is used with an appliance using fuel gas, an accessible cleanout shall be provided. The cleanout shall have a tight-fitting cover and be installed so its upper edge is at least six (6) inches (150 mm) below the lower edge of the lowest chimney inlet opening. [NFPA 54:12.6.7]

802.5.8 Space Surrounding Lining or Vent. The remaining space surrounding a chimney liner, gas vent, special gas vent, or plastic piping installed within a masonry chimney flue shall not be used to vent another appliance. [NFPA 54:12.6.8.1]

Exception: The insertion of another liner or vent within the chimney as provided in this code and the liner or vent manufacturer's instructions.

The remaining space surrounding a chimney liner, gas vent, special gas vent, or plastic piping installed within a masonry, metal or factory-built chimney flue shall not be used to supply combustion air. [NFPA 54:12.6.8.2]

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Exception: Direct vent gas-fired appliances designed for installation in a solid-fuel-burning fireplace where installed in accordance with the listing and the manufacturer’s instruction.

802.6 Gas Vents.

802.6.1 A gas vent passing through a roof shall extend through the entire roof flashing, roof jack, or roof thimble and be terminated with a listed termination cap. [NFPA 54:12.7.2(6)]

802.6.1.1 Type B or Type L vents shall extend in a generally vertical direction with offsets not exceeding 45 degrees, except that a vent system having not more than one 60 degree offset shall be permitted. Any angle greater than 45 degrees from the vertical is considered horizontal. The total horizontal distance of a vent plus the horizontal vent connector serving draft hood equipped appliances shall not be greater than 75 percent of the vertical height of the vent. [NFPA 54:12.7.3.2]

Exception: Systems designed and sized as provided in Section 803.0 or in accordance with other approved engineering methods.

Vents serving Category I fan-assisted appliances shall be installed in accordance with the appliance manufacturer's instructions and Section 803.0 or other approved engineering methods. [NFPA 54:12.7.1(3)]

FIGURE 8-2 GAS VENT TERMINATION LOCATIONS FOR LISTED CAPS 12 IN. (300 MM) OR LESS IN SIZE AT LEAST 8 FT. (2.4 M) FROM A VERTICAL WALL. [NFPA 54: FIGURE 12.7.2]

FIGURE 8-2 GAS VENT TERMINATION LOCATIONS FOR LISTED CAPS 12 IN. (300 MM) OR LESS IN SIZE AT LEAST 8 FT. (2.4 M) FROM A VERTICAL WALL. [NFPA 54: FIGURE 12.7.2]

802.6.2 A gas vent shall terminate in accordance with one of the following:

  1. Above the roof surface with a listed cap or listed roof assembly. Gas vents twelve (12) inches (300 mm) in size or smaller with listed caps shall be permitted to be terminated in accordance with Figure 8-2, provided they are at least eight (8) feet (2,438 mm) from a vertical wall or similar obstruction. All other gas vents shall terminate not less than two (2) feet (610 mm) above the highest point where they pass through the roof and at least two (2) feet (610 mm) higher than any portion of a building within ten (10) feet (3,048 mm). [NFPA 54:12.7.2(1)(a) and (b)]
  2. Industrial appliance provided in Section 802.2.4. [NFPA 54:12.7.2(1)(c)]
  3. Direct-vent systems as provided in Section 802.2.5. [NFPA 54:12.7.2(1)(d)]
  4. Appliance with integral vents as provided in Section 802.2.6. [NFPA 54:12.7.2(1)(e)]
  5. Mechanical draft systems as provided in Section 802.3.4. [NFPA 54:12.7.2(1)(f)]
  6. Ventilating hoods and exhaust systems as provided in Section 802.3.5. [NFPA 54:12.7.2(1)(g)]

802.6.2.1 A Type B or a Type L gas vent shall terminate at least five (5) feet (1,524 mm) in vertical height above the highest connected appliances draft hood or flue collar. [NFPA 54:12.7.2(2)]

802.6.2.2 A Type B-W gas vent shall terminate at least twelve (12) feet (3,658 mm) in vertical height above the bottom of the wall furnace. [NFPA 54:12.7.2(3)]

802.6.2.3 A gas vent extending through an exterior wall shall not terminate adjacent to the wall or below eaves or parapets, except as provided in Sections 802.2.5 and 802.3.4. [NFPA 54:12.7.2(4)]

802.6.2.4 Decorative shrouds shall not be installed at the termination of gas vents except where such shrouds are listed for use with the specific gas venting system and are installed in accordance with manufacturers' installation instructions. [NFPA 54:12.7.2(5)]

802.6.2.5 All gas vents shall extend through the roof flashing, roof jack, or roof thimble and terminate with a listed cap or listed roof assembly. [NFPA 54:12.7.2(6)]

802.6.2.6 A gas vent shall terminate at least three (3) feet (914 mm) above a forced air inlet located within ten (10) feet (3,048 mm). [NFPA 54:12.7.2(7)]

802.6.3 Size of Gas Vents. Venting systems shall be sized and constructed in accordance with Section 803.0 or other approved engineering methods and the gas vent and appliance manufacturers' instructions. [NFPA 54:12.7.3]

802.6.3.1 Category I Appliances. The sizing of natural draft venting systems serving one (1) or more listed appliances equipped with a draft hood

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or appliances listed for use with Type B gas vent, installed in a single story of a building, shall be in accordance with one of the following methods. [NFPA 54:12.7.3.1]

  1. The provisions of Section 803.0. [NFPA 54:12.7.3.1(1)]
  2. Vents serving fan-assisted combustion system appliances, or combinations of fan-assisted combustion system and draft hood-equipped appliances shall be sized in accordance with Section 803.0 or other approved engineering methods. [NFPA 54:12.7.3.1(2)]
  3. For sizing an individual gas vent for a single, draft hood-equipped appliance, the effective area of the vent connector and the gas vent shall be not less than the area of the appliance draft hood outlet or greater than seven (7) times the draft hood outlet area. [NFPA 54:12.7.3.1(3)]
  4. For sizing a gas vent connected to two (2) appliances, with draft hoods, the effective area of the vent shall be not less than the area of the larger draft hood outlet plus 50 percent of the area of the smaller draft hood outlet or greater than seven (7) times the smaller draft hood outlet area. [NFPA 54:12.7.3.1(4)]
  5. Approved engineering practices. [NFPA 54:12.7.3.1(5)]

802.6.3.2 Category II, Category III, and Category IV Appliances. The sizing of gas vents for Category II, Category III, and Category IV appliances shall be in accordance with the appliance manufacturer’s instructions. [NFPA 54:12.7.3.3]

802.6.3.3 Sizing. Chimney venting systems using mechanical draft shall be sized in accordance with approved engineering methods. [NFPA 54:12.7.3.4]

802.6.4 Gas Vents Serving Appliances on More Than One Floor. A common gas vent shall be permitted in multistory installations to vent Category I appliances located on more than one floor level, provided the venting system is designed and installed in accordance with approved engineering methods. For the purpose of this section, crawl spaces, basements, and attics shall be considered as floor levels. [NFPA 54:12.7.4.1]

All appliances connected to the common vent shall be located in rooms separated from a habitable space. Each of these rooms shall have provisions for an adequate supply of combustion, ventilation, and dilution air that is not supplied from a habitable space (See Figure 8-3). [NFPA 54:12.7.4.2]

The size of the connectors and common segments of multistory venting systems for appliances listed for use with Type B double-wall gas vent shall be in accordance with Table 8-11, provided [NFPA 54:12.7.4.3]:

  1. The available total height (II) for each segment of a multistory venting system is the vertical distance
    FIGURE 8-3 PLAN VIEW OF PRACTICAL SEPARATION METHOD FOR MULTISTORY GAS VENTING. [NFPA 54: FIGURE 12.7.4.2]
    FIGURE 8-3 PLAN VIEW OF PRACTICAL SEPARATION METHOD FOR MULTISTORY GAS VENTING. [NFPA 54: FIGURE 12.7.4.2]
    between the level of the highest draft hood outlet or flue collar on that floor and the centerline of the next highest interconnection tee (See Figure 8-4). [NFPA 54:12.7.4.3(1)]
  2. The size of the connector for a segment is determined from its appliance heat input and available connector rise, and shall not be smaller than the draft hood outlet or flue collar size. [NFPA 54:12.7.4.3(2)]
  3. The size of the common vertical vent segment, and of the interconnection tee at the base of that segment, shall be based on the total appliance heat input entering that segment and its available total height. [NFPA 54:12.7.4.3(3)]

802.6.5 Support of Gas Vents. Gas vents shall be supported and spaced in accordance with their listings and the manufacturers' instructions. [NFPA 54:12.7.5]

802.6.6 Marking. In those localities where solid and liquid fuels are used extensively, gas vents shall be permanently identified by a label attached to the wall or ceiling at a point where the vent connector enters the gas vent. The label shall read: “This gas vent is for appliances that burn gas. Do not connect to solid or liquid-fuel-burning appliances or incinerators.” The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall determine whether its area constitutes such a locality. [NFPA 54:12.7.6]

802.6.7 Screws, rivets, and other fasteners shall not penetrate the inner wall of double wall gas vents, except at the transition from the appliance draft hood outlet, flue collar or single wall metal connector to a double wall vent.

802.7 Single-Wall Metal Pipe.

802.7.1 Construction. Single-wall metal pipe shall be constructed of galvanized sheet steel not less than 0.0304 inch (0.7 mm) thick or of other approved, noncombustible, corrosion-resistant material. [NFPA 54:12.8.1]

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TABLE 8-2 CLEARANCE FOR CONNECTORS [NFPA 54: TABLE 12.8.4.4]
MINIMUM DISTANCE FROM COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL
APPLIANCELISTED TYPE B GAS VENT MATERIALLISTED TYPE L VENT MATERIALSINGLE-WALL METAL PIPEFACTORY-BUILT CHIMNEY SECTIONS
Notes:
These clearances shall apply unless the listing of an appliance or connector specifies clearances, in which case the listed clearances shall apply. 1 in.=25.4 mm
Listed appliance with draft hoods and - appliance listed for use with Type B gas ventsAs listedAs listed6 in.As listed
Residential boilers and furnaces with listed gas conversion burner and with draft hood6 in.6 in.9 in.As listed
Residential appliances listed for use with Type L ventsNot permittedAs listed9 in.As listed
Residential incineratorsNot permitted9 in.18 in.As listed
Listed gas-fired toiletsNot permittedAs listedAs listedAs listed
Unlisted residential appliances with draft hoodNot permitted6 in.9 in.As listed
Residential and low-heat appliance other than those aboveNot permitted9 in.18 in.As listed
Medium-heat applianceNot permittedNot permitted36 in.As listed

802.7.2 Cold Climate. Uninsulated single-wall metal pipe shall not be used outdoors in cold climates for venting appliances in regions where the 99 percent winter design temperature is less than 32°F (0°C). [NFPA 54:12.8.2]

802.7.3 Termination. The termination of single-wall metal pipe shall comply with the following requirements: [NFPA 54:12.8.3]

802.7.3.1 Single-wall metal pipe shall terminate at least five (5) feet (1,524 mm) in vertical height above the highest connected appliance draft hood outlet or flue collar. [NFPA 54:12.8.3(1)]

802.7.3.2 Single-wall metal pipe shall extend at least two (2) feet (610 mm) above the highest point where it passes through a roof of a building and at least two (2) feet (610 mm) higher than any portion of a building within a horizontal distance of ten (10) feet (3,048 mm) (See Figure 8-1). [NFPA 54:12.8.3(2)]

802.7.3.3 An approved cap or roof assembly shall be attached to the terminus of a single-wall metal pipe. (Also See Section 802.7.4.4) [NFPA 54:12.8.3.(3)]

802.7.4 Installation with Appliances Permitted by Section 802.4.1.

802.7.4.1 Prohibited Use. Single-wall metal pipe shall not be used as a vent in dwellings and residential occupancies. [NFPA 54-09:12.8.4.1]

802.7.4.2 Single-wall metal pipe shall be used only for runs directly from the space in which the appliance is located through the roof or exterior wall to the outer air. A pipe passing through a roof shall extend without interruption through the roof flashing, roof jacket, or roof thimble. [NFPA 54:12.8.4.1]

802.7.4.3 Single-wall metal pipe shall not originate in any unoccupied attic or concealed space and shall not pass through any attic, inside wall, concealed space, or floor. For the installation of a single-wall metal pipe through an exterior combustible wall see Section 802.10.14.2. [NFPA 54:12.8.4.2]

802.7.4.4 Single-wall metal pipe used for venting an incinerator shall be exposed and readily examinable for its full length and shall have suitable clearances maintained. [NFPA 54:12.8.4.3]

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802.7.4.5 Minimum clearances from single-wall metal pipe to combustible material shall be in accordance with Table 8-2. Reduced clearances from single-wall metal pipe to combustible material shall be as specified for vent connectors in Table 5-3. [NFPA 54:12.8.4.4]

802.7.4.6 Where a single-wall metal pipe passes through a roof constructed of combustible material, a noncombustible, nonventilating thimble shall be used at the point of passage. The thimble shall extend at least eighteen (18) inches (460 mm) above and six (6) inches (150 mm) below the roof, with the annular space open at the bottom and closed only at the top. The thimble shall be sized in accordance with Section 802.10.14.2. [NFPA 54:12.8.4.5]

802.7.5 Size of Single-Wall Metal Pipe. Single-wall metal piping shall comply with the following requirements: [NFPA 54:12.8.5]

802.7.5.1 A venting system of a single-wall metal pipe shall be sized in accordance with one of the following methods and the appliance manufacturer's instructions: [NFPA 54:12.8.5(1)]

  1. For a draft hood–equipped appliance, in accordance with Section 803.0. [NFPA 54:12.8.5(1)(a)]
  2. For a venting system for a single appliance with a draft hood, the areas of the connector and the pipe each shall not be less than the area of the appliance flue collar or draft hood outlet, whichever is smaller. The vent area shall not be greater than seven times the draft hood outlet area. [NFPA 54:12.8.5(1)(b)]
  3. Other approved engineering methods. [NFPA 54:12.8.5(1)(c)]

802.7.5.2 Where a single-wall metal pipe is used and has a shape other than round, it shall have an equivalent effective area equal to the effective area of the round pipe for which it is substituted, and the minimum internal dimension of the pipe shall be two (2) inches (50 mm). [NFPA 54:12.8.5(2)]

802.7.5.3 The vent cap or a roof assembly shall have a venting capacity not less than that of the pipe to which it is attached. [NFPA 54:12.8.5(3)]

802.7.6 Support of Single-Wall Metal Pipe. All portions of single-wall metal pipe shall be supported for the design and weight of the material employed. [NFPA 54:12.8.6]

802.7.7 Marking. Single-wall metal pipe shall comply with the marking provisions of Section 802.6.6. [NFPA 54:12.8.7]

802.8 Through-the-Wall Vent Termination. Through the wall vent termination’s shall be in accordance with the following:

802.8.1 A mechanical draft venting system shall terminate at least three (3) feet (914 mm) above any forced air inlet located within ten (10) feet (3,048 mm). [NFPA 54:12.9.1]

Exceptions:

  1. This provision shall not apply to the combustion-air intake of a direct-vent appliance.
  2. This provision shall not apply to the separation of the integral outdoor-air inlet and flue gas discharge of listed outdoor appliances.

802.8.2 A mechanical draft venting system of other than direct-vent type shall terminate at least four (4) feet (1,219 mm) below, four (4) feet (1,219 mm) horizontally from, or one (1) foot (300 mm) above any door, operable window, or gravity air inlet into any building. The bottom of the vent terminal shall be located at least twelve (12) inches (300 mm) above grade. [NFPA 54:12.9.2]

802.8.3 The vent terminal of a direct-vent appliance with an input of 10,000 Btu/h (3 kW) or less shall be located at least six (6) inches (150 mm) from any air opening into a building, and such an appliance with an input over 10,000 Btu/h (3 kW) but not over 50,000 Btu/h (14.7 kW) shall be installed with a nine (9) inches (230 mm) vent termination clearance, and an appliance with an input over 50,000 Btu/h (14.7 kW) shall have at least a twelve (12) inches (300 mm) vent termination clearance. The bottom of the vent terminal and the air intake shall be located at least twelve (12) inches (300 mm) above grade. [NFPA 54:12.9.3]

802.8.4 Through-the-wall vents for Category II and Category IV appliances and noncategorized condensing appliances shall not terminate over public walkways or over an area where condensate or vapor could create a nuisance or hazard or could be detrimental to the operation of regulators, relief valves, or other equipment. Where local experience indicates that condensate is a problem with Category I and Category III appliances, this provision shall also apply. Drains for condensate shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions. [NFPA 54-09:12.9.4]

802.8.5 Where vents, including those for direct-vent appliances, penetrate outside walls of buildings, the annular spaces around such penetrations shall be permanently sealed using approved materials to prevent entry of combustion products into the building. [NFPA 54-09:12.9.6]

802.9 Condensation Drain.

802.9.1 Provision shall be made to collect and dispose of condensate from venting systems serving Category II and Category IV appliances and noncategorized condensing appliances in accordance with Section 802.8.4. [NFPA 54:12.10.1]

802.9.2 Where local experience indicates that condensation is a problem, provision shall be made to drain off and dispose of condensate from venting systems serving Category I and Category III appliances in accordance with Section 802.8.4 [NFPA 54:12.10.2]

802.10 Vent Connectors for Category I Appliances.

802.10.1 Where Required. A vent connector shall be used to connect appliances to a gas vent, chimney, or single-wall metal pipe, except where the gas vent, chimney, or single-wall metal pipe is directly connected to the appliance. [NFPA 54:12.11.1]

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802.10.2 Materials.

802.10.2.1 A vent connector shall be made of noncombustible, corrosion-resistant material capable of withstanding the vent gas temperature produced by the appliance and of sufficient thickness to with-stand physical damage. [NFPA 54:12.11.2.1]

802.10.2.2 Where the vent connector used for appliances having a draft hood or a Category I appliance is located in or passes through an unconditioned area, that portion of the vent connector shall be listed Type B, Type L, or listed vent material having equivalent insulation qualities. [NFPA 54:12.11.2.2]

Exception: Single-wall metal pipe located within the exterior walls of the building and located in areas having a local 99 percent winter design temperature of 5°F (-15°C) or higher.

802.10.2.3 Where the vent connector used for appliances having a draft hood or a Category I appliance is located in or passed through attics and crawl spaces, that portion of the vent connector shall be listed Type B, Type L, or listed vent material having equivalent insulation qualities. [NFPA 54:12.11.2.3]

802.10.2.4 Vent connectors for residential-type appliances shall comply with the following: [NFPA 54:12.11.2.4]

  1. Vent connectors for listed gas appliances having draft hoods and for appliances having draft hoods and equipped with listed conversion burners that are not installed in attics, crawl spaces, or other unconditioned areas shall be one of the following: [NFPA 54:12.11.2.4(1)]
    1. Type B or Type L vent material.
    2. Galvanized sheet steel not less than 0.018 in. (0.46 mm) thick.
    3. Aluminum (1100 or 3003 alloy or equivalent) sheet not less than 0.027 in. (0.69 mm) thick.
    4. Stainless steel sheet not less than 0.012 in. (0.31 mm) thick.
    5. Smooth-interior-wall metal pipe having resistance to heat and corrosion equal to or greater than that of b, c, or d above.
    6. A listed vent connector.
  2. Vent connectors shall not be covered with insulation. [NFPA 54:12.11.2.4(2)]
    Exception: Listed insulated vent connectors shall be installed according to the terms of their listing in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.

802.10.2.5 A vent connector for non-residential low-heat appliance shall be factory-built chimney section or steel pipe having resistance to heat and corrosion equivalent to that for the appropriate galvanized pipe as specified in Table 8-3. Factory-

TABLE 8-3
MINIMUM THICKNESS FOR GALVANIZED STEEL VENT CONNECTORS FOR LOW-HEAT APPLIANCES
[NFPA 54: TABLE 12.11.2.5]
DIAMETER OF CONNECTOR (in.)MINIMUM THICKNESS (in.)
Notes: 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 in.2 =645 mm2
Less than 60.019
6 to less than 100.023
10 to 12 inclusive0.029
14 to 16 inclusive0.034
Over 160.056

built chimney sections shall be joined together in accordance with the chimney manufacturer's instructions. [NFPA 54:12.11.2.5]

8.2.10.2.6 Vent connectors for medium-heat appliances, commercial and industrial incinerators shall be constructed of factory-built, medium-heat chimney sections or steel of a thickness not less than that specified in Table 8-4, and shall comply with the following: [NFPA 54:12.11.2.6]

  1. A steel vent connector for appliances with a vent gas temperature in excess of 1,000°F (538°C) measured at the entrance to the connector shall be lined with medium-duty fire brick (ASTM C 64,Specification for Refractories for Incinerators and Boilers, Type F) or the equivalent.
  2. The lining shall be at least two and one-half (2½) inches (64 mm) thick for a vent connector having a diameter or greatest cross-sectional dimension of eighteen (18) inches (460 mm) or less.
  3. The lining shall be at least four and one-half (4½) inches (110 mm) thick laid on the four and one-half (4½) inches (110 mm) bed for a vent connector having diameter or greatest cross-sectional dimension greater than eighteen (18) inches (460 mm).
  4. Factory-built chimney sections, if employed, shall be joined together in accordance with the chimney manufacturer's instructions.

802.10.3 Size of Vent Connector.

802.10.3.1 A vent connector for gas utilization appliances with a single draft hood or for a Category I fan-assisted combustion system appliance shall be sized and installed in accordance with Section 803.0 or other approved engineering methods. [NFPA 54:12.11.3.1]

802.10.3.2 For a single appliance having more than one(1) draft hood outlet or flue collar, the manifold shall be constructed according to the instructions of the appliance manufacturer. Where there are no

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TABLE 8-4
MINIMUM THICKNESS FOR STEEL VENT CONNECTORS
FOR MEDIUM-HEAT APPLIANCES AND COMMERCIAL
AND INDUSTRIAL INCINERATORS
[NFPA 54: TABLE 12.11.2.6]
VENT CONNECTOR SIZEMINIMUM THICKNESS (in.)
DIAMETER (in.)AREA (in.2)
Notes: 1 in. =25.4 mm, 1 in.2 =645 mm2
Up to 14Up to 1540.053
Over 14 to 16154 to 2010.067
Over 16 to 18201 to 2540.093
Over 18Larger than 2540.123

instructions, the manifold shall be designed and constructed in accordance with approved engineering practices. As an alternate method, the effective area of the manifold shall equal the combined area of the manifold shall equal the combined area of the flue collars or draft hood outlets and the vent connectors shall have a minimum one (1) foot (305 mm) rise. [NFPA 54:12.11.3.2]

802.10.3.3 Where two or more gas appliances are connected to a common vent or chimney, each vent connector shall be sized in accordance with Section 803.0 or other approved engineering methods. As an alternative method applicable only when all of the appliances are draft hood equipped, each vent connector shall have an effective area not less than the area of the draft hood outlet of the appliance to which it is connected. [NFPA 54:12.11.3.3, 12.11.3.4]

802.10.3.4 Where two (2) or more gas appliances are vented through a common vent connector or vent manifold, the common vent connector or vent manifold shall be located at the highest level consistent with available head-room and clearance to combustible material and shall be sized in accordance with Section 803.0 or other approved engineering methods. [NFPA 54:12.11.3.5]

As an alternate method applicable only where there are two (2) draft hood-equipped appliances, the effective area of the common vent connector or vent manifold and all junction fittings shall be not less than the area of the larger vent connector plus 50 percent of the areas of smaller flue collar outlets. [NFPA 54:12.11.3.6]

802.10.3.5 Where the size of a vent connector is increased to overcome installation limitations and obtain connector capacity equal to the appliance input, the size increase shall be made at the appliance draft hood outlet. [NFPA 54:12.11.3.7]

802.10.4 Two or More Appliances Connected to a Single Vent.

802.10.4.1 Where two (2) or more openings are provided into one (1) chimney flue or vent, the openings shall either be at different levels, or the connectors shall be attached to the vertical portion of the chimney or vent at an angle of 45 degrees or less relative to the vertical. [NFPA 54-09:12.11.4.1]

802.10.4.2 Where two (2) or more vent connectors enter a common gas vent, chimney flue, or single-wall metal pipe, the smaller connector shall enter at the highest level consistent with the available headroom or clearance to combustible material. [NFPA 54:12.11.4.1]

802.10.4.3 Vent connectors serving Category I appliances shall not be connected to any portion of a mechanical draft system operating under positive static pressure, such as those serving Category III or Category IV appliances. [NFPA 54:12.11.4.2]

802.10.5 Clearance. Minimum clearances from vent connectors to combustible material shall be in accordance with Table 8-2. [NFPA 54:12.11.5]

Exception: The clearance between a vent connector and combustible material shall be permitted to be reduced where the combustible material is protected as specified for vent connectors in Table 5-3.

802.10.6 Avoid Unnecessary Bends. A vent connector shall be installed so as to avoid turns or other construction features that create excessive resistance to flow of vent gases. [NFPA 54:12.11.6]

802.10.7 Joints. Joints between sections of connector piping and connections to flue collars or draft hood outlets shall be fastened in accordance with one of the following methods: [NFPA 54:12.11.7]

  1. By sheet metal screws.
  2. Vent connectors of listed vent material shall be assembled and connected to flue collars or draft hood outlets in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions.
  3. Other approved means.

802.10.8 Slope. A vent connector shall be installed without any dips or sags and shall slope upward toward the vent or chimney at least one-quarter (¼) in./ft. (20 mm/m). [NFPA 54:12.11.8]

Exception: Vent connectors attached to a mechanical draft system installed in accordance with the draft system manufacturers’ instructions.

802.10.9 Length of Vent Connector.

802.10.9.1 A vent connector shall be as short as practical, and the appliance located as close as practical to the chimney or vent. [NFPA 54:12.11.9.1]

802.10.9.2 The maximum horizontal length of a single-wall connector shall be 75 percent of the height of the chimney or vent except for engineered systems. [NFPA 54:12.11.9.2]

802.10.9.3 The maximum horizontal length of a Type B double-wall connector shall be 100 percent of the height of the chimney or vent, except for engineered systems. The maximum length of an individual connector for a chimney or vent system

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serving multiple appliances, from the appliance outlet to the junction with the common vent or another connector, shall be 100 percent of the height of the chimney or vent. [NFPA 54:12.11.9.3]

802.10.10 Support. A vent connector shall be supported for the design and weight of the material employed to maintain clearances and prevent physical damage and separation of joints. [NFPA 54:12.11.10]

802.10.11 Chimney Connection. Where entering a flue in a masonry or metal chimney, the vent connector shall be installed above the extreme bottom to avoid stoppage. Where a thimble or slip joint is used to facilitate removal of the conneector, the connector shall be firmly attached to or inserted into the thimble or slip joint to prevent the connector from falling out. Means shall be employed to prevent the connector from falling out. Means shall be employed to prevent the connector from entering so far as to restrict the space between its end and the opposite wall of the chimney flue. [NFPA 54:12.11.11]

802.10.12 Inspection. The entire length of a vent connector shall be readily accessible for inspection, cleaning, and replacement. [NFPA 54:12.11.12]

802.10.13 Fireplaces. A vent connector shall not be connected to a chimney flue serving a fireplace unless the fireplace flue opening is permanently sealed. [NFPA 54:12.11.13]

802.10.14 Passage Through Ceilings, Floors, or Walls.

802.10.14.1 A vent connector shall not pass through any ceiling, floor, or fire-resistance rated wall. A single-wall metal pipe connector shall not pass through any interior wall.

Exception: Vent connectors made of listed Type B or Type L vent material and serving listed appliances with draft hoods and other appliances listed for use with Type B gas vents that pass through walls or partitions constructed of combustible material shall be installed with not less than the listed clearance to combustible material.

802.10.14.2 A vent connector made of a single-wall metal pipe shall not pass through a combustible exterior wall unless guarded at the point of passage by a ventilated metal thimble not smaller than the following: [NFPA 54:12.11.14.2]

  1. For listed appliances equipped with draft hoods and appliances listed for use with Type B gas vents, the thimble shall be a minimum of four (4) inches (100 mm) larger in diameter than the vent connector. Where there is a run of not less than six (6) feet (305 mm) of vent connector in the opening between the draft hood outlet and the thimble, the thimble shall be a minimum of two (2) inches (50 mm) larger in diameter than the vent connector.
  2. For unlisted appliances having draft hoods, the thimble shall be a minimum of six (6) inches (150 mm) larger in diameter than the vent connector.
  3. For residential and low-heat appliances, the thimble shall be a minimum of twelve (12) inches (300 mm) larger in diameter than the vent connector.

Exception: In lieu of thimble protection, all combustible material in the wall shall be removed from the vent connector a sufficient distance to provide the specified clearance from such vent connector to combustible material. Any material used to close up such opening shall be noncombustible.

802.14.3 Vent connectors for medium-heat appliances shall not pass through walls or partitions constructed of combustible material. [NFPA 54:12.14.3]

802.11 Vent Connectors for Category II, Category III, and Category IV Appliances. (See Section 802.4) [NFPA 54:12.12]

802.12 Draft Hoods and Draft Controls.

802.12.1 Appliances Requiring Draft Hoods. Vented appliances shall be installed with draft hoods. [NFPA 54:12.13.1]

Exception: Dual oven-type combination ranges; incinerators; direct-vent appliances; fan-assisted combustion system appliances; appliances requiring chimney draft for operation; single-firebox boilers equipped with conversion burners with inputs greater than 400,000 Btu/h (117 kW); appliances equipped with blast, power, or pressure burners that are not listed for use with draft hoods; and appliances designed for forced venting.

802.12.2 Installation. A draft hood supplied with or forming a part of listed vented appliance shall be installed without alteration, exactly as furnished and specified by the appliance manufacturer. If a draft hood is not supplied by the appliance manufacturer where one (1) is required, a draft hood shall be installed, be of a listed or approved type, and, in the absence of other instructions, be of the same size as the appliance flue collar. Where a draft hood is required with a conversion burner, it shall be of a listed or approved type. Where it is determined that a draft hood of special design is needed or preferable for a particular installation, the installation shall be in accordance with the recommendations of the appliance manufacturer and shall be with the approval of the Authority Having Jurisdiction. [NFPA 54:12.13.2, 12.13.2.1, 12.13.2.2]

802.12.3 Draft Control Devices. Where a draft control device is part of the appliance or is supplied by the appliance manufacturer, it shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. In the absence of manufacturer's instructions, the device shall be attached to the flue collar of the appliance or as near to the appliance as practical. [NFPA 54:12.13.3]

802.12.4 Additional Devices. Appliances (except incinerators) requiring controlled chimney draft shall be

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permitted to be equipped with a listed double-acting barometric draft regulator installed and adjusted in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions. [NFPA 54:12.13.4]

802.12.5 Location. Draft hoods and barometric draft regulators shall be installed in the same room or enclosure as the appliance in such a manner as to prevent any difference in pressure between the hood or regulator and the combustion air supply. [NFPA 54:12.13.5]

802.12.6 Positioning. Draft hoods and draft regulators shall be installed in the position for that they were designed with reference to the horizontal and vertical planes and shall be located so that the relief opening is not obstructed by any part of the appliance or adjacent construction. The appliance and its draft hood shall be located so that the relief opening is accessible for checking vent operation. [NFPA 54:12.13.6]

802.12.7 Clearance. A draft hood shall be located so that its relief opening is not less than six (6) inches (150 mm) from any surface except that of the appliance it serves and the venting system to which the draft hood is connected. Where a greater or lesser clearance is indicated on the appliance label, the clearance shall not be less than that specified on the label. Such clearances shall not be reduced. [NFPA 54:12.13.7]

802.13 Manually Operated Dampers. A manually operated damper shall not be placed in any appliance vent connector. Fixed baffles shall not be classified as manually operated dampers. [NFPA 54:12.14]

802.14 Automatically Operated Vent Dampers. An automatically operated vent damper shall be of a listed type. [NFPA 54:12.15]

802.15 Obstructions. Devices that retard the flow of vent gases shall not be installed in a vent connector, chimney, or vent. The following shall not be considered as obstructions:

  1. Draft regulators and safety controls specifically listed for installation in venting systems and installed in accordance with the terms of their listing.
  2. Approved draft regulators and safety controls designed and installed in accordance with approved engineering methods.
  3. Listed heat reclaimers and automatically operated vent dampers installed in accordance with the terms of their listing.
  4. Vent dampers serving listed appliances installed in accordance with Sections 803.1 and 803.2.1 or other approved engineering methods.
  5. Approved economizers, heat reclaimers, and recuperators installed in venting systems of appliance not required to be equipped with draft hoods, provided the appliance manufacturer's instructions cover the installation of such a device in the venting system and performance in accordance with Sections 802.3.1 and 802.3.2 is obtained. [NFPA 54:12.16]

803.0 Sizing of Category I Venting Systems.

803.1 These venting tables shall not be used where obstructions (See Section 802.15) are installed in the venting system. The installation of vents serving listed appliances with vent dampers shall be in accordance with the appliance manufacturer's instructions or in accordance with the following: [NFPA 54:13.1.1]

  1. The maximum capacity of the vent system shall be determined using the NAT Max column.
  2. The minimum capacity shall be determined as if the appliance were a fan-assisted appliance, using the FAN Min column to determine the minimum capacity of the vent system. Where the corresponding FAN Min is NA, the vent configuration shall not be permitted and an alternative venting configuration shall be utilized.

803.1.1 Where the vent size determined from the tables is smaller than the appliance draft hood outlet or flue collar, the use of the smaller size shall be permitted provided that the installation complies with all of the following requirements: [NFPA 54:13.1.2]

  1. The total vent height (H) is at least ten (10) feet (3,048 mm).
  2. Vents for appliance draft hood outlets or flue collars twelve (12) inches (300 mm) in diameter or smaller are not reduced more than one table size.
  3. Vents for appliance draft hood outlets or flue collars larger than twelve (12) inches (300 mm) in diameter are not reduced more than two table sizes.
  4. The maximum capacity listed in the tables for a fan-assisted appliance is reduced by ten (10) percent (0.90 maximum table capacity).
  5. The draft hood outlet is greater than four (4) inches (100 mm) in diameter. Do not connect a three (3) inches (80 mm) diameter vent to a four (4) inches (100 mm) diameter draft hood outlet. This provision shall not apply to fan-assisted appliances.

803.1.2 Single-appliance venting configurations with zero (0) lateral lengths in Tables 8-5, 8-6, and 8-9 shall not have elbows in the venting system. For vent configurations with lateral lengths, the venting tables include allowance for two (2) 90 degree turns. For each additional elbow up to and including 45 degrees, the maximum capacity listed in the venting tables shall be reduced by 5 percent. For each elbow greater than 45 degrees up to and including 90 degrees, the maximum capacity listed in the venting tables shall be reduced by 10 percent. Where multiple offsets occur in a vent, the total lateral length of all offsets combined shall not exceed that specified in Tables 8-5 through 8-9. [NFPA 54-09:13.1.3]

803.1.3 Zero (0) lateral (L) shall apply only to a straight vertical vent attached to a top-outlet draft hood or flue collar. [NFPA 54:13.1.4]

803.1.4 Sea level input ratings shall be used when determining maximum capacity for high-altitude installation.

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Actual input (derated for altitude) shall be used for determining minimum capacity for high-altitude installation. [NFPA 54:13.1.5]

803.1.5 For appliances with more than one (1) input rate, the minimum vent capacity (FAN Min) determined from the tables shall be less than the lowest appliance input rating, and the maximum vent capacity (FAN Max/NAT Max) determined from the tables shall be greater than the highest appliance rating input. [NFPA 54:13.1.6]

803.1.6 Listed corrugated metallic chimney liner systems in masonry chimneys shall be sized by using Table 8-5 or 8-6 for Type B vents, with the maximum capacity reduced by 20 percent (0.80 maximum capacity) and the minimum capacity as shown in Table 8-5 or 8-6. Corrugated metallic liner systems installed with bends or offsets shall have their maximum capacity further reduced in accordance with Section 803.1.2. The 20 percent reduction for corrugated metallic chimney liner systems includes an allowance for one (1) long radius 90 degree turn at the bottom of the liner. [NFPA 54:13.1.7]

803.1.7 Where the vertical vent has a larger diameter than the vent connector, the vertical vent diameter shall be used to determine the minimum vent capacity, and the connector diameter shall be used to determine the maximum vent capacity. The flow area of the vertical vent shall not exceed seven (7) times the flow area of the listed appliance categorized vent area, flue collar area, or draft hood outlet area unless designed in accordance with approved engineering methods. [NFPA 54:13.1.9]

803.1.8 Connection to Chimney Liners. Connections between chimney liners and listed double-wall connectors shall be made with listed adapters designed for such purpose. [NFPA 54:13.1.8]

803.1.8.1 Tables 8-5 through 8-9 shall be used for chimneys and vents not exposed to the outdoors below the roof line. A Type B vent or listed chimney lining system passing through an unused masonry chimney flue shall not be considered to be exposed to the outdoors. A Type B vent passing through an unventilated enclosure or chase insulated to a value of not less than R8 shall not be considered to be exposed to the outdoors. Table 8-7 in combination with Table 8-10 shall be used for clay-tile-lined exterior masonry chimneys, provided all of the following are met:

  1. The vent connector is Type B double wall.
  2. The vent connector length is limited to one and one-half (1½) feet for each inch (18 mm/mm) of vent connector diameter.
  3. The appliance is draft hood equipped.
  4. The input rating is less than the maximum capacity given in Table 8-7.
  5. For a water heater, the outdoor design temperature shall not be less than 5°F (-15°C).
  6. For a space-heating appliance, the input rating is greater than the minimum capacity given by Table 8-10. [NFPA 54:13.1.11]

803.1.9 Corrugated vent connectors shall not be smaller than the listed appliance categorized vent diameter, flue collar diameter, or draft hood outlet diameter. [NFPA 54:13.1.12]

803.1.10 Vent connectors shall not be upsized more than two (2) sizes greater than the listed appliance categorized vent diameter, flue collar diameter, or draft hood outlet diameter. [NFPA 54:13.1.13]

803.1.11 In a single run of vent or vent connector, more than one diameter and type shall be permitted to be used, provided that all the sizes and types are permitted by the tables. [NFPA 54:13.1.14]

803.1.12 Interpolation shall be permitted in calculating capacities for vent dimensions that fall between table entries. (See Example 8-1 in Section 803.2.23) [NFPA 54:13.1.15]

803.1.13 Extrapolation beyond the table entries shall not be permitted. [NFPA 54:13.1.16]

803.1.14 For vent heights lower than six (6) feet (1,829 mm) and higher than shown in the tables, engineering methods shall be used to calculate vent capacities. [NFPA 54:13.1.17]

803.1.15 Draft Hood Conversion Accessories. Draft hood conversion accessories for use with masonry chimneys venting listed Category I fan-assisted appliances shall be listed and installed in accordance with the listed accessory manufacturer's installation instructions. [NFPA 54:13.1.10]

803.2 Additional Requirements to Multiple Appliance Vent Tables 8-11 through 8-19.

803.2.1 These venting tables shall not be used where obstructions (See Section 802.15) are installed in the venting system. The installation of vents serving listed appliances with vent dampers shall be in accordance with the appliance manufacturer's instructions or in accordance with the following:

  1. The maximum capacity of the vent connector shall be determined using the NAT Max column.
  2. The maximum capacity of the vertical vent or chimney shall be determined using the FAN+NAT column when the second appliance is a fan-assisted appliance, or the NAT+NAT column when the second appliance is equipped with a draft hood.
  3. The minimum capacity shall be determined as if the appliance were a fan-assisted appliance.
    1. The minimum capacity of the vent connector shall be determined using the FAN Min column.
    2. The FAN+FAN column shall be used when the second appliance is a fan-assisted appliance, and the FAN+NAT column shall be used when the second appliance is equipped with a draft hood, to determine whether the vertical vent or chimney configuration is not permitted (NA). Where the vent configuration is NA, the vent 131 configuration shall not be permitted, and an alternative venting configuration shall be utilized. [NFPA 54:13.2.1]

803.2.2 The maximum vent connector horizontal length shall be 18 in./in. (18 mm/mm) of connector diameter (See the Vent Connector Maximum Length Table). [NFPA 54:13.2.2]

VENT CONNECTOR MAXIMUM LENGTH
[NFPA 54: TABLE 13.2.2]
CONNECTOR
DIAMETER MAXIMUM
(in.)
CONNECTOR HORIZONTAL
LENGTH
(ft.)
Notes: 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 ft. = 0.305 m
34-½
46
57-½
69
710-½
812
913-½
1015
1218
1421
1624
1827
2030
2233
2436

803.2.3 The vent connector shall be routed to the vent utilizing the shortest possible route. Connectors with longer horizontal lengths than those listed in Section 803.2.2 are permitted under the following conditions: [NFPA 54:13.2.3]

  1. The maximum capacity (FAN Max or NAT Max) of the vent connector shall be reduced 10 percent for each additional multiple of the length listed in Section 803.2.2. For example, the maximum length listed for a four (4) inches (100 mm) connector is six (6) feet (1,829 mm). With a connector length greater than six (6) feet (1,829 mm). but not exceeding twelve (12) feet (3,658 mm), the maximum capacity must be reduced by 10 percent (0.90 maximum vent connector capacity). With connector length greater than twelve (12) feet (3,658 mm) but not exceeding eighteen (18) feet (5,486 mm), the maximum capacity must be reduced by 20 percent (0.80 maximum vent capacity). [NFPA 54:13.2.3(1)]
  2. For a connector serving a fan-assisted appliance, the minimum capacity (FAN Min) of the connector shall be determined by referring to the corresponding single-appliance table. For Type B double-wall connectors, Table 8-5 shall be used. For single-wall connectors, Table 8-6 shall be used. The height (H) and lateral (L) shall be measured according to the procedures for a single-appliance vent, as if the other appliances were not present. [NFPA 54:13.2.3(2)]

803.2.4 Where the vent connectors are combined prior to entering the vertical portion of the common vent to form a common vent manifold, the size of the common vent manifold and the common vent shall be determined by applying a 10 percent reduction (0.90 × maximum common vent capacity) to the Common Vent Capacity part of the common vent tables. The length of the common vent connector manifold (LM) shall not exceed 18 in./in. (18 mm/mm) of common vent connector manifold diameter (D) (See Figure 8-4). [NFPA 54:13.2.4]

803.2.5 Where the common vertical vent is offset, the maximum capacity of the common vent shall be reduced in accordance with Section 803.2.6, and the horizontal length of the common vent offset shall not exceed 18 in./in. (18 mm/mm) of common vent diameter. Where multiple offsets occur in a common vent, the total horizontal length of all offsets combined shall not exceed 18 in./in. (18 mm/mm) of common vent diameter. [NFPA 54-09:13.2.5]

803.2.6 For each elbow up to and including 45 degrees in the common vent, the maximum common vent capacity listed in the venting tables shall be reduced by 5 percent. For each elbow exceeding 45 degrees up to and including 90 degrees, the maximum common vent capacity listed in the venting tables shall be reduced by 10 percent. [NFPA 54:13.2.6]

803.2.7 Common Vent Minimum Size. The cross-sectional area of the common vent shall be equal to or greater than the cross-sectional area of the largest connector. [NFPA 54:13.2.8]

FIGURE 8-4 USE OF MANIFOLDED COMMON VENT CONNECTOR. [NFPA 54: FIGURE G.1(k)]

FIGURE 8-4 USE OF MANIFOLDED COMMON VENT CONNECTOR. [NFPA 54: FIGURE G.1(k)]

132

803.2.8 Tee and Wye Fittings. Tee and wye fittings connected to a common gas vent shall be considered as part of the common gas vent and constructed of materials consistent with that of the common gas vent. [NFPA 54-09:13.2.9]

803.2.8.1 At the point where tee or wye fittings connect to a common vent, the opening size of the fitting shall be equal to the size of the common vent. Such fittings shall not be prohibited from having reduced size openings at the point of connection of appliance vent connectors. [NFPA 54:13.2.10]

803.2.9 Sea level input ratings shall be used when determining maximum capacity for high-altitude installation. Actual input (derated for altitude) shall be used for determining minimum capacity for high-altitude installation. [NFPA 54:13.2.11]

803.2.10 The connector rise (R) for each appliance connector shall be measured from the draft hood outlet or flue collar to the centerline where the vent gas streams come together. [NFPA 54:13.2.12]

803.2.11 For multiple units of appliances all located on one (1) floor, available total height (H) shall be measured from the highest draft hood outlet or flue collar up to the level of the outlet of the common vent. [NFPA 54:13.2.13]

803.2.12 For multistory installations, available total height (H) for each segment of the system shall be the vertical distance between the highest draft hood outlet or flue collar entering that segment and the centerline of the next higher interconnection tee (See Figure 8-5). [NFPA 54:13.2.14]

803.2.13 The size of the lowest connector and of the vertical vent leading to the lowest interconnection of a multistory system shall be in accordance with Table 8-5 or 8-6 for available total height (H) up to the lowest interconnection (See Figure 8-6). [NFPA 54:13.2.15]

803.2.14 Where used in multistory systems, vertical common vents shall be Type B double-wall and shall be installed with a listed vent cap. [NFPA 54:13.2.16]

803.2.15 Offsets in multistory common vent systems shall be limited to a single offset in each system, and systems with an offset shall comply with all of the following:

  1. The offset angle shall not exceed 45 degrees from vertical.
  2. The horizontal length of the offset shall not exceed eighteen (18) inches for each inch (180 mm/mm) of common vent diameter of the segment in that the offset is located.
  3. For the segment of the common vertical vent containing the offset, the common vent capacity listed in the common venting tables shall be reduced by 20 percent (0.80 × maximum common vent capacity).
  4. A multistory common vent shall not be reduced in size above the offset. [NFPA 54:13.2.17]

FIGURE 8-5 MULTISTORY GAS VENT DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR EACH SEGMENT OF SYSTEM. [NFPA 54: FIGURE G.1(m)]

FIGURE 8-5 MULTISTORY GAS VENT DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR EACH SEGMENT OF SYSTEM. [NFPA 54: FIGURE G.1(m)]

803.2.16 Where two or more appliances are connected to a vertical vent or chimney, the flow area of the largest section of vertical vent or chimney shall not exceed seven times the smallest listed appliance categorized vent areas, flue collar area, or draft hood outlet area, unless designed in accordance with approved engineering methods. [NFPA 54:13.2.18]

803.2.17 For appliances with more than one input rate, the minimum vent connector capacity (FAN Min) determined from the tables shall be less than the lowest appliance input rating, and the maximum vent connector capacity (FAN Max or NAT Max) determined from the tables shall be greater than the highest appliance input rating. [NFPA 54:13.2.19]

803.2.18 Listed, corrugated metallic chimney liner systems in masonry chimneys shall be sized by using Table 8-11 or 8-12 for Type B vents, with the maximum capacity reduced by 20 percent (0.80 maximum capacity) and the minimum capacity as shown in Table 8-11 or 8-12. Corrugated metallic liner systems installed with bends or offsets shall have their maximum capacity further reduced in accordance with Sections 803.2.5 and 803.2.6. The 20 percent reduction for corrugated metallic chimney liner systems includes an allowance for one long radius 90 degree turn at the bottom of the liner. [NFPA 54:13.2.20]

133

FIGURE 8-6 PRINCIPLE OF DESIGN OF MULTISTORY VENTS USING VENT CONNECTOR AND COMMON VENT DESIGN TABLES. [NFPA 54: FIGURE G.1 (n)]

FIGURE 8-6 PRINCIPLE OF DESIGN OF MULTISTORY VENTS USING VENT CONNECTOR AND COMMON VENT DESIGN TABLES. [NFPA 54: FIGURE G.1 (n)]

803.2.19 Tables 8-11 and 8-12 shall be used for chimneys and vents not exposed to the outdoors below the roof line. A Type B vent passing through an unventilated enclosure or chase insulated to a value of not less than R 8 shall not be considered to be exposed to the outdoors. Tables 8-16 through 8-19 shall be used for clay-tile-lined exterior masonry chimneys, provided all of the following conditions are met:

  1. Vent connector is Type B double-wall.
  2. At least one appliance is draft hood-equipped.
  3. The combined appliance input rating is less than the maximum capacity given by Table 8-18 (for NAT+NAT) or Table 8-18 (for FAN–NAT).
  4. The input rating of each space-heating appliance is greater than the minimum input rating given by Table 8-17 (for NAT+NAT) or Table 8-19 (for FAN+NAT).
  5. The vent connector sizing is in accordance with Table 8-13. [NFPA 54:13.2.22]

803.2.20 Vent connectors shall not be increased more than two sizes greater than the listed appliance categorized vent diameter, flue collar diameter, or draft hood outlet diameter. Vent connectors for draft hood-equipped appliances shall not be smaller than the draft hood outlet diameter. Where a vent connector size(s) determined from the tables for a fan-assisted appliance(s) is smaller than the flue collar diameter, the use of the smaller size(s) shall be permitted provided that the installation complies with all of the following:

  1. Vent connectors for fan-assisted appliance flue collars twelve (12) inches (300 mm) in diameter or smaller are not reduced by more than one table size [e.g., 12 in. to 10 in. (300 mm to 250 mm) is a one-size reduction] and those larger than twelve (12) inches (300 mm) in diameter are not reduced more than two table sizes [e.g., 24 in. to 20 in. (610 mm to 510 mm) is a two-size reduction].
  2. The fan-assisted appliance(s) is common vented with a draft hood equipped appliance(s).
  3. The vent connector has a smooth interior wall. [NFPA 54:13.2.24]

803.2.21 All combinations of pipe sizes and single-wall and double-wall metal pipe shall be allowed within any connector run(s) or within the common vent provided ALL of the appropriate tables permit ALL of the desired sizes and types of pipe, as if they were used for the entire length of the subject connector or vent. Where single-wall and Type B double-wall metal pipes are used for vent connectors within the same venting system, the common vent must be sized using Table 8-12 or 8-14, as appropriate. [NFPA 54:13.2.25]

803.2.22 Where a table permits more than one (1) diameter of pipe to be used for a connector or vent, all the permitted sizes shall be permitted to be used. [NFPA 54:13.2.26]

803.2.23 Interpolation shall be permitted in calculating capacities for vent dimensions that fall between table entries (See Example 8-1). [NFPA 54:13.2.27]

Example 8-1: Interpolating between Table Values. An installer has an 80,000 Btu/h. input appliance with a four (4) inch diameter draft hood outlet that needs to be vented into a twelve (12) foot high Type B vent. The vent connector has a five (5) foot lateral length and is also Type B. Can this appliance be vented using a four (4) inch diameter vent?

Solution

Table 8-5 is used in the case of an all Type B vent system. However, since there is no entry in Table 8-5 for a height of 12 ft., interpolation must be used. Read down the 4 in. diameter NAT Max column to the row associated with 10 ft. height and 5 ft. lateral to find the capacity value of 77,000 Btu/h. Read further down to the 15 ft. height, 5 ft. lateral row to find the capacity value of 87,000 Btu/h. The difference between the 15 ft. height capacity value and the 10 ft. height capacity value is 10,000 Btu/h. The

134

capacity for a vent system with a 12 ft. height is equal to the capacity for a 10 ft. height plus 2/5 of the difference between the 10 ft. and 15 ft. height values, or 77,000 + 2/5 × 10,000 = 81,000 Btu/h. Therefore, a 4 in. diameter vent can be used in the installation.

803.2.24 Extrapolation beyond the table entries shall not be permitted. [NFPA 54:13.2.28]

803.2.25 For vent heights lower than six (6) feet and higher than shown in the tables, engineering methods shall be used to calculate vent capacities. [NFPA 54:13.2.29]

135
TABLE 8-5
TYPE B DOUBLE-WALL GAS VENT [NFPA 54: TABLE 13.1(a)]
££NUMBER OF APPLIANCES:SINGLE
APPLIANCE TYPE:CATEGORY I
APPLIANCE VENT CONNECTION:CONNECTED DIRECTLY TO VENT
VENT DIAMETER – D (inch)
34567
APPLIANCE INPUT RATING IN THOUSANDS OF BTU PER HOUR
HEIGHT H (ft)LATERAL L (ft)FANNATFANNATFANNATFANNATFANNAT
MinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMax
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1,000 Btu⁄hr = 0.293 kW, 1 in.2 = 645 mm2.
6007846015286025114103752050524285
2135136189767271571053223215744321217
4214934309464391531035022715366316211
6254632369161471491005922314978310205
8008450016594027615504152350583320
21257401610975251781202826318042365247
52353383210371421711155325517370356237
8284935399866511641096424716584347227
100088530175100029516604472550631345
21261421711881231941292628919540402273
52357403211377411871245228018868392263
103051364110470541761156726717588376245
150094580191112032718705022850716390
21169481513693202261502233922538475316
52265453013087392191424933021764463300
102959414012182512061356431520884445288
153553374811276611951287630119898429275
200097610202119034920205403070776430
210755114149100182501662037724933531346
52171482914396382421604736724162519337
102864443813389502291506235122881499321
153458404612484592171427333721794481308
2048523555116786920613484322206107464295
3000100640213128037422005873360853475
29815613166112142831851843228027613394
521775428160108362751764542127358600385
1027705037150102482621715940526177580371
153364NA4414196572491637038924990560357
205658NA53132906623715480374237102542343
30NANANA73113NA88214NA104346219131507321
5000101670216134039723206333630932518
28866111183122143202061549731422715445
52082NA27177119353122004348730855702438
102676NA35168114452991905647129873681426
155970NA42158NA542871806645528885662413
20NANANA50149NA632751697644027897642401
30NANANA69131NA84250NA99410259123605376
1000NANANA0218NA0407NA06654000997560
2NANANA10194NA12354NA1356637518831510
5NANANA26189NA33347NA4055736952820504
10NANANA33182NA43335NA5354236168801493
15NANANA40174NA50321NA6252835380782482
20NANANA47166NA59311NA7151334490763471
30NANANANANANA78290NA92483NA115726449
50NANANANANANANANANA147428NA180651405
136
TABLE 8-5
TYPE B DOUBLE-WALL GAS VENT [NFPA 54: TABLE 13.1(a)] (continued)
££NUMBER OF APPLIANCES:SINGLE
APPLIANCE TYPE:CATEGORY I
APPLIANCE VENT CONNECTION:CONNECTED DIRECTLY TO VENT
VENT DIAMETER – D (inch)
89101214
APPLIANCE INPUT RATING IN THOUSANDS OF BTU PER HOUR
HEIGHT H (ft)LATERAL L (ft)FANNATFANNATFANNATFANNATFANNAT
MinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMax
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1,000 Btu/hr = 0.293 kW, 1 in.2 = 645 mm2.
600698370089747001,12157001,64585002,2671,170
25342528563543370756754551039826501381,346890
479419279935363621106684451479756401911,338880
6934132731105303541286614351719676302191,330870
80078041501,00653701,26166001,85897002,5711,320
2504833226061941871770515981,1247451301,5431,020
583473313996074071157585031541,1107331991,5281,010
8994633031175963961377464901801,0977202311,5141,000
100084745001,09658501,37772002,0361,06002,8251,450
2485333555768445768852560931,2448501241,7131,130
581522346956714461128395471491,2298291921,6961,105
101045043301226514271428175251871,2047952381,6691,080
150097052501,26368201,59684002,3801,24003,3231,720
24563341453815544631,019675861,4959851142,0621,350
576620403908005291051,0036601401,4769671822,0411,327
10996003861167775071359776351771,4469362272,0091,289
151155803731347554911559536102021,4189052571,9761,250
20001,05757501,38475201,75693002,6371,35003,7011,900
24171147050917612591,150755811,6941,1001072,3431,520
573697460869025991011,1337381351,6741,0791742,3201,498
10956754431128775761301,1057101721,6411,0452202,2821,460
151116544271298535571501,0786881951,6091,0182482,2451,425
201256344101458305371671,0526652171,5789902732,2101,390
30001,17365001,54885501,9771,06003,0041,55004,2522,170
233826535421,072700541,351865742,0041,310982,7861,800
569811524821,055688961,3328511271,9811,2891642,7591,775
10917885071071,0286681251,3018291641,9441,2542092,7161,733
151057654901241,0026481431,2728071871,9081,2202372,6741,692
201197434731399776281601,2437842071,8731,1852602,6331,650
301497024441719295941951,1897452461,8071,1303052,5551,585
50001,29770801,73095202,2311,19503,4411,82504,9342,550
226975615331,276813411,6201,010662,4311,513863,4092,125
565960605771,259798901,6009961182,4061,4951513,3802,102
10869355891011,2307731181,5679721542,3661,4661963,3322,064
151009115721171,2037471361,5369481772,3271,4372223,2852,026
201138885561311,1767221511,5059241952,2881,4082443,2391,987
301418445221611,1256701831,4468762322,2141,3492873,1501,910
100001,41177001,9081,04002,4911,31003,9252,05005,7292,950
2211,155700251,536935301,9751,170443,0271,820724,3132,550
5601,141692711,519926821,9551,1591073,0021,8031364,2822,531
10801,118679941,4929101081,9231,1421422,9611,7751804,2312,500
15931,0956661091,4658951261,8921,1241632,9201,7472064,1822,469
201051,0736531221,4388801411,8611,1071812,8801,7192264,1332,438
301311,0296271491,3878491701,8021,0712152,8031,6632654,0372,375
501979445752171,2887872411,6881,0002922,6571,5503503,8562,250
137
TABLE 8-5
TYPE B DOUBLE-WALL GAS VENT [NFPA 54: TABLE 13.1(a)] (continued)
££NUMBER OF APPLIANCES:SINGLE
APPLIANCE TYPE:CATEGORY I
APPLIANCE VENT CONNECTION:CONNECTED DIRECTLY TO VENT
VENT DIAMETER – D (inch)
34567
APPLIANCE INPUT RATING IN THOUSANDS OF BTU PER HOUR
HEIGHT H (ft)LATERAL L (ft)FANNATFANNATFANNATFANNATFANNAT
MinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMax
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1,000 Btu/hr = 0.293 kW, 1 in.2 = 645 mm2.
6002,9831,53003,8021,96004,7212,43005,7372,95006,8533,520
21781,7691,1702252,2501,4802962,7821,8503603,3772,2204264,0302,670
42421,7611,1603002,2421,4753902,7741,8354693,3702,2155554,0232,660
62761,7531,1503412,2351,4704372,7671,8205233,3632,2106184,0172,650
8003,3991,74004,3332,22005,3872,75006,5553,36007,8384,010
21682,0301,3402122,5841,7002783,1962,1103363,8822,5604014,6343,050
52512,0131,3303112,5631,6853983,1802,0904763,8632,5455624,6123,040
82892,0001,3203542,5521,6704503,1632,0705373,8502,5306304,6023,030
10003,7421,92504,7822,45005,9553,05007,2543,71008,6824,450
21612,2561,4802022,8681,8902643,5562,3403194,3222,8403785,1533,390
52432,2381,4613002,8491,8713823,5362,3184584,3012,8185405,1323,371
102982,2091,4303642,8181,8404593,5042,2805464,2682,7806415,0993,340
15004,4232,27005,6782,90007,0993,62008,6654,410010,3935,300
21472,7191,7701863,4672,2602394,3042,8002905,2323,4103466,2514,080
52292,6961,7482833,4422,2353554,2782,7774265,2043,3855016,2224,057
102832,6591,7123463,4022,1934324,2342,7395105,1593,3435996,1754,019
153182,6231,67538533632,1504794,1922,7005645,1153,3006656,1293,980
20004,9482,52006,3763,25007,9884,06009,7854,980011,7536,000
21393,0972,0001753,9552,5702204,9163,2002695,9833,9103217,1544,700
52193,0711,9782703,9262,5443374,8853,1744035,9503,8804757,1194,662
102733,0291,9403343,8802,5004134,8353,1304895,8963,8305737,0634,600
153062,9881,9103723,8352,4654594,7863,0905415,8443,7956317,0074,575
203352,9481,8804043,7912,4304954,7373,0505855,7923,7606896,9534,550
30005,7252,92007,4203,77009,3414,750011,4835,850013,8487,060
21273,6962,3801594,7343,0501995,9003,8102417,1944,6502858,6175,600
52063,6662,3502524,7013,0203125,8633,7833737,1554,6224398,5745,552
102593,6172,3003164,6472,9703865,8033,7394567,0904,5745358,5055,471
152923,5702,2503544,5942,9204315,7443,6955077,0264,5275908,4375,391
203193,5232,2003844,5422,8704675,6863,6505486,9644,4806398,3705,310
303693,4332,1304404,4422,7855405,5743,5656356,8424,3757398,2395,225
50006,7113,44008,7744,460011,1295,635013,7676,940016,6948,430
21134,5542,8401415,8643,6701717,3394,6302098,9805,69525110,7886,860
51914,5202,8132345,8263,6392837,2954,5973368,9335,65439410,7376,818
102434,4642,7672955,7633,5853557,2244,5424198,8555,58549110,6526,749
152744,4092,7213305,7013,5343967,1554,5114658,7795,54654210,5706,710
203004,3562,6753615,6413,4814337,0864,4795068,7045,50658610,4886,670
303474,2532,6314125,5233,4314946,9534,4215778,5575,44467210,3286,603
100007,9144,050010,4855,300013,4546,700016,8178,600020,57810,300
2955,8343,5001207,5914,6001389,5775,80016911,8037,20020414,2648,800
51725,7973,4752087,5484,5662459,5285,76929311,7487,16234114,2048,756
102235,7373,4342687,4784,5093189,4475,71737411,6587,10043614,1058,683
152525,6783,3923047,4094,4513589,3675,66541811,5697,03748714,0078,610
202775,6193,3513307,3414,3943879,2895,61345211,4826,97552313,9108,537
303195,5053,2673787,2094,2794469,1365,50951411,3106,85059213,7208,391
504155,2893,1004866,9564,0505728,8415,30065910,9796,60075213,3548,100
138
TABLE 8-6
TYPE B DOUBLE-WALL GAS VENT [NFPA 54: TABLE 13.1(b)]
££NUMBER OF APPLIANCES:SINGLE
APPLIANCE TYPE:CATEGORY I
APPLIANCE VENT CONNECTION:CONNECTED DIRECTLY TO VENT
VENT DIAMETER – D (inch)
34567
APPLIANCE INPUT RATING IN THOUSANDS OF BTU PER HOUR
HEIGHT H (ft)LATERAL L (ft)FANNATFANNATFANNATFANNATFANNAT
MinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMax
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1,000 Btu/hr = 0.293 kW, 1 in.2 = 645 mm2.
60387745591518585249140126373204165522284
239513660966685156104123231156159320213
4NANA33749263102152102146225152187313208
6NANA3183896011414799163220148207307203
80378350581649383273154123412234161580319
2395639591087583176139121261179155363246
5NANA377710269107168114151252171193352235
8NANA33909564122161107175243163223342225
100378753571749982293165120444254158628344
2396141591178082193128119287194153400272
55256397611176105185122148277186190388261
10NANA349710068132171112188261171237369241
1503693575619011180325186116499283153713388
2386947571369380225149115337224148473314
55163447512886102216140144326217182459298
10NANA399511679128201131182308203228438284
15NANANANANA72158186124220290192272418269
2003596605420011878346201114537306149772428
2377450561489978248165113375248144528344
55068477314094100239158141363239178514334
10NANA419312986125223146177344224222491316
15NANANANANA80155208136216325210264469301
20NANANANANANA181223NA246357228298524333
3003499635321112776372219110584334144849472
23780565516411176281183109429279139610392
54974527215710698271173136417271171595382
10NANANA9114498122255168171397257213570367
15NANANA115131NA151239157208377242255547349
20NANANANANANA181223NA246357228298524334
30NANANANANANANANANANANANA389477305
5003399665121313373394230105629361138928515
23684615318112173318205104495312133712443
54880NA7017411794308198131482305164696435
10NANANA89160NA118292186162461292203671420
15NANANA112148NA145275174199441280244646405
20NANANANANANA176257NA236420267285622389
30NANANANANANANANANA315376NA373573NA
1000NANANA49214NA69403NA100659395131991555
2NANANA51192NA70351NA98563373125828508
5NANANA67186NA90342NA125551366156813501
10NANANA85175NA113324NA153532354191789486
15NANANA132162NA138310NA188511343230764473
20NANANANANANA168295NA224487NA270739458
30NANANANANANA231264NA301448NA355685NA
50NANANANANANANANANANANANA540584NA
139
TABLE 8-6
TYPE B DOUBLE-WALL GAS VENT [NFPA 54: TABLE 13.1 (b)] (continued)
££NUMBER OF APPLIANCES:SINGLE
APPLIANCE TYPE:CATEGORY I
APPLIANCE VENT CONNECTION:SINGLE-WALL METAL CONNECTOR
VENT DIAMETER – D (inch)
891012
APPLIANCE INPUT RATING IN THOUSANDS OF BTU PER HOUR
HEIGHT H (ft)LATERAL L (ft)FANNATFANNATFANNATFANNAT
MinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMax
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1,000 Btu/hr = 0.293 kW, 1 in.2 = 645 mm2.
602116953692678944693711,1185695371,639849
2201423284251541368347673453498979648
4237416277295533360409664443584971638
6263409271327526352449656433638962627
802067774142581,0025363601,2576585211,852967
21974823212466174173397685134861,120743
52454703113056044044187545005981,104730
82804583003445913924707404866651,089715
1002028444492531,0935843511,3737185072,0311,057
21935313542426814563328495594751,242848
52415183442996674434098345445841,224825
102964973253636434234928085206881,194788
1501959665232441,2596813361,5918384882,3741,237
21876314132328125433191,0156734571,491983
52316164002877955263929976575621,469963
102845923813497685014709666286641,433928
153345683674047424845409376017501,399894
2001901,0535732381,3797503261,7519274732,6311,346
21827084682279146113091,1467544431,6891,098
52246924572798965963811,1267345471,6651,074
102776664373398665704571,0927026461,6261,037
153256404193938385495261,0606777301,5871,005
203746164004488105265921,0286518081,550973
3001841,1686472291,5428523121,9711,0564542,9961,545
21758235332191,0696982961,3468634241,9991,308
52158065212691,0496843661,3248465241,9711,283
102657775013271,0176624401,2878216201,9271,243
153127504813799856385071,2517947021,8841,205
203607234614339556155701,2167687801,8411,166
304616704265418955747041,1477209371,7591,101
5001761,2927042201,7249482952,2231,1894283,4321,818
21689716132091,2738112801,6151,0074012,4261,509
52049536022571,2527953471,5919914962,3961,490
102539235833131,2177654181,5519635892,3471,455
152998945623631,1837364811,5129346682,2991,421
203458665434151,1507085441,4739067412,2511,387
304428095025211,0866496741,3998488922,1591,318
10001661,4047652071,9001,0332732,4791,3003953,9122,042
21581,1526981961,5329332591,9701,1683713,0211,817
51941,1346882401,5119213221,9451,1534602,9901,796
102381,1046722931,4779023891,9051,1335472,9381,763
152811,0756563421,4438844471,8651,1106182,8881,730
203251,0466393911,4108645071,8251,0876902,8381,696
30418988NA4911,3438246311,7471,0418342,7391,627
50617866NA7111,205NA8951,591NA1,1382,5471,489
140
TABLE 8-7
MASONRY CHIMNEY [NFPA 54-09: TABLE 13.1(c)]
££NUMBER OF APPLIANCES:SINGLE
APPLIANCE TYPE:CATEGORY I
APPLIANCE VENT CONNECTION:TYPE DOUBLE-WALL CONNECTOR
TYPE DOUBLE-WALL CONNECTOR DIAMETER -D (inch) TO BE USED WITH CHIMNEY AREAS WITHIN THE SIZE LIMITS AT BOTTOM
34567
APPLIANCE INPUT RATING IN THOUSANDS OF BTU PER HOUR
HEIGHT H (ft)LATERAL L (ft)FANNATFANNATFANNATFANNATFANNAT
MinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMax
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1,000 Btu/hr = 0.293 kW, 1 in.2 = 645 mm2.
62NANA28NANA52NANA86NANA130NANA180
5NANA25NANA49NANA82NANA117NANA165
82NANA29NANA55NANA93NANA145NANA198
5NANA26NANA52NANA88NANA134NANA183
8NANA24NANA48NANA83NANA127NANA175
102NANA31NANA61NANA103NANA162NANA221
5NANA28NANA57NANA96NANA148NANA204
10NANA25NANA50NANA87NANA139NANA191
152NANA35NANA67NANA114NANA17953475250
5NANA35NANA62NANA107NANA164NANA231
10NANA28NANA55NANA97NANA153NANA216
15NANANANANA48NANA89NANA141NANA201
202NANA38NANA74NANA124NANA20151522274
5NANA36NANA68NANA116NANA18480503254
10NANANANANA60NANA107NANA172NANA237
15NANANANANANANANA97NANA159NANA220
20NANANANANANANANA83NANA148NANA206
302NANA41NANA82NANA137NANA21647581303
5NANANANANA76NANA128NANA19875561281
10NANANANANA67NANA115NANA184NANA263
15NANANANANANANANA107NANA171NANA243
20NANANANANANANANA91NANA159NANA227
30NANANANANANANANANANANANANANA188
502NANANANANA92NANA161NANA251NANA351
5NANANANANANANANA151NANA230NANA323
10NANANANANANANANA138NANA215NANA304
15NANANANANANANANA127NANA199NANA282
20NANANANANANANANANANANA185NANA264
30NANANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
Minimum internal area of chimney (in.2)1219283850 
Maximum internal area of chimney (in.2)Seven times the listed appliance categorized vent area, flue collar area, or draft hood outlet areas.
141
TABLE 8-7
MASONRY CHIMNEY [NFPA 54-09: TABLE 13.1(c)] (continued)
££NUMBER OF APPLIANCES:SINGLE
APPLIANCE TYPE:CATEGORY I
APPLIANCE VENT CONNECTION:TYPE B DOUBLE-WALL CONNECTOR
TYPE B BOUBLE-WALL CONNECTOR DIAMETER D (inch) TO BE USED WITH CHIMNEY AREAS WITHIN THE SIZE LIMITS AT BOTTOM
891012
APPLIANCE INPUT RATING IN THOUSANDS OF BTU PER HOUR
HEIGHT H (ft)LATERAL L (ft)FANNATFANNATFANNATFANNAT
MinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMax
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1,000 Btu/hr = 0.293 kW, 1 in.2 = 645 mm2.
62NANA247NANA320NANA401NANA581
5NANA231NANA298NANA376NANA561
82NANA266845903501007284461391,024651
5NANA247NANA3281497114232011,007640
8NANA239NANA318173695410231990623
1026851929882655388988104911361,144724
5NANA2771246383651467914661961,124712
10NANA2631556103471827624442401,093668
1526461333677779441929685621271,376841
5995943131187594161399465331861,352828
101265652961487273941739125672291,315777
15NANA2811716983751988804852591,280742
2026167837573867491871,0836271211,548953
5956583501138454631331,0595971791,523933
101226273321438114401671,0225662211,482879
15NANA3141657804181919875412511,443840
20NANA2961867503972149555132771,406807
3025776242168985558811,2407171111,7931,112
5907413931069625261251,2166831691,7661,094
101157093731359275001581,1766482101,7211,025
15NANA3531568934761811,1396212391,679981
20NANA3321768604502031,1035922641,638940
30NANA288NANA4162491,0355553181,560877
50251840477611,106633721,413812992,0801,243
583819445981,0835961161,3877741552,0521,225
10NANA4241261,0475671471,3477331952,0061,147
15NANA4001461,0105391701,3077022221,9611,099
20NANA3761659775111901,2696692461,9161,050
30NANA327NANA4682331,1966232951,832984
Minimum internal area of chimney (in.2)637895132
Maximum internal area of chimney (in.2)Seven times the listed appliance categorized vent area, flue collar area, or draft hood outlet areas.
142
TABLE 8-8 MASONRY CHIMNEY [NFPA 54-09: TABLE 13.1(d)]
££NUMBER OF APPLIANCES:SINGLE
APPLIANCE TYPE:CATEGORY I
APPLIANCE VENT CONNECTION:SINGLE-WALL METAL CONNECTOR
SINGLE-WALL METAL CONNECTOR D (inch) TO BE USED WITH CHIMNEY AREAS WITHIN THE SIZE LIMITS AT BOTTOM
34567
APPLIANCE INPUT RATING IN THOUSANDS OF BTU PER HOUR
HEIGHT H (ft)LATERAL L (ft)FANNATFANNATFANNATFANNATFANNAT
MinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMax
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm. 1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1,000 Btu/hr = 0.293 kW, 1 in.2 = 645 mm2.
62NANA28NANA52NANA86NANA130NANA180
5NANA25NANA48NANA81NANA116NANA164
82NANA29NANA55NANA93NANA145NANA197
5NANA26NANA51NANA87NANA133NANA182
8NANA23NANA47NANA82NANA126NANA174
102NANA31NANA61NANA102NANA161NANA220
5NANA28NANA56NANA95NANA147NANA203
10NANA24NANA49NANA86NANA137NANA189
152NANA35NANA67NANA113NANA178166473249
5NANA32NANA61NANA106NANA163NANA230
10NANA27NANA54NANA96NANA151NANA214
15NANANANANA46NANA87NANA138NANA198
202NANA38NANA73NANA123NANA200163520273
5NANA35NANA67NANA115NANA183NANA252
10NANANANANA59NANA105NANA170NANA235
15NANANANANANANANA95NANA156NANA217
20NANANANANANANANA80NANA144NANA202
302NANA41NANA81NANA136NANA215158578302
5NANANANANA75NANA127NANA196NANA279
10NANANANANA66NANA113NANA182NANA260
15NANANANANANANANA105NANA168NANA240
20NANANANANANANANA88NANA155NANA223
30NANANANANANANANANANANANANANA182
502NANANANANA91NANA160NANA250NANA350
5NANANANANANANANA149NANA228NANA321
10NANANANANANANANA136NANA212NANA301
15NANANANANANANANA124NANA195NANA278
20NANANANANANANANANANANA180NANA258
30NANANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
Minimum internal area of chimney (in.2)1219283850
Maximum internal area of chimney (in.2)Seven times the listed appliance categorized vent area, flue collar area, or draft hood outlet areas.
143
TABLE 8-8
MASONRY CHIMNEY [NFPA 54-09: TABLE 13.1(d)] (continued)
££NUMBER OF APPLIANCES:SINGLE
APPLIANCE TYPE:CATEGORY I
APPLIANCE VENT CONNECTION:SINGLE-WALL METAL CONNECTOR
SINGLE-WALL METAL CONNECTOR D (inch) TO BE USED WITH CHIMNEY AREAS WITHIN THE SIZE LIMITS AT BOTTOM
891012
APPLIANCE INPUT RATING IN THOUSANDS OF BTU PER HOUR
HEIGHT H (ft)LATERAL L (ft)FANNATFANNATFANNATFANNAT
MinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMax
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1,000 Btu/hr = 0.293 kW, 1 in.2 = 645 mm2.
62NANA247NANA319NANA400NANA580
5NANA230NANA297NANA375NANA560
82NANA265NANA3493827254455491,021650
5NANA246NANA327NANA4226731,003638
8NANA237NANA317NANA408747985621
1022165182972716543873738084905361,142722
5NANA2763346353644597894656571,121710
10NANA261NANA3455477584417711,088665
1522116113352647764403629655605201,373840
52615913123257554144449425316371,348825
10NANA2943927223925319075047491,309774
15NANA2784526923726068734818411,272738
2022066753742588644902521,0796255081,544950
52556553483178424614331,0555946231,518930
103126223303828064375171,0165627331,475875
15NANA3114427734145919795398231,434835
20NANA292NANA3926639445109111,394800
3022007594202499825563401,2377154891,7891,110
52457373913069585244171,2106806001,7601,090
103007033703709204965001,1686447081,7131,020
15NANA3494288844715721,1286157981,668975
20NANA327NANA4456431,0895858831,624932
30NANA281NANA408NANA54410551,539865
5021918374752381,1036313231,4088104632,0761,240
5NANA4422931,0785933981,3817705712,0441,220
10NANA4203551,0385624471,3377286741,9941,140
15NANA395NANA5335461,2946957611,9451,090
20NANA370NANA5046161,2516608441,8981,040
30NANA318NANA458NANA6101,0091,805970
Minimum internal area of chimney (in.2)637895132
Maximum internal area of chimney (in.2)Seven times the listed appliance categorized vent area, flue collar area, or draft hood outlet areas.
144
TABLE 8-9
SINGLE-WALL METAL PIPE OR TYPE B ASBESTOS CEMENT VENT [NFPA 54: TABLE 13.1(e)]
£NUMBER OF APPLIANCES:SINGLE
APPLIANCE TYPE:DRAFT HOOD-EQUIPPED
APPLIANCE VENT CONNECTION:CONNECTED DIRECTLY TO PIPE OR VENT
HEIGHT H (ft)LATERAL L (ft)DIAMETER D (inch) TO BE USED WITH CHIMNEY AREAS WITHIN THE SIZE LIMITS AT BOTTOM
3456781012
APPLIANCE INPUT RATING IN THOUSANDS OF BTU PER HOUR
MAXIMUM APPLIANCE INPUT RATING IN THOUSANDS OF BTU PER HOUR
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1,000 Btu/hr = 0.293 kW, 1 in.2 = 645 mm2.
603970116170232312500750
2315594141194260415620
5285188128177242390600
804276126185252340542815
23261102154210284451680
5295695141194264430648
10244986131180250406625
1004584138202279372606912
23567111168233311505760
53261104153215289480724
10275494143200274455700
15NA4684130186258432666
15049911512233124206841,040
23972122186260350570865
53567110170240325540825
103058103158223308514795
15NA5093144207291488760
20NANA82132195273466726
200531011632523424707701,190
24280136210286392641990
53874123192264364610945
103265115178246345571910
15NA55104163228326550870
20NANA91149214306525832
300561081832763845298781,370
244841482303204417301,140
5NA781372102964106941,080
10NA681251962743886561,050
15NANA1131772583666251,000
20NANA99163240344596960
30NANANANA192295540890
500NA1202103104435909801,550
2NA951712603704928201,290
5NANA1592343424747801,230
10NANA1462213184567301,190
15NANANA2002924077051,130
20NANANA1852763846701,080
30NANANANA2223306051,010
145
TABLE 8-10
EXTERIOR MASONRY CHIMNEY [NFPA 54: TABLE 13.1(f)]
£NUMBER OF APPLIANCES:SINGLE
APPLIANCE TYPE:NAT
APPLIANCE VENT CONNECTION:TYPE B DOUBLE-WALL CONNECTOR
INTENDED USE: MINIMUM ALLOWABLE INPUT RATING OF SPACE-HEATING APPLIANCE IN THOUSANDS OF BTU PER HOUR
VENT HEIGHT H (ft)INTERNAL AREA OF CHIMNEY (inch2)
12192838506378113
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 in.2 = 645 mm2, 1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1,000 Btu per hr = 0.293 kW, °C = (°F – 32)/1.8.
Note: See Figure 5-13 for a map showing local 99 percent winter design temperatures in the United States.
6Local 99% winter design temperature: 37°F or greater
00000000
800000000
1000000000
15NA0000000
20NANA12319024918400
30NANANANANA3933340
50NANANANANANANA579
6Local 99% winter design temperature: 27°F to 36°F
0068116156180212266
80082127167187214263
1005197141183201225265
15NANANANA233253274305
20NANANANANA307330362
30NANANANANA419445485
50NANANANANANANA763
6Local 99% winter design temperature: 17°F to 26°F
NANANANANA215259349
8NANANANA197226264352
10NANANANA214245278358
15NANANANANA296331398
20NANANANANA352387457
30NANANANANANA507581
50NANANANANANANANA
6Local 99% winter design temperature: 5°F to 16°F
NANANANANANANA416
8NANANANANANA312423
10NANANANANA289331430
15NANANANANANA393485
20NANANANANANA450547
30NANANANANANANA682
50NANANANANANANA972
6Local 99% winter design temperature:-10°F to 4°F
NANANANANANANA484
8NANANANANANANA494
10NANANANANANANA513
15NANANANANANANA586
20NANANANANANANA650
30NANANANANANANA805
50NANANANANANANA1,003
 Local 99% winter design temperature: -11°F or lower Not recommended for any vent configurations
146
TABLE 8-11
TYPE B DOUBLE-WALL VENT [NFPA 54: TABLE 13.2(a)]
£NUMBER OF APPLIANCES:TWO OR MORE
APPLIANCE TYPE:CATEGORY I
APPLIANCE VENT CONNECTION:TYPE B DOUBLE-WALL CONNECTOR
VENT CONNECTOR CAPACITY
VENT HEIGHT H (ft)LATERAL L (ft)34567
APPLIANCE INPUT RATING IN THOUSANDS OF BTU PER HOUR
FANNATFANNATFANNATFANNATFANNAT
MinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMax
6122372635664646106725816410477225142
223413137755548121866018312479253168
324443538816249132966219913982275189
8122402735724849114766417610984243148
223443236805751128906619512986269175
3244736378764531391016721014588290198
10122432834785049123786518911389257154
223473336865951136936720613491282182
3245037379267521461046922015094303205
15121503033895347142836422012088298163
222533535966349153996623514291320193
32455403610271511631116824816093339218
20121543133995646157876224612586334171
22257373410566481671046425914989354202
32360423511074501761166627116891371228
301206233311135945181936028813483391182
22164393311870471901106229915885408215
32266443412379481981246430917888423242
5011971363013364432161015734914578477197
22173433213776452231195935817281490234
32275483314186462291346136619483502263
10011882372815866402621045344215073611204
21983443016179422671235544717875619242
32084503116389442721385745220078627272
COMMON VENT CAPACITY
VENT HEIGHT H (ft)TYPE B DOUBLE-WALL COMMON VENT DIAMETER – D (inch)
4567
COMBINED APPLIANCE INPUT RATING IN THOUSANDS OF BTU PER HOUR
FAN+FANFAN+NATNAT+NATFAN+FANFAN+NATNAT+NATFAN+FANFAN+NATNAT+NATFAN+FANFAN+NATNAT+NAT
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 in.2 = 645 mm2, 1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1000 Btu per hr = 0.293 kW.
6928165140116103204161147309248200
81019073155129114224178163339275223
101109779169141124243194178367299242
1512511291195164144283228206427352280
20136123102215183160314255229475394310
30152138118244210185361297266547459360
50167153134279244214421353310641547423
100175163NA311277NA489421NA751658479
147
TABLE 8-11
TYPE B DOUBLE-WALL VENT [NFPA 54: TABLE 13.2(a)] (continued)
£NUMBER OF APPLIANCES:TWO OR MORE
APPLIANCE TYPE:CATEGORY I
APPLIANCE VENT CONNECTION:TYPE B DOUBLE-WALL CONNECTOR
VENT CONNECTOR CAPACITY
VENT HEIGHT H (ft)CONNECTOR RISE R (ft)TYPE B DOUBLE-WALL VENT AND CONNECTOR DIAMETER - D (inch)
8910
APPLIANCE INPUT RATING IN THOUSANDS OF BTU PER HOUR
FANNATFANNATFANNAT
MinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMax
6192296185109376237128466289
295333220112424282131526345
397363248114463317134575386
81100320194118408248138507303
2103356230121454294141564358
3105384258123492330143612402
101106341200125436257146542314
2109374238128479305149596372
3111402268131515342152642417
151110389214134493273162609333
2112419253137532323165658394
3115445286140565365167700444
201107436224131552285158681347
2110463265134587339161725414
3113486300137618383164764466
301103512238125649305151802372
2105535282129679360155840439
3108555317132706405158874494
50197627257120797330144984403
21006453061238203921481,014478
31036613431268424411511,043538
1001918102661121,0383411351,285417
2948223161151,0544051391,306494
3978343551181,0694551421,327555
COMMON VENT CAPACITY
VENT HEIGHT H (ft)TYPE B DOUBLE-WALL COMMON VENT DIAMETER – D (inch)
8910
COMBINED APPLIANCE INPUT RATING IN THOUSANDS OF BTU PER HOUR
FAN+FANFAN+NATNAT+NATFAN+FANFAN+NATNAT+NATFAN+FANFAN+NATNAT+NAT
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 in.2 = 645 mm2, 1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1000 Btu per hr = 0.293 kW.
6404314260547434335672520410
8444348290602480378740577465
10477377315649522405800627495
15556444365753612465924733565
206214994058426885231,035826640
307205854709798086051,209975740
508547065501,1649777051,4511,188860
1001,0258736251,4081,2158001,7841,502975
148
TABLE 8-11
TYPE B DOUBLE-WALL VENT [NFPA 54: TABLE 13.2(a)] (continued)
£NUMBER OF APPLIANCES:TWO OR MORE
APPLIANCE TYPE:CATEGORY I
APPLIANCE VENT CONNECTION:TYPE B DOUBLE WALL CONNECTOR
VENT CONNECTOR CAPACITY
VENT HEIGHT H (ft)CONNECTOR RISE R (ft)TYPE B DOUBLE-WALL VENT AND CONNECTOR DIAMETER – D (inch)
12141618
APPLIANCE INPUT RATING LIMITS IN THOUSANDS OF BTU PER HOUR
FANNATFANNATFANNATFANNAT
MinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMax
621747644962231,0466532811,3718533461,7721,080
41808976162301,2318272871,6171,0813522,0691,370
6NANANANANANANANANANANANA
821868225162381,1266962981,4789103651,9201,150
41929526442441,3078843051,7191,1503722,2111,460
61981,0507722521,4451,0723131,9021,3903802,4341,770
1021968705362491,1957303111,5709553792,0491,205
42019976642561,3719243181,8041,2053872,3321,535
62071,0957922631,5091,1183251,9891,4553952,5561,865
1522149675682721,3347903361,7601,0304082,3171,305
42211,0857122791,4991,0063441,9781,3204162,5791,665
62281,1818562861,6321,2223512,1571,6104242,7962,025
2022231,0515962911,4438403571,9111,0954302,5331,385
42301,1627482981,5971,0643652,1161,3954382,7781,765
62371,2539003071,7261,2883732,2871,6954502,9842,145
3022161,2176322861,6649103672,1831,1904612,8911,540
42231,3167922941,8021,1603762,3661,5104743,1101,920
62311,4009523031,9201,4103842,5241,8304853,2992,340
5022061,4796892732,0231,0073502,6591,3154353,5481,665
42131,5618602812,1391,2913592,8141,6854473,7302,135
62211,6311,0312902,2421,5753692,9512,0554613,8932,605
10021921,9237122542,6441,0503263,4901,3704024,7071,740
42001,9848882632,7311,3463363,6061,7604144,8422,220
62082,0351,0642722,8111,6423463,7142,1504264,9682,700
COMMON VENT CAPACITY
VENT HEIGHT H (ft)TYPE B DOUBLE-WALL COMMON VENT DIAMETER – D (inch)
12141618
COMBINED APPLIANCE INPUT RATING IN THOUSANDS OF BTU PER HOUR
FAN+FANFAN+NATNAT+NATFAN+FANFAN+NATNAT+NATFAN+FANFAN+NATNAT+NATFAN+FANFAN+NATNAT+NAT
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 in.2 = 645 mm2, 1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1000 Btu per hr = 0.293 kW.
69006965881,2849908151,7351,3361,0652,2531,7321,345
89947736521,4231,1039121,9271,4911,1902,5071,9361,510
101,0768417121,5421,2009952,0931,6251,3002,7272,1131,645
151,2479868251,7941,4101,1582,4401,9101,5103,1842,4841,910
201,4051,1169162,0061,5881,2902,7222,1471,6903,5612,7982,140
301,6581,3271,0252,3731,8921,5253,2202,5581,9904,1973,3262,520
502,0241,6401,2802,9112,3471,8633,9643,1832,4305,1844,1493,075
1002,5692,1311,6703,7323,0762,4505,1254,2023,2006,7495,5094,050
149
TABLE 8-11
TYPE B DOUBLE-WALL VENT [NFPA 54: TABLE 13.2(a)] (continued)
£NUMBER OF APPLIANCES:TWO OR MORE
APPLIANCE TYPE:CATEGORY I
APPLIANCE VENT CONNECTION:TYPE B DOUBLE-WALL CONNECTOR
VENT CONNECTOR CAPACITY
VENT HEIGHT H (ft)CONNECTOR RISE R (ft)TYPE B DOUBLE-WALL VENT AND CONNECTOR DIAMETER – D(inch)
202224
APPLIANCE INPUT RATING LIMITS IN THOUSANDS OF BTU PER HOUR
FANNATFANNATFANNAT
MinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMax
62NANANANANANANANANA
4NANANANANANANANANA
6NANANANANANANANANA
82NANANANANANANANANA
44712,7371,8005603,3192,1806623,9572,590
64783,0182,1805683,6652,6406694,3733,130
102NANANANANANANANANA
44862,8871,8905813,5022,2806864,1752,710
64943,1692,2905893,8492,7606944,5933,270
152NANANANANANANANANA
45233,1972,0606243,8812,4907344,6312,960
65333,4702,5106344,2163,0307435,0353,600
202NANANANANANANANANA
45543,4472,1806614,1902,6307725,0053,130
65673,7082,6506714,5113,1907855,3923,790
302NANANANANANANANANA
46193,8402,3657284,8612,8608475,6063,410
66324,0802,8757414,9763,4808605,9614,150
502NANANANANANANANANA
45804,6012,6337095,5693,1858516,6333,790
65944,8083,2087245,8263,8858676,9434,620
1002NANANANANANANANANA
45235,9822,7506397,2543,3307698,6503,950
65396,1433,3506547,4534,0707868,8924,810
COMMON VENT CAPACITY
VENT HEIGHT H (ft)TYPE B DOUBLE-WALL COMMON VENT DIAMETER – D (inch)
202224
COMBINED APPLIANCE INPUT RATING IN THOUSANDS OF BTU PER HOUR
FAN+FANFAN+NATNAT+NATFAN+FANFAN+NATNAT+NATFAN+FANFAN+NATNAT+NAT
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 in.2 = 645 mm2, 1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1000 Btu per hr = 0.293 kW.
62,8382,1801,6603,4882,6771,9704,2063,2262,390
83,1622,4391,8603,8902,9982,2004,6953,6162,680
103,4442,6652,0304,2413,2782,4005,1233,9572,920
154,0263,1332,3604,9713,8622,7906,0164,6703,400
204,5483,5522,6405,5734,3523,1206,7495,2613,800
305,3034,1933,1106,5395,1573,6807,9406,2474,480
506,5675,2403,8008,1166,4584,5009,8377,8135,475
1008,5976,9865,00010,6818,6485,92013,00410,4997,200
150
TABLE 8-12
TYPE B DOUBLE-WALL VENT [NFPA 54: TABLE 13.2(b)]
£NUMBER OF APPLIANCES:TWO OR MORE
APPLIANCE TYPE:CATEGORY I
APPLIANCE VENT CONNECTION:SINGLE-WALL METAL CONNECTOR
VENT CONNECTOR CAPACITY
VENT HEIGHT H (ft)CONNECTOR RISE R (ft)SINGLE-WALL METAL VENT CONNECTOR DIAMETER – D(inch)
34567
APPLIANCE INPUT RATING LIMITS IN THOUSANDS OF BTU PER HOUR
FANNATFANNATFANNATFANNATFANNAT
MinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMax
61NANA26NANA46NANA71NANA102207223140
2NANA31NANA55NANA85168182123215251167
3NANA34NANA6212113195175198138222273188
81NANA27NANA48NANA75NANA106226240145
2NANA32NANA5712512689184193127234266173
3NANA35NANA64130138100191208144241287197
101NANA28NANA5011912177182186110240253150
2NANA3384855912413491189203132248278183
3NANA36899167129144102197217148257299203
151NANA2979875211613881177214116238291158
2NANA3483946212115097185230138246314189
3NANA398710070127160109193243157255333215
20149563078975411515284175238120233325165
25259368210364120163101182252144243346197
35562408710772125172113190264164252363223
301476031771105711217589169278129226380175
25162378111567117185106177290152236397208
35464428511976122193120185300172244412235
501466934751286010920796162336137217460188
24971407913272114215113170345164226473223
35272458313682119221123178353186235486252
1001457934711506110424998153424140205585192
24880417515373110255115160428167212593228
35181467915785114260129168433190222603256
COMMON VENT CAPACITY
VENT HEIGHT H (ft)TYPE B DOUBLE-WALL COMMON VENT DIAMETER – D (inch)
4567
COMBINED APPLIANCE INPUT RATING IN THOUSANDS OF BTU PER HOUR
FAN+FANFAN+NATNAT+NATFAN+FANFAN+NATNAT+NATFAN+FANFAN+NATNAT+NATFAN+FANFAN+NATNAT+NAT
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 in.2 = 645 mm2, 1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1000 Btu per hr = 0.293 kW.
6NA7864NA11399200158144304244196
8NA8771NA126111218173159331269218
10NA9476163137120237189174357292236
1512110888189159140275221200416343274
2013111898208177156305247223463383302
30145132113236202180350286257533446349
50159145128268233208406337296622529410
100166153NA297263NA469398NA726633464
151
TABLE 8-12
TYPE B DOUBLE-WALL VENT [NFPA 54: TABLE 13.2(b)](continued)
£NUMBER OF APPLIANCES:TWO OR MORE
APPLIANCE TYPE:CATEGORY I
APPLIANCE VENT CONNECTION:SINGLE-WALL METAL CONNECTOR
VENT CONNECTOR CAPACITY
VENT HEIGHT H(ft)CONNECTOR RISE R(ft)SINGLE-WALL METAL VENT CONNECTOR DIAMETER – D (inch)
8910
APPLIANCE INPUT RATING LIMITS IN THOUSANDS OF BTU PER HOUR
FANNATFANNATFANNAT
MinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMax
61262293183325373234447463286
2271331219334422281458524344
3279361247344462316468574385
81285316191352403244481502299
2293353228360450292492560355
3302381256370489328501609400
101302335196372429252506534308
2311369235381473302517589368
3320398265391511339528637413
151312380208397482266556596324
2321411248407522317568646387
3331438281418557360579690437
201306425217390538276546664336
2317453259400574331558709403
3326476294412607375570750457
301296497230378630294528779358
2307521274389662349541819425
3316542309400690394555855482
501284604245364768314507951384
2294623293376793375520983458
33046403313878164235351,013518
10012697742493459933214761,236393
22797882993581,0113834901,259469
32898013393681,0274315061,280527
COMMON VENT CAPACITY
VENT HEIGHT H(ft)TYPE B DOUBLE-WALL COMMON VENT DIAMETER — D (inch)
8910
COMBINED APPLIANCE INPUT RATING IN THOUSANDS OF BTU PER HOUR
FAN+FANFAN+NATNAT+NATFAN+FANFAN+NATNAT+NATFAN+FANFAN+NATNAT+NAT
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 in.2 = 645 mm2, 1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1000 Btu per hr = 0.293 kW.
6398310257541429332665515407
8436342285592473373730569460
10467369309638512398787617487
15544434357738599456905718553
206064873958246735121,013808626
307035704599587905931,183952723
508336865351,1399546891,4181,157838
1009998466061,3781,1857801,7411,459948
152
TABLE 8-13
MASONRY CHIMNEY [NFPA 54: TABLE 13.2(c)]
£NUMBER OF APPLIANCES:TWO OR MORE
APPLIANCE TYPE:CATEGORY I
APPLIANCE VENT CONNECTION:SINGLE-WALL METAL CONNECTOR
VENT CONNECTOR CAPACITY
VENT HEIGHT H(ft)CONNECTOR RISE R(ft)VENT CONNECTOR DIAMETER – D (inch)
34567
APPLIANCE INPUT RATING LIMITS IN THOUSANDS OF BTU PER HOUR
FANNATFANNATFANNATFANNATFANNAT
MinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMax
6124332139624052106676519410187274141
226432841795253133856723012489324173
327493442926155155976926214391369203
8124392239724155117697121310594304148
226472940875357140867324612797350179
327523442976259159987526914599383206
101244222388042551307174232108101324153
2265029409354571538776261129103366184
327553541105635817010078284148106397209
151244823389344541547472277114100384164
22555313910555561748974299134103419192
326593541115645718910276319153105448216
201245224371024653172777131311998437173
22558313911456551909173335138101467199
326633540123655720410475353157104493222
301245425371114852192826935712796504187
2256032381225854208957237614599531209
326643640131665622110774392163101554233
501235125361165151209896740514392582213
22459323712761532251027042116195604235
32664363913569552371157243518098624260
1001234624351085049208926542815588640237
22453313712060512241056744417492660260
32559353813068532371186945819394679285
COMMON VENT CAPACITY
VENT HEIGHT H(ft)MINIMUM INTERNAL AREA OF MASONRY CHIMNEY FLUE — D (inch2)
1219283850
COMBINED APPLIANCE INPUT RATING IN THOUSANDS OF BTU PER HOUR
FAN+FANFAN+NATNAT+NATFAN+FANFAN+NATNAT+NATFAN+FANFAN+NATNAT+NATFAN+FANFAN+NATNAT+NATFAN+FANFAN+NATNAT+NAT
For SI units, 1 in. = 25.4 mm, 1 in.2 = 645 mm2, 1 ft. = 0.305 m, 1000 Btu per hr = 0.293 kW.
6NA7425NA11946NA17871NA257103NA351143
8NA8028NA13053NA19382NA279119NA384163
10NA8431NA13856NA20790NA299131NA409177
15NANA36NA15267NA233106NA334152523467212
20NANA41NANA75NA250122NA368172565508243
30NANANANANANANA270137NA404198615564278
50NANANANANANANANANANANANANA620328
100NANANANANANANANANANANANANANA348
153
TABLE 8-13
MASONRY CHIMNEY [NFPA 54: TABLE 13.2(c)] (continued)
£NUMBER OF APPLIANCES:TWO OR MORE
APPLIANCE TYPE:CATEGORY I
APPLIANCE VENT CONNECTION:SINGLE-WALL METAL CONNECTOR
VENT CONNECTOR CAPACITY
VENT HEIGHT H(ft)CONNECTOR RISE R(ft)TYPE B DOUBLE-WALL VENT CONNECTOR DIAMETER – D (inch)
8910
APPLIANCE INPUT RATING LIMITS IN THOUSANDS OF BTU PER HOUR
FANNATFANNATFANNAT
MinMaxMaxMinMaxMaxMinMaxMax
61104370201124479253145599319
2107436232127562300148694378
3109491270129633349151795439
81113414210134539267156682335
2116473240137615311160776394
3119517276139672358163848452
101120444216142582277165739348
2123498247145652321168825407
3126540281147705366171893463
151125511229153658297184824375
2128558260156718339187900432
3131597292159760382190960486
201123584239150752312180943397
21266252701538053541841,011452
31296613011568513961871,067505
3011196802551458833371751,115432
21227152871499283781791,171484
31257463171529684181821,220535
5011157982941401,0493921681,334506