c

UNIVERSnTgrCALIFDRNIA COLLEGE of MINING

DEPARTMENTAL LIBRARY

BEQUEST OF

r \

SAM UELBENEDICrCHRlSTV PROFESSOR OF

MINING AND METALLURGY 1885-1914

ALUMINIUM.

ALUMINIUM:

ITS HISTORY, OCCURRENCE, PROPERTIES,

METALLURGY AND APPLICATIONS,

INCLUDING ITS ALLOYS.

JOSEPH W. RICHARDS, M.A., A.C.,

INSTRUCTOR IN METALLURGY AT THE LEHIGH UNIVERSITY.

SECOND EDITION, REVISED AND GREATLY ENLARGED.

ILLUSTRATED BY

TWENTY-EIGHT ENGRAVINGS AND TWO DIAGRAMS,

PHILADELPHIA: HENRY CAREY BAIRD & CO.,

INDUSTRIAL PUBLISHERS, BOOKSELLERS, AND IMPORTERS,

810 WALNUT STREET.

1890.

MIM1N<* »»«• FT.

COPYRIGHT BY JOSEPH W. RICHARDS,

1890.

PRINTED AT THE COLLINS PRINTING HOUSE,

705 Jayne Street, PHILADELPHIA, U. 8. A.

PREFACE TO T1IE SECOND EDITION.

IF it was true that no apology was necessary in presenting a work on Aluminium in English, as stated in the preface to the first edition of this book, it is equally true that still less apology is necessary in offering an improvement on that work.

The present volume is designed to be an improvement on the former one in the following respects : Mistakes have been corrected wherever detected by the author or pointed out by his friends ; in some instances the order of treatment of different parts has been revised, so as to bring them into strict, logical sequence ; the more strictly historical processes are described in greater detail, in order to preserve a complete record of the rise of the aluminium industry ; chapters have been added treating on the properties and the preparation of aluminium compounds, on the theoretical aspect of the reduction of aluminium com- pounds, and on the analysis of commercial aluminium and its common alloys ; the original chapters have been in several cases sub-divided, and every part treated more by itself and in greater detail than before; finally, additions have been made throughout, recording and describing the progress achieved in the last three years, with a completeness which it is hoped is up to the stand- ard of the rest of the book.

vi PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.

The method of treatment in the present edition will be found to be more critical, for wherever a reasonable doubt might be expressed as to the correctness of certain claims, or a rational explanation advanced for certain phenomena, the author has not hesitated to put his best thought on the question and to state his conclusions unreservedly.

The friendly criticisms of the scientific press and their sug- gestions have been kept in view in preparing this new edition. The spelling "aluminium" has been retained, because no sufficient reasons have been advanced for changing it to " aluminum ;" and even if each way was equally old and as well-sanctioned by usage and analogy as the other, the author's choice would be the longer spelling, as being more euphonious and agreeable to the ear.

It has been the author's endeavor to make this volume as complete as possible, as accurate as possible, to write it in a manner which will be entertaining to the general reader, and to furnish a treatise which will be of practical value to the practical metallurgist as well as of scientific merit where it touches on matters of theory.

J. W. K.

BETHLEHEM, PA., March 12, 1890.

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.

No apology is necessary in presenting a work on aluminium in English. In 1858 Tissier Bros, published in France a small book on the subject. H. St. Claire Deville, the originator of the aluminium industry, published a treatise, also in French, in 1859. Deville's book is still the standard on the subject. Until December, 1885, we have an intermission, and then a work by Dr. Mierzinski, forming one of Hartleben's Chemisch-Technische Bibliothek, which is a fair presentation of the industry up to about 1883, this being a German contribution. Probably be- cause the English speaking people have taken comparatively little hand in this subject we find no systematic treatise on aluminium in our language. The present work aims to present the subject in its entirety to the English reader.

Tissier, Deville, Mierzinski, and the German, French, and English scientific periodicals have been freely consulted and extracted from, full credit being given in each case to the author or journal. As this art has of late advanced so rapidly it has been a special aim to give everything that has been printed up to the time of publication.

The different parts of the work are arranged in what seemed their logical order, corresponding closely to that followed by

Vlll PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.

Deville. The Appendix contains an account of laboratory experiments, etc., several of which, it is trusted, may be of value.

In conclusion, the author wishes to thank the faculty of his " Alma Mater," Lehigh University, for their permission to use his Thesis on Aluminium as the basis of this treatise ; also, to acknowledge his indebtedness to Dr. Wm. H. Greene, of Philadelphia, for assistance rendered in the preparation of the work for the press.

J. W. R.

PHILADELPHIA, November 25, 1886.

ABBREVIATIONS USED IN MAKING REFERENCES.

Deville De 1' Aluminium. H. St. Claire Deville.

Paris, 1859. Fremy Encyclopedic Chimique. Fremy. Paris,

1883. Kerl and Stohman .... Enclyclopadisches Handbuch der Techni-

schen Chemie. 4th Ed. Mierzinski Die Fabrikation des Aluminiums. Dr. Mier-

zinski. Vienna, 1885. Tissier Recherche de 1' Aluminium. C. & H. Tis-

sier. Paris, 1858. Watts Watts' s Dictionary of Chemistry, vol. i.

Ann. de Chim. et de Phys. . Annales de Chimie et de Physique.

Ann. der Chem. und Pharm. 1 Liebig's Annalen der Chemie und Phar- Liebig's Ann. j macie.

Bull, de la Soc. Chim. . . Bulletin de la Soci6t6 Chimique de Paris.

Chem. News The Chemical News.

Chem. Zeit. ...*... Chemiker Zeitung (Cothen).

Compt. Rend Comptes Rendus de les Seances de 1' Acade- mic. Paris.

Dingl. Joul Dingier' s Polytechnisches Journal.

E. and M. J The Engineering and Mining Journal.

Jahresb. der Chem. . . . Jahresbericht ueber die Fortschritte der

Chemie.

Jrnl. Chem. Soc Journal of the Chemical Society.

Jrnl. der Pharm Journal der Pharmacie.

Jrnl. fur pr. Chem. . . . Erdmann's Journal ftir praktische Chemie.

Mon. Scientif. Le Moniteur Scientifique. Dr. Quesnes-

ville.

Phil. Mag The London and Edinburgh Philosophical

Magazine.

Phil. Trans Transactions of the Royal Philosophical

Society.

Pogg. Ann PoggendorfPs Annalen.

ABBREVIATIONS USED IN MAKING REFERENCES.

Poly. Centr. Blatt. Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci.

Quarterly Journal . Rpt. Brit. A. A. S. .

Sci. Am. (Suppl.). Wagner's Jahresb. . .

Zeit. fur anal. Chem.

Polytechnisches Central-Blatt.

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural

Science (Philadelphia). Quarterly Journal of the Society of Arts. Report of the British Association for the

Advancement of Science. Scientific American (Supplement). Wagner's Jahresbericht der Chemischen

Technologic. Zeitschrift fur Analytische Chemie.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

HISTORY OF ALUMINIUM.

PAGE

Lavoisier's suggestion of the existence of metallic bases of the earths and alkalies ; Researches in the preparation of aluminium by Davy, Oerstedt, and Wohler ; Isolation of aluminium by Wohler . . 17

Isolation of almost pure aluminium by H. St. Claire Deville, in 1854; Method of Deville's researches . . . . . . .18

Deville's paper on "Aluminium and its Chemical Combinations;" M. Thenard's recommendation ; Pecuniary assistance given Deville by the French Academy ; M. Chenot's claim to priority of invention ; Deville's experiments at the Ecole Normale ; Reduction of alumin- ium chloride by the battery 19

Deville and Debray's experiments in the manufacture of sodium ; Manufacture of metallic sodium at Rousseau Bros.' chemical works at Glaciere, and enormous reduction in its price ; Deville's descrip- tion of his electrolytic methods 20

Experiments in the manufacture of aluminium at the expense of Napoleon III. ; Experiments of Chas. and Alex. Tissier on the production of sodium ; Deville's experiments at Javel . . .21

Aluminium at the Paris Exhibition, 1855 ; First article made of alu- minium ; Dispute between the Tissiers and Deville about a sodium furnace . . . . . . . . . . .22

Foundation of aluminium works by M. Chanu at Rouen ; History of the works at Rouen as described by the Tissiers ; The process finally used at Amfreville ......... 23

Manufacture of aluminium on a large scale at Glaciere, Nanterre, and

Salindres ; Tissier Bros.' book on aluminium in 1858 ... 24

Deville's book, 1850 ; His explanation of the uses of the new metal ; Dr. Percy's and H. Rose's experiments 25

Alfred Monnier's production of sodium and aluminium at Camden, N. J. ; W. J. Taylor claiming the possible cost of aluminium at $1 per pound ; First aluminium works in England, 1859 ... 26

Xll CONTENTS.

PAGE

Bell Bros.' aluminium works at Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1860 ; Price of alu- minium manufactured by them ; Aluminium industry in Germany ; Dr. Clemens Winckler's retrospect of the development of the alu- minium industry, 1879 ......... 27

Prices of aluminium and aluminium bronze in France, 1878 ; Webster's aluminium works in England, 1882; Mr. Walter Weldon on the prospects of the aluminium industry, 1883 28

Improvements in the manufacture outlined by Mr. Weldon . . 29

Reduction in the cost of aluminium in 1882, by Mr. Webster's inven- tions; Organization of the " Aluminium Crown Metal Company" at Hollywood, near Birmingham ; Mr. H. Y. Castner's new sodium process, 1886 30

Mr. Castner's patent the first granted on that subject in the United States ; Combination of the Castner and Webster processes, in Eng- land; Works at Oldbury near Birmingham, 1888 .... 31

Revolutions in the aluminium industry since 1884 ; Revival of the old methods of electrolysis discovered by Deville and Bunsen ; Gratzel's process patented in Germany, 1883 . \. . . . .32

Mr. Saarburger's process ; Process patented by Dr. E. Kleiner, of Zurich, 1886 ; Electrolytic method of Mr. Chas. M. Hall, of Ober- lin, O., patented in the United States, April, 1889 ; Price of alu- minium made by the process ........ 33

Difference in electrolytic processes ; SirW. Siemens' electric furnace ; Mr. Ludwig Grabau's experiments in the reduction of alumina, 1882 ; Dr. Mierzinski remarks on the use of the electric furnace . 34

Cowles' Electric Smelting and Aluminium Company, Lockport, N. Y. ; Works in England and the United States sprung from the Cowles process ; The principle made use of in the Cowles process . . 35 Difference in the products obtained by the various electrolytic methods ; The Heroult process ' . . . .36

Manufacture of aluminium by the Heroult process in Switzerland, France, and the United States ; Comparison of the Cowles and Heroult processes . . . . . . . . . .37

The Alliance Aluminium Company of London, England, and the patents and methods used by it ; Prof. Netto's method of producing sodium ; Cost of aluminium produced by the Alliance Company ; The " Alkali Reduction Syndicate, Limited" .... 38

Ludwig Grabau's improvements in producing aluminium ; " The Amer- ican Aluminium Company" of Milwaukee, Wis. ; Prof. A. J. Rogers's process ; Inaccurate statements inspired by a company

hailing from Kentucky 39

Production of iron castings containing aluminium ; Col. Win. Frish- muth's works in Philadelphia . . . . . . .40

CONTENTS. Xlll

PAGE

Col. Frishmuth's patents and methods; Quality of the metal pro- duced by Col. Frishmuth . . . . . . . .41

Census report on Col. Frishmuth's annual production ; Aluminium casting for the Washington Monument, made by Col. Frishmuth; "The Aluminium Company of America;" The United States Aluminium Company of East St. Louis ; Aluminium exhibits at the Paris Exposition, 1889 . . .' 42

Detailed account of the exhibits ; Great advances in the aluminium industry shown by the exhibit ....... 43

Statistical; Prices of aluminium from 1856 to 1889; Prices of 10 per cent, aluminium bronze from 1878 to 1888 ; Annual outputs of aluminium from 1854 to 1887 ....... 44

Estimate of aluminium produced up to 1886 ; Amount produced since 1886 ; Aluminium imported into the United States from 1870 to 1888 45

CHAPTER II.

OCCURRENC^ OF ALUMINIUM IN NATURE.

Wide distribution of aluminium ; Combinations of aluminium with oxygen, the alkalies, fluorine, etc. ; Non-occurrence of aluminium in animals and plants ; Appearance of most of the aluminium com- pounds ; Formulas of some aluminium compounds classed as precious stones ............ 46

Formulas of frequently occurring compounds of aluminium ; Minerals most used for producing aluminium ; Beauxite ; Analyses of beauxite 47

Index to analyses of beauxite . . . . . . . .48

Deposit of beauxite in Floyd County, Georgia, with analyses . . 49

Cryolite ; Where found, description, general uses, and analyses ; Im- portation of cryolite by the Pennsylvania Salt Company of Phila- delphia, 1887 50

Deposit of cryolite in the United States ; Minerals associated with it ; Corundum; Discovery of it in the United States, in 1869, by Mr. W. P. Thompson ; Production of corundum in the United States in 1887 ' . 51

Native sulphate of alumina ; Discovery, description, and analysis of "native alum" from the Gila River, Sorocco County, New Mexico 52

CHAPTER III.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ALUMINIUM.

What must be understood by the properties of aluminium ; The most frequent impurities of commercial aluminium 53

The r61e of silicon in aluminium ; Table of analyses of commercial aluminium ......... .54

XIV CONTENTS.

PAGE

Notes on the analyses; Combined and free silicon in aluminium; Analyses of aluminium reduced from cryolite by sodium . . 55

Analysis of aluminium by Prof. Rammelsberg ; Gases in aluminium ; Color 56

Appearance of Grabau's and ordinary commercial aluminium ; Influ- ence of iron and copper on the color of aluminium ; Removal of dis- coloration caused by damp air ; Explanation of the greater promi- nence of the blue tint after the metal has been worked ... 57

Fracture ; Peculiarities in the fracture of the purest varieties of alu- minium ; Increase in the fibrousness of the metal by working ; Hardness ; Its increase by the presence of impurities ... 58

Testing aluminium with the knife ; Specific gravity ; Of commercial aluminium ; Comparison of analyses and specific gravities . . 59

Contraction in the volume of aluminium by alloying ; Increase in the density of aluminium by being worked ; Comparison of the specific gravity of aluminium with that of other metals 60

Comparative value of equal volumes of aluminium and silver ; Fusi- bility ; Determination of the melting point by Pictet, Heeren, Van der Weyde, and Prof. Carnelley . . . . . . .61

Volatilization ; Deville on this subject ; In electric furnace processes ; Odor; Taste 62

Magnetism ; Deville, MM. Poggendorff and Reiss ; Sonorousness ; Results obtained by Deville and M. Lissajous in making bells and tuning forks ; Results obtained by Mr. Faraday ; Verification of Mr. Faraday's observations . 63

Crystalline form; As observed by Deville; Elasticity; Deville, M. Wertheim and Mallet on this subject ...... 64

Tenacity ; Results obtained by W. H. Barlow ; Comparative mechani- cal value of aluminium and steel ; Results as to the strength of aluminium wire obtained by Kamarsch . . . . . .65

Malleability; Aluminium leaf first made by M. Degousse, of Paris, and C. Falk & Co., of Vienna; Thickness of commercial leaf . . 66

Forging, hammering, and shaping of aluminium ; Ductility ; Manufac- ture of aluminium wire ; Expansion by heat ; Fizeau's coefficients of linear expansion of aluminium by heat . . . . .67

Specific heat ; Deville, M. Regnault, Kopp, Mallet, and Nacarri on this subject ; Determination of the latent heat of fusion by Mr. J. W. Richards ; Electric conductivity ; Results obtained by Deville and Buff, M. Margottet, Prof. Mattheisen, and Benoit . . 68

Comparison of the various results ; Thermal conductivity ; Deville, Faraday, and Calvert and Johnson on this subject .... 70

CONTENTS. XV

CHAPTER IV.

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ALUMINIUM.

PAGE

Remark ; Action of air ; Deville, Wohler, and M. Peligot on this sub- ject- 71

"Dead" appearance of aluminium objects; Burning of aluminium;

Wohler' s observations 72

Action of water ; Decomposition of aluminium leaf by water ; Action of hydrogen sulphide and sulphur » .73

Resistance of aluminium to the vapor of sulphur ; Absorption of hy- drogen sulphide by molten aluminium ; Sulphuric acid . . .74 Nitric acid ; Hydrochloric acid . . . . . .75

Organic acids, vinegar, etc. . . . . . . . .76

Tin more attacked by organic acids than aluminium ; Chief cause of the tarnishing of polished aluminium articles ; Ammonia ; Caustic alka- lies 77

Solutions of metallic salts ......... 78

Precipitation of other metals by aluminium . . . .79

Reduction of metallic chlorides by aluminium ; Action of aluminium on alkaline chlorides ; action of aluminium salts on aluminium ; Sod- ium chloride; Salt as a flux for aluminium; Fluorspar; As a flux

for the metal 80

Cryolite ; Its action on aluminium ; Silicates and borates ; Their action

on aluminium ; Nitre ; Deville on this subject .... 81 Purification by nitre ; Alkaline sulphates and carbonates ; Metallic

oxides ; Tissier Brothers' experiments 82

Beke"toff's experiment; Miscellaneous agents 83

General observations on the properties of aluminium, Deville . . 84

CHAPTER Y.

PROPERTIES AND PREPARATION OP ALUMINIUM COMPOUNDS.

General considerations ; Structure of aluminium compounds ; Chemical position of aluminous salts ........ 85

Neutral and basic salts of aluminium ; Aluminium oxyhydrate ; General

methods of formation and properties ; Solubility of aluminium salts 86

Reaction of neutral solutions of aluminium salts ; Aluminium oxide ; Composition and description of alumina ...... 87

Aluminium hydrates ; Diaspore, Beauxite, and Gibbsite ; Artificial hydrates ; Formula and description of the insoluble modification . 88

Aluminates ; Potassium aluminate ; Sodium aluminate ; Barium alumi- nate 89

Calcium aluminate, zinc aluminate, copper aluminate, magnesium alumi- nate ; Aluminium chloride 90

XVI CONTENTS.

PAGE

Properties of aluminium chloride ; Aluminium-sodium chloride ; Its

properties ........... 91

Aluminium-phosphorus chloride ; Aluminium-sulphur chloride ; Alu- minium-selenium chloride ; Aluminium-ammonium chloride . . 92 Aluminium-chlor-sulphydride ; Aluminium-chlor-phosphydride ; Alu- minium bromide 93

Aluminium iodide; Aluminium fluoride; Its first production by De-

ville ; Volatilization of aluminium fluoride ..... 94

Aluminium fluorhydrate ; Aluminium-hydrogen fluoride ; Aluminium- sodium fluoride . . . ' . . . . . . .95

Aluminium sulphide ; Aluminium selenide ; Aluminium borides . 96

Borides obtained by Hampe 97

Aluminium nitride ; Aluminium sulphate; Anhydrous; Hjdrated . 98

Halotrichite ; Basic aluminium sulphate ...... 99

Alums ; Definition of alums ; Potash alum ; Calcined alum . .100

Alunite; Ammonia alum; Soda alum ; Aluminium-metallic sulphates 101

Aluminium selenites ; Aluminium nitrate ; Aluminium phosphates . 102 Wavellite ; Kalait ; Turquois ; Aluminium carbonate ; Aluminium

borate ; Formation of crystals of corundum ; Aluminium silicates . 103

Disthene ; Andalusite ; Fibrolite; Kaolin; Orthoclase ; Common clays 104

CHAPTER VI.

PREPARATION OP ALUMINIUM COMPOUNDS FOR REDUCTION.

Preparation of alumina from alums and aluminium sulphate ; Its com- position ........... 105

Various methods of preparing alumina; Deville's method used at Javel 106

Tilghman's method of preparing alumina . . . . . .107

Mr. Webster's process for making pure alumina ..... 108

Preparation of alumina from beauxite ; Occurrence of beauxite in France ; Deville's process as used at Salindres, illustrated and de- scribed 109

Composition of alumina prepared by Deville's process; Behnke's method; Proposed treatment of beauxite, etc., by R. Lieber ; H. Muller's method of extracting alumina from silicates . . .113

Action of common salt on beauxite ; Treatment of beauxite proposed by R. Wagner; Lowig's experiments with solution of sodium alumi- nate; Dr. K. J. Bayer's improvement in the process of extracting alumina from beauxite 114

Preparation of alumina from cryolite ; By the dry way ; Julius Thom- son's method illustrated and described . . . . . .115

Formula according to which the decomposition takes place in Thomson's process . . . . . . . . . . . ,116

CONTENTS. XV11

PAGE

" Levisseur methodique" . . . . . . . . .117

Preparation of the carbon dioxide for precipitating the hydrated alumina ; Precipitation with carbonic acid gas ; Composition of the precipitate; Separation of the sodium carbonate . . . .118

Utilization of aluminous fluoride slags 5 Deville's process used at Nan- terre ; Analysis of the residue . . . . . . .119

Decomposition of cryolite in the wet way ; Deville's method used at Javel 120

Modification of Deville's method by Sauerwein ; Tissier's and Hahn's methods; Reactions involved in Hahn's process; Decomposition of cryolite in the establishment of Weber, at Copenhagen . . .121

Schuch's method ; The preparation of aluminium chloride and alumin- ium-sodium chloride; Wohler's method of preparing aluminium chloride 122

Deville's processes for the production and purification of aluminium chloride ; Manufacture on a small scale illustrated and described . 123

Manufacture on a large scale illustrated and described. . . .124

Purification of aluminium chloride . . . . . . .126

Apparatus for the purification of aluminium chloride used at Salindres, illustrated and described . . . . . . . .127

Cost of aluminium-sodium chloride by Deville's process as made by Wurtz in 1872 ; Plant of the Aluminium Co., L't'd, for the manu- facture of aluminium-sodium chloride . . . . . .129

Chlorine plant of the Aluminium Co., L't'd 130

Amount of double chloride required for the production of 1 Ib. of alu- minium ; Necessity of preventing iron from contaminating the salt . 131

Castner's process for purifying the double chloride ; On what the suc- cess of the manufacture of the double chloride depends; Quantities of materials required for the production of 100 Ibs. of double chloride . . . ... 132

H. A. Gadsden's method of obtaining aluminium chloride ; Count A. de Montgelas's process ; Prof. Chas. F. Mabery's process . . 133

Mr. Paul Curie's plan of making aluminium chloride; H. W. War- ren's process; Camille A. Faure's process ..... 134

The aim of Mr. Faure's process; Estimated cost of the chloride by Mr. Faure's process 135

M. Dullo's method of producing aluminium chloride .... 136

The preparation of aluminium fluoride and aluminium-sodium fluoride (cryolite) ; Berzelius's plan of preparing artificial cryolite ; Deville's statements 137

Pieper's process of preparing artificial cryolite; Bruner's method of producing aluminium fluoride ........ 138

Deville's and Hautefeuille's method of making aluminium fluoride; Lud wig Grabau's process; Reactions outlining this process . . 139 B

XV111 CONTENTS.

PAGE

Method of obtaining aluminium fluoride in practice ; The preparation of aluminium sulphide ; M. Fremy's researches on this subject . . 140

Keichel's experiments on the preparation of aluminium sulphide . 142

J. W. Richards's experiments on the production and reduction of aluminium sulphide; M. Comenge's plan; Messrs. Reillon, Mon- tague, and Bourgerel's patent . . . . . . .143

Petitjean's plan of making aluminium sulphide . . . . .144

CHAPTER VII.

THE MANUFACTURE OF SODIUM.

The manufacture of sodium a separate metallurgical subject . .144 Davy to Deville (1808-1855); Sodium first isolated by Davy, 1808; Gay-Lussac, Thenard, Curaudau, and Brunner's researches; Donny and Mareska's condenser, illustrated and described . . .145

Deville's improvements at Javel, 1855; His attempts to reduce the cost of producing sodium ; Properties of sodium .... 146

Deville's method of producing sodium ; Composition of mixtures used . 147 Properties a mixture should show ; The r61e of the various ingredients of a mixture ........... 148

Mixture used at La Glacifcre and Nanterre ; Use of these mixtures ; Cost at which sodium was obtained . . . . . .149

Apparatus for reducing, condensing, and heating ; Manufacture in mer- cury bottles ; The most suitable furnace, illustrated and described . 150

The condenser, illustrated and described 151

The most rational form of condenser, illustrated and described ; Mode of conducting the operation . . . ... . . .152

How to prevent the ignition of the sodium ; Use of cast-iron bottles ; Continuous manufacture in cylinders . . . . . .154

Advantage of a strong preliminary calcination of the materials ; Man- ner of using cold, uncalcined mixture 155

Furnace, illustrated and described . . . . . . .156

Mode of conducting the manufacture of sodium in cylinders . .157 Tissier Bros.' method of procedure (1856) ; Details from Tissier's

"Recherche de 1' Aluminium ;" Mixtures used . . . 158

Furnace for calcining the mixtures, illustrated and described ; Further

treatment of the calcined mixtures 159

Mode of protecting the retorts ; Manner of reducing the sodium . 160

Tissier's method of cleaning the sodium ; Deville's improvements at La

Glaciere (1857) ; Results obtained by Deville . . . .161 Reasons for unsuccessful attempts ; Cast-iron vessels . . . .162 Causes of an unfavorable result with cast-iron vessels ; Improvements used at Nanterre (1859) 163

CONTENTS. XIX

PAGE

Construction of the iron tubes used ; Cost of sodium by Deville's pro- cess (1872) . . . 164

Minor improvements (1859-1888) ; R. Wagner's and J. B. Thompson and W. White's methods 165

H. S. Blackmore's process of obtaining sodium; O. M. Thowless's method; G. A. Jarvis's patent; Castner's process (1886); First public announcement of this process . . . . . .166

Description of Castner's process . . . . . . .167

Claims made by Mr. Castner in his patent 168

Erection of a large sodium furnace in England by Mr. Castner . .169

Mr. J. MacTear's description of the furnace ; Preparation of the com- pounds used . . . . . . . . . . .170

Mode of conducting the operation ; Crucible and furnace, illustrated

and described ; Analysis of the gas disengaged . . . .171

Analyses of the residues . . . . . . .. .172

Weight and further treatment of the residues ; Yield obtained ; Aver- age time of distillation ; Capacity of furnace ; Estimated cost of the sodium produced . . . . . . . . . .173

Life of the crucibles ; Reasons for the cheap production of sodium by Mr. Castner's process . . . 174

Details of the latest plant of the Aluminium Co., L't'd, by Mr. Wm. Anderson and Sir Henry Roscoe ; Yield of sodium in twenty-four hours ; Shape of the condenser . . . . . . .175

Melting and preservation of the sodium ; Temperature of the furnace . 176

Average duration of each crucible; Dr. Kosman's explanation of the reactions taking place in Castner's process 177

Netto's process (1887) ; Reaction taking place in this process . . 178

The retort used in Netto's process, illustrated and described ; Mode of operating . . . . . . . . . . .179

Reduction of sodium compounds by electricity ; Economical value of these processes ; P. Jablochoff's apparatus for decomposing sodium or potassium chlorides, illustrated and described ; Prof. A. J. Rogers' s attempts to reduce sodium compounds electrolytically . . . 180

Computation of the amount of coal required to produce a given amount of sodium by electrolysis 181

Results of experiments by Prof. Rogers 182

CHAPTER VIII.

THE REDUCTION OF ALUMINIUM COMPOUNDS FROM THE STANDPOINT OF THERMAL CHEMISTRY.

The proper way to use the accumulated thermal data in predicting the

possibility of any reaction almost unknown . . . . .183 Illustration of the principal barriers in the way 184

XX CONTENTS.

PAGE

Influence of the relative masses of the reacting bodies ; Heat gene- rated by the combination of aluminium with the different elements . 185

Theoretical aspect of the reduction of aluminium ; Table showing the heat given out by other elements or compounds which unite energeti- cally with oxygen 186

Impossibility of sodium or potassium reducing alumina; Probable im- possibility of some reactions .. . . . . . .187

Calculations which have been made to show that carbon will reduce alumina at a temperature 10,000° C 188

Sources of error in the calculation ; Lowest calculated value for the temperature of reduction of alumina ...... 189

Table of the heat developed by the combination of some of the ele- ments with chlorine, bromine, or iodine 190

Reflections on the table ; Probable substitutes for sodium in reducing aluminium chloride . . . . . . . . .191

Heat of combination of fluorides ; Discussion of the thermal relations of aluminium sulphide 192

Affinity of the metals for sulphur ; Reactions of use in the aluminium industry ; Deficit of heat, which has to be made up in the conversion of alumina into aluminum chloride 193

Hydrated chloride of no value for reduction by sodium . . .194

The reaction made use of for obtaining aluminium sulphide ; Compu- tation of the thermal value of the reaction taking place in the con- version of alumina into aluminium sulphide 195

CHAPTER IX.

REDUCTION OF ALUMINIUM COMPOUNDS BY MEANS OF POTASSIUM OR

SODIUM.

(Reduction of Chlorine Compounds.)

Oerstedt's experiments (1824) 196

Oerstedt's original paper; Wohler's experiments (1827); Wb'hler's

review of Oerstedt's article 197

Wohler's method of producing aluminium . . . . . .198

Wohler's experiments (1845) . . 199

Accuracy of Wb'hler's results ; Deville's experiments (1854) . . 200 Deville's method for obtaining aluminium chemically pure in the labor- atory 201

Deville's methods (1855) ; Mode of reducing the aluminium chloride

by sodium ; Perfectly pure aluminium ; Pure materials . . . 202 Influence of flux or slag ; Influence of the vessel ; Reduction by solid

sodium ; Apparatus, illustrated and described .... 203

CONTENTS. XXI

PAGE

Process by which were made the ingots of aluminium sent to the Paris Exhibition (1855); Nature of this aluminium; M. Mulct's "hard aluminium" ........... 205

Reduction by sodium vapor ; The operation as conducted by Deville ; Deville's process (1859) ; Process used at that time at Nanterre . 206

Production of the works at Nanterre ; Rationale of the process used . 207

Substitution of cyrolite for fluorspar ; Reduction on the bed of a rever- beratory furnace 210

Dimensions of the furnace ; Proportions of the mixture used ; Recov- ery of alumina from the slag 211

Treatment of the slag ; Contents of the slag ; Reason why aluminium absorbs a large quantity of silicon . . . . . . .212

The Deville process (1882) ; Aluminium as made at Salindres by A. R. Pechiney & Co., successors to H. Merle & Co 213

Successive operations of the process, and chemical reactions involved ; Advances made, since 1859, in the reduction of the double chloride by sodium 214

The reduction furnace, illustrated and described . . . .215

Expense of the process . . . . . . . . .216

Niewerth's process (1883) 217

Gadsden's patent (1883) ; Frishmuth's process (1884) ; Claims made by Col. Frishmuth in his patent . . . . . . .218

H. von Grousillier's improvement (1885) ; The Deville-Castner pro- cess as operated by the Aluminium Co., L't'd ; Principle of this pro- cess 219

Description of the works at Oldbury, near Birmingham, England ; Mode of conducting the reduction 220

Reaction taking place in the process ; Yield of the charge ; Purity of the metal 221

CHAPTER X.

REDUCTION OF ALUMINIUM COMPOUNDS BY MEANS OF POTASSIUM OR

SODIUM (continued). (Reduction of Fluorine Compounds.}

Rose's experiments (1855) 222

Experiments of Percy and Dick (1855) . . . . . .230

Tissier Bros.' method (1857) . .234

Advantages claimed by Tissier Bros.' for the use of the cryolite ; Diffi- culties met with in this process ....... 235

Wohler's modifications (1856) ; Gerhard's furnace (1858) . . . 236 Thompson and White's patent (1887) ; Hampe's experiment (1888) ; Netto's process (1887) 237

XX11 CONTENTS.

Operations of the Alliance Aluminium Co., of London, England;

Production of sodium by Capt. Cunningham's process . . . 238

Dr. Netto's process 239

Construction and operation of Dr. Netto's experimental apparatus at

Krupp's works at Essen 240

Cost of aluminium to the Alliance Aluminium Company ; Ludwig

Grabau's process for the reduction of aluminium fluoride by sodium 241

The reaction taking place in the process . . . . . . 242

The furnace used in Grabau's process, illustrated and described . .244

Summary of the advantages claimed by M. Grabau for his process . 245

Purity of M. Grabau's product 246

CHAPTER XI.

REDUCTION OF ALUMINIUM COMPOUNDS BY THE USE OF ELECTRICITY.

Principles of electro-metallurgy applying to the decomposition of alu- minium compounds 246

Calculation of the theoretical intensity of current necessary to over- come the affinities of any aluminium compound . . . .247

Utilization of such calculations ........ 248

Deposition of aluminium from aqueous solutions . . . 249

Mr. George Gore's experiments; Messrs. Thomas and Tilly's process; M. Corbelli's mode of depositing aluminium ..... 250

J. B. Thompson on depositing aluminium on iron, steel, etc. ; Pro- cedure for depositing aluminium on copper, brass, or German silver recommended by George Gore 251

J. A. Jeancon's process for depositing aluminium ; Methods of M A. Bertrand, Jas. S. Haurd, and John Braun ; Dr. Fred. Fischer on Braun's proposition . . . . . . . . . 252

Apparatus patented by Moses G. Farmer ; Methods of M. L. Senet, Col. Frishmuth, Baron Overbeck, and H. Niewerth, and Herman Rienbold 253

Summary of Count R. de Montegelas's patents for the electrolysis of aqueous solutions of aluminium ....... 254

Methods of procedure patented by A. Walker; H. C. Bull's proposi- tion for manufacturing aluminium alloys ..... 255

Methods patented by C. A. Burghardt and W. J. Twining, of Man- chester, England ; Various other patents taken out in England . 256

Various authorities who consider that aluminium cannot be deposited by electricity in the wet way ; Letter on this subject from Dr. Justin D. Lisle, of Springfield, 0 257

The electric decomposition of fused aluminium compounds ; The different ways of operating ; Davy's experiments (1810) . . 258

CONTENTS. XX111

PAGE

Duvivier's experiment (1854) ; Bunsen's and Deville's methods (1854) ;

Deville's description of the process ...... 259

The apparatus used by Deville, illustrated and described . . . 260 Arrangement adopted by Bunsen ; Plating aluminium on copper ;

Capt. Caron and Deville's experiments . . . . . .262

Le Chatellier's method (1861) ; Monckton's patent (1862); Gaudin's

process (1869) 263

Kagenbusch's process (1872) ; Berthaut's proposition (1879) ; Griitzel's

process (1883) ; The apparatus used, illustrated and described . 264 Works erected near Bremen for carrying out GratzePs process ; The

uselessness of Gratzel's patent claims maintained by Prof. Fischer . 266 Abandonment of the Gratzel process by the works at Hemelingen ;

Kleiner's process (1886) 267

Plants for working Kleiner's process put up in England; Acquirement

of the patents by the Aluminium Syndicate, Limited, of London ;

The rationale of the process 268

Purity of the metal produced by Kleiner's process; Lossier's method 271

Omholt's furnace 272

Henderson's process (1887) ; Bernard Bros.' process (1887) . . 273

Details of the apparatus and bath used in Bernard Bros.' process . 274 Power required . . . . . . . . . .276

Quality of metal ; Reactions in the process 277

Messrs. Bernard's exhibit at the Paris Exposition; Feldman's method

(1887) 278

Warren's experiments (1887) . . . . . . .279

Bognski's patent ; Grabau's apparatus ; Rogers's patent (1887) . 280 The principle made use of in Rogers's process ; Experiments with a

small experimental plant, 1888 281

Dr. Hampe on the electrolysis of cryolite ; Dr. O. Schmidt's experi- ence 283

Dr. Hampe' s reply to several communications 284

Winkler's patent . 287

Faure's proposition; Hall's process (1889); Formation of the Pitts- burgh Reduction Company ; Claims made by Mr. Hall in his patents 288 Description of the plant erected in Pittsburgh ..... 290

Features of Mr. Hall's process 291

Quality of the metal produced ; Efficiency of the process . . . 292

Probable cost of aluminium by Hall's process; Cowles Bros.' process . 293 Prof. Chas. F. Mabery's and Dr. T. Sterry Hunt's descriptions of

Cowles Bros.' process ......... 294

Shapes of furnaces used by the Cowles Bros.' ; Retort patented by

Chas. S. Bradley and Francis B. Crocker, of New York . . 296 Furnace devised by Mr. A. H. Cowles ; W. P. Thompson's complete

description of the Cowles process 297

XXIV CONTENTS.

PAGE

Illustrative description of the furnace ; Mode of operating the furnace . 298 The Cowles Syndicate Company of England, and its plant at Milton . 303 Standard grades of bronze produced by the Cowles Company ; Pro- ducts of the Cowles. furnace; Analyses of 10 per cent, bronze;

Analysis of ferro- aluminium ........ 304

Analysis of slag formed when producing bronze ..... 305

Reactions in Cowles' process ; Views of Prof. Mabery, Dr. Hunt and

Dr. Kosman 306

Dr. Hampe's conclusions ; Useful effect of the current . . . 307 Mr. H. T. Dagger's paper on the Cowles process in England; Menge's

patent; Farmer's patent ........ 308

The Heroult process (1887) ; Specification of the English patent . 309 Description of the plant erected by the Societ6 Metallurgique Suisse for

working the Heroult process .310

The furnace or crucible, illustrated and described . . . .311

The mode of operation . . . . .. . . .312

Percentage of useful effect derived from the current ; Proof that the

process is not essentially electrolytic . . . . . .314

Rapid extension of the Heroult process ; Location of plants in Europe

and in the United States 315

CHAPTER XII.

REDUCTION OF ALUMINIUM COMPOUNDS BY OTHER MEANS THAN SODIUM OR ELECTRICITY.

Reduction by carbon without the presence of other metals ; Article on this subject by M. Chapelle 316

Statement of G. W. Reinar ; Claims of an aluminium company in Kentucky 317

O. M. Thowless' proposition ; Messrs. Pearson, Liddon, and Pratt's patent; Reduction by carbon and carbon dioxide; J. Morris' claims 318

Reduction by hydrogen ; Process of F. W. Gerhard . . . .319

Reduction by carburetted hydrogen ; Process of Mr. A. L. Fleury, of Boston; Statement by Petitjean 320

Reduction by cyanogen ; Knowles' patent ; Corbelli's method . . 321

Deville's comments ; Experiments of Lowthian Bell ; Reduction by double reaction ; M. Comenge's mode of producing aluminium sul- phide; The reactions involved ; Mr. Niewerth's process . . 322

Construction of a furnace used in Niewerth's process; Mode of opera- ting the furnace 323

Messrs. Pearson, Turner, and Andrews' claim ; Reduction in presence of, or by, copper; Messrs. Calvert and Johnson's experiments . 324

Mr. Evrard's method of making aluminium bronze ; Benzon's patent 325

CONTENTS. XXV

PAGE

G. A. Faurie's method of obtaining aluminium bronze ; Bolley's and List's examination of Benson's process; Experiment by J. W. Richards and Dr. Lisle 326

Dr. W. Hampe's test of this subject and his conclusions; M. Co- menge's claim ; Reichel's statement ...... 327

Andrew Mann's patent; L. Q. Brin's process of producing aluminium bronze ; Reduction by, or in presence of, iron ; M. Comenge's claim ; F. Lauterborn's and Reichel's statements . . . . .328

Niewerth's process ; W. P. Thompson's patent . . . . 329

Calvert and Johnson's experiments on the reduction of aluminium with iron 330

Mr. Chenot's experiments . . . . . . . . .331

Faraday and Stodart's investigation on the preparation of iron-alumin- ium alloys ; Bombay " wootz" steel 332

Reduction of aluminium in small quantities in the blast furnace ; Alu- minium in pig-iron; Schafhautl's, Lohage's, Corbin's, and Blair's statements 333

G. H. Billings' experiment on reducing alumina in contact with iron ; E. Cleaver's patent specification 334

Mode of producing ferro- aluminium in Sweden; Brin Bros.' method; Similar claim made by an aluminium company in Kentucky . . 335

W. A. Baldwin's patents, owned by the Aluminium Process Company, of Washington, D. C. ; Aluminium-ferro-silicon manufactured by the Williams Aluminium Company, of New York City . . . 336

Reduction by, or in the presence of, zinc ; Observations by M. Bek6toff' and M. Dullo ; M. N. Basset's patent 337

Mr. Wedding's remarks on Basset's process ; Experiment by J. Wr. Richards on the reduction of cryolite by zinc ; Mr. Fred J. Sey- mour's patent .......... 339

Description of the plant of the American Aluminium Company of De- troit, working Dr. Smith's patents . . . . . . . 340

Patent of F. Lauterborn; J. Clark's patents 341

Practicability of the distillation of zinc from an aluminium-zinc alloy ; Reduction by lead ; Invention of Mr. A. E. Wilde .... 342

Reduction by manganese ; Claims of Walter Weldon ; Experiment of Dr. Greene, of Philadelphia; Reduction by magnesium ; R.